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Читы для Age of Empires

Чит-файл для Age of Empires

Age of Empires

 За игрой наблюдают: 2 человека

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчики:Ensemble Studios и KLab [iOS, Android, WP]
Издатель:Microsoft
Издатель в России:Новый Диск
Модель распространения:розничная продажа
Официальный сайт:Открыть (Открыть русский сайт)
Жанры:Strategy (Real-time) / Isometric
Multiplayer:(8) модем, нуль-модем, LAN, Internet

Даты выхода игры

вышла 24 ноября 2005 г.
вышла 26 октября 1997 г.
в разработке, дата выхода неизвестна

FAQ [ENG]

Информация актуальна для
Last Time Updated: 01/13/00

                                ,,,
                               (o o)
---------------------------oOOo-(_)-oOOo----------------------------------------
FROM NOW ON, GO TO GAME WINNERS (http://www.gamewinners.com) FOR ALL FUTURE
UPDATES AND ALL FUTURE GUIDES OF MINE.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

___
\_ \      __
  \ \    / /
   \ \/\/ /
    \_/\_/ ell, Armageddon didn't take place.  Anyone want to buy twenty cases
of Spam?  As indicated in the Update History section, I haven't really added a
whole lot.  Any and all "large" updates are being saved for Game Winners.

Well, ladies and gentlemen, this guide is coming in for its last landing,
sort of speak.  I have finished everything that I feel like including...
well, almost...  There is one more section that I want to put in.  What?
Well, if you look at the Table of Contents, you'll notice that there is still
an item that still says that it's being worked on (The Units).  I am currently
involved in like six guides now, and let's just say, I am very busy now.
Then, in October and November, there is supposed to be a bunch of games for
the PC that I would love to play and make guides for, which I should be able
to do, depending how large my wallet is getting.  I'm saving for a new Dell
Pentium III computer and the PlayStation 2.

Any questions, e- mail me at: redphoenix@aol.com

_____  __         _________        _____
__  / / /________ ______  /______ ___  /______
_  / / / ___  __ \_  __  / _  __ `/_  __/_  _ \
/ /_/ /  __  /_/ // /_/ /  / /_/ / / /_  /  __/
\____/   _  .___/ \__,_/   \__,_/  \__/  \___/
         /_/
______  _______         _____
___  / / /___(_)__________  /_______ _____________  __
__  /_/ / __  / __  ___/_  __/_  __ \__  ___/__  / / /
_  __  /  _  /  _(__  ) / /_  / /_/ /_  /    _  /_/ /
/_/ /_/   /_/   /____/  \__/  \____/ /_/     _\__, /
                                             /____/
                                ,,,
                               (o o)
---------------------------oOOo-(_)-oOOo----------------------------------------

Prior to 10/26/99 - Make and updated the guide as often as possible.
  (172K)

10/26/99 - Very minor changes.
  (173K)

10/27/99 - Changed a little of the ASCII art
  (174K)

12/21/99 - Included the little notes and changed the ASCII art.
  (174K)

01/13/00 - Added some ASCII art and changed my name and Email address.
  (176K)

====================================
Table of Contents
====================================

     I. Introduction
    II. Game Modes
   III. The Villagers
    IV. The Resources
     V. The Technologies
    VI. War!
   VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios
  VIII. Assyrians
    IX. Babylonians
     X. Chosens
    XI. Egyptians
   XII. Greeks
  XIII. Hittites
   XIV. Minoans
    XV. Persians
   XVI. Phoenicians
  XVII. Shangs
 XVIII. Sumerians
   XIX. Yamato
    XX. The Buildings
   XXI. The Units    ***** Still Under Construction *****
  XXII. Extra Stuff
 XXIII. Credits
  XXIV. Farewell!

======================================
I. Introduction
======================================

It isn't totally impossible to make a walkthrough for Age of Empires.
First, you would have to list all contingencies within the game.  This,
along with all the other things you'd have to mention, if you were writing
a walkthrough for Silent Hill (PSX), for example, would take a lot of
time.  Perhaps I'll attempt to do it when I get really, really bored.
However, I'm not at that stage, yet.  Anyway, this is a general strategy
guide for a remarkable game for its type.  Any questions or additions,
e- mail me at: redphoenix@aol.com.

======================================
II. Game Modes
======================================

_Campaign_

Basically, it's a series of scenarios which attempt to show the development
of a given culture.  This is a good place to start for a new AoE player.
It allows you to understand and experiment with the basics of the games.

_Scenario_

This is one, single scenario.  Each of the scenarios has a certain set of
instructions has a certain set of instructions.  You must fulfill the
requirements to win the scenario.

_Random Map_

This is just a randomly generated map.  You can change the victory
condition, so there is a specific way you can win.

_Death Match_

Well, you are given a certain amount of resources, and you must fight until
everyone is dead.

_Multiplayer_

It's a random map or scenario, for example.  The whole Multiplayer thing
is explained a little more in depth in the manual.  I just don't feel like
elaborating on it.

======================================
III. The Villagers
======================================

TASKS

_BUILDER_

 This person constructs buildings and farms.

_FARMER_

 This person gathers food from a Farm.  The food from the Farm is
deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary.  Researching
Domestication, the Plow, and Irrigation increases a Farm's production.

_FISHERMAN_

 This person gathers food from the fishing spots.  The food is deposited
at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit.

_FORAGER_

 This person gathers food from the Berry Bushes.  The food is
deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary.

_GOLD MINER_

 This person mines for Gold at the Gold Mines.  The gold is deposited at
either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Gold Mining
increases gold mining efficiency, and Coinage increases Gold production.

_HUNTER_

 This person hunts for food from: Alligators, Lions, Gazelle, and
Elephants.  The food is deposited at either the Town Center or at the
Storage Pit.

_REPAIRMAN_

 This person repairs boats and buildings.

_STONE MINER_

 This person miner Stone from Stone Mines.  The stone is deposited at
either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Stone Mining and
Siegecraft increases stone mining efficiency.

_VILLAGER_

 This person is either in combat or doing nothing.  Researching Siegecraft
allows Villagers to destroy walls and towers, and Jihad increases their
combat ability.

_WOODCUTTER_

 This person chops down trees for wood.  The wood is deposited at either
the Town Center or at the Storage Pit.  Researching Woodworking,
Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increases woodcutting efficiency.

======================================
IV. The Resources
======================================

_Wood_

This is used to construct boats, buildings, and some military units.

_Food_

This is used to create villagers, train and upgrade military units,
research technologies, and advance to the next age.  In AoE, food
represents Fish, Fruits, Nuts, Roots, Wild Grains, and Berries.

_Gold_

This is used to research technologies in later ages, create some military
units, advance to the Iron Age, and pay tribute to other civilizations.
In AoE, Gold represents Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Copper.

_Stone_

This is used to build and upgrade towers and walls, and research some
technologies.  In AoE, Stone represents both Stone and Clay.

=======================================
V. The Technologies
=======================================

_Storage Pit Technologies_

TOOLWORKING

Age: Tool Age
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 100 Food
Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
Note: The first metals put to use were those found in a relatively pure
state on the earth's surface, including gold, silver, and copper.  Gold
could be worked in its natural state.  Experimentation with it eventually
suggested electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver) and copper could
also be hammered into useful shapes.  Learning how to extract copper from
ore and shape it into tools was an important milestone in the rise of
civilization because it opened the door first to making bronze and then
to making iron.  Cast copper tools were an important advance over stone
tools, but were too soft to have a long, useful life.  The discovery of
bronze, made by alloying a small amount of tin with copper, ushered in a
2000- year Bronze Age.  Cast bronze tools dramatically increased the
efficiency of workers.  Bronze weapons were superior to those made of
stone and copper.  Armies equipped with bronze swords, spears, and
arrowheads had a critical advantage over more poorly equipped armies.

METALWORKING

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Toolworking.
Cost: 200 Food, 120 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
Note: The discovery and use of iron to make tools and weapons was one of
the most important advances in civilization.  Some historians consider the
use of iron to be one of the distinguishing characteristics separating
civilization from barbarism because the new tools were less brittle, could
hold better edges, and held edges for a longer time without resharpening.
Most importantly, iron ore was much easier to locate than copper and tin,
making iron tools cheaper and more readily available.  By 1000 B.C., iron
tools were being made that were as good as the best ones of bronze; by 500
B.C., iron had largely supplanted bronze from Europe and Asia.  The expanse
and scarcity of bronze had restricted its use to the elite and wealthy.
Iron tools and weapons were available to nearly everyone.

METALLURGY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Toolworking and Metalworking.
Cost: 300 Food, 180 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +3 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
Note: You must research Metallurgy before you can upgrade to the
Cataphract.  The use of iron spread throughout the Mediterranean, Middle
East, and Asia during the first millenium B.C., and some areas became
especially adept at the new science.  Certain campgrounds added to the
molten metal increased the strength of the resulting tools.  New forging
techniques also resulted in better tools.  The best iron tool workers made
superior weapons that were an important advantage in battle.

BRONZE SHIELD

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 150 Food, 180 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Helepolis, and
missile weapons.
Note: The shield was probably the first piece of military equipment
developed to protect a warrior.  The earliest were made of wood or wood
and hide, and were in various shapes.  They were carried in the hand or on
the forearm and used to ward off blows or missiles in battle.  Shield
designs and materials evolved to keep up with advances in weapons.  Wood
and hide shields were easy to smash with bronze weapons, so bronze shields
were developed.  Bronze shields also provided better defense against
missiles.  Arrows, especially with metal points, were prone to lodge in
wooden shields.  This increased the weight of the shield and made it more
unwieldy.  Roman legions threw spears at barbarian formations mainly so
they would pierce and weigh down the enemy's shield just before closing.
Arrows and other missiles deflected off bronze shields without penetration.

IRON SHIELD

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched the Bronze Shield.
Cost: 200 Food, 320 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Heleoplis, and
missile weapons.
Note: The iron shield replaced the bronze shield when swords and other
weapons of iron became common. Iron shields were not only expensive to
make, but also more effective in stopping all hand- to- hand and missile
weapons.  The basic iron shield remained in use until firearms made
personal shields on the battlefield obsolete.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR ARCHERS

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 100 Food
Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
Note: Soldiers have sought ways to protect themselves in combat since the
beginnings of warfare.  Long before the use of metals, leather was
employed to make helmets and body armor that could stop, or at least
soften, blows from blunt and edged weapons.  Leather was easy to work
with, it was light and not overly restrictive of movement, it could be
fitted to the wearer, and it was usually plentiful and inexpensive.
Leather remained an important material for body armor throughout the
Bronze Age due to the high cost of metal armor.  It wasn't until far into
the Iron Age that metal armor was available for common soldiers.

SCALE ARMOR FOR ARCHERS

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Leather Armor for Archers.
Cost: 125 Food, 50 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
Note: The use of metals to make weapons was matched by using metals to
make better armor.  Among the first improvements in widespread use were
breastplates and greaves of bronze.  The breastplate protected the torso
while greaves protected the legs below the knee.  Both of these items
protected only the front of the soldier, saving the weight and cost that
all- around protection would entail.  Breastplates and greaves were worn
by hoplites of the phalanx, for example, during the glory years of
Greece.  When used together with a large shield and bronze helmet, they
left little of the soldier's body exposed to attack.  Bronze armor was an
example of scale armor, or plate armor, in which metal plates provided
protection.

CHAIN MAIL FOR ARCHERS

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Leather Armor and Scale Armor for Archers.
Cost: 150 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
Note: Chain mail was a type of body armor made of iron circlets woven
together into a cloak.  The interlocking chains of iron protected the body
somewhat from weapons that slashed or pounded.  Chain mail was also
flexible and allowed more freedom of body movement than armor made of
metal plates.  The disadvantages of chain mail were that it required a lot
of care, was heavy, and was expensive to make.  Chain mail was worn only
by wealthy or powerful individuals who could purchase or demand its
manufacture.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR CAVALRY

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 125 Food
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
Note: The same as above.

SCALE ARMOR FOR CAVALRY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Leather Armor for Cavalry.
Cost: 150 Food, 50 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
Note: The same as above.

CHAIN MAIL FOR CAVALRY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Leather and Scale Armor for Cavalry.
Cost: 175 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
Note: The same as above.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR INFANTRY

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 75 Food
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.
Note: The same as above.

SCALE ARMOR FOR INFANTRY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Leather Armor for Infantry.
Cost: 100 Food, 50 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.
Note: The same as above.

CHAIN MAIL FOR INFANTRY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and
researched Leather and Scale Armor for Infantry.
Cost: 125 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units.
Note: The same as above.

_Market Technologies_

WHEEL

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 175 Food, 75 Wood
Benefits: Villager speed is increased by 30%.
Note: You must research the Wheel before you can build a Chariot or
Chariot Archer.  The use of the wheel for transport was discovered in
Sumeria sometime after 3400 B.C. and derived from the potter's wheel that
appeared first.  The Sumerians learned that in a small cart, a donkey
could pull a load equal to three times what it could carry on its back.
The wheel revolutionized transport and had an important impact on the
battlefield as well.  By the Bronze Age, chariot archers were dominating
warfare on the open plains.  The wheel was apparently used only for
children's toys in ancient America, probably because of the rough
geography and the lack of an animal like the ox or horse.

WOODWORKING

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 120 Food, 75 Wood
Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile
weapons.
Note: The small stone blades that characterized the New Stone Age
(neolithic period) made possible finer techniques in many areas, including
woodworking.  The larger and more unweildy stone tools of the past were
capable of crude cutting and carving only.  Better woodworking improved
other tools and weapons, making possible the bow and arrow and spear
thrower.

ARTISANSHIP

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
and researched Woodworking.
Cost: 170 Food, 120 Gold
Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile
weapons.
Note: The discovery and use of first copper and then the much more useful
bronze tools and weapons was a dramatic leap in technology.  Bronze,
especially, posessed a hardness, strength, and ability to hold an edge
that far surpassed the best stone tools, making it much more useful when
working with stone, wood, hides, meat, and other materials.  Cultures that
used bronze had a decided economic and military advantage over those that
did not.

COINAGE

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
and researched Gold Mining.
Cost: 200 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides you with free tribute and increases your Gold
Mining productivity by 25%.
Note: The first true coins were minted in ancient Lydia, now part of
modern Turkey.  These first coins were made from electrum, a naturally
ocurring malleable alloy of gold and silver.  Coins, and money in general,
proved an important facilitator of trade and economic progress.  Money
acted as a storehouse of value, a medium of exchange, and a standard of
value, as it continues to do today.  Following the conquest of the Persian
Empire, the concept of coinage or as adopted by the Greeks and spread by
them throughout the Hellenistic world.

CRAFTSMANSHIP

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
and researched Woodworking and Artisanship.
Cost: 240 Food, 200 Wood
Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and +1 range for missile
weapons.
Note: You must research Craftsmanship before you can upgrade to the
Helepolis.  The discovery of inexpensive ways to make iron was as great a
technological leap over bronze making as bronze was over stone.  Iron
surpassed bronze in every critical characteristic- hardness, strength, and
the ability to hold an edge before needing to be resharpened- Plus one.
Iron was much easier to acquire than were copper and tin, making it
available to all cultures and for all uses.  Historians consider the
ability to make and use iron ore one of the distinctions between barbaric
and civilized culture.

DOMESTICATION

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary, and
researched Market.
Cost: 200 Food, 50 Wood
Benefits: You receive a 75% increase of food production to your farms.
Note: The revolution in agriculture involved both the development of
animals.  The ability to control and manage herds of milk- and meat-
producing animals also served to free humans from the drudging and
desperation of continual hunting and gathering.  Herding did not lead
necessarily to a sedentary village life, however.  The need to find pasture
often meant that herding societies remained nomadic, at least for part of
the year.  Domesticated sheep and goats first appear in the archaelogical
record around 7500 B.C. in the Zagros Mountains to the east of the Tigro
and Euphrates River valleys.  Cattle were domesticated around 600 B.C. in
both the Sahara and Egypt, perhaps near simultaneously.  Domestication of
cattle alone may have been for responsible for a doubling of world human
population in a few generations.

STONE MINING

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 100 Food, 50 Stone
Benefits: Your stone mining is increased by +3.
Note: Wood for building was scarce in most places where civilizations
first arose.  Vast forests just did not exist in these predominately arid
regions.  The principle building material for common uses was mud bricks,
sun- dried at first and then fire- baked.  In some areas important
structures such as temples, palaces, tombs, and fortifications were built
of stone when it was available.  Much information about ancient Egypt was
preserved because of the permanence of stone.  Equilalent structures in
Mesopotamia collapsed into mounds of earth after many centuries of neglect
and weathering.  Acquiring non- wood building  materials through brick
making or quarrying was the object of Stone Mining.

GOLD MINING

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 120 Food, 100 Wood
Benefits: The gold mining production is increased by +3.
Note: Gold washed down the hills and mountains was probably the 1st metal
with which humans experimented.  It was sufficiently soft and pure to be
fashioned easily into objects of beauty for adornment and trade.  The
value of gold remained high as populations increased because of demand for
it continued to exceed supply.  Because of this value, the trail of gold
was followed back to the source of the alluvial nuggets.  Gold mining was
developed to obtain ore from which the pure metal could be extracted.
Many of the most beautiful objects that survive from antiquity are made of
gold, including hundreds of items from the Egyptian Pharaoh, Tutankhamen's
tomb.

SIEGECRAFT

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
and researched Stone Mining.
Cost: 190 Food, 100 Stone
Benefits: Villagers can destroy walls and towers, and your stone mining
ablity is increased by +3.
Note: You must research Siegecraft before you can upgrade to the Heavy
Catapult.  Despite the written records and depictions of cities and
fortifications being stormed with the aid of siege equipment, starvation
was the only certain and effective way to take strongholds before the
gunpowder age.  The defender of a strong position, with adequate troops,
food, and water, had all the advantages.  Physical assault of strongholds
was a difficult proposition accompanied regularly only by those armies
posessing siegecraft- the necessary equipment, resolve, leadership, elan,
discipline, and skill.  Examples from ancient history were the army of
Alexander the Great that conducted 20 sieges over a ten- year period, most
after the fall of the Persian Empire; the Hittites, the Assyrians, and the
Romans.

PLOW

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
and researched Domestication.
Cost: 250 Food, 75 Wood
Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.
Note: The first agriculturists planted seeds by hand using digging sticks
to open the ground.  The invention of the plow made it possible to more
easily prepare farmland for planting.  The plow ripped open long rows for
seeding, burying unwanted plants and cutting unwanted roots in the
process.  When pulled behind domesticated animals, such as oxen, food
production per farmer and per acre again increased.  The plow has
continued to evolve since ancient times.  For example, U.S. President
Thomas Jefferson invented an improved version.

IRRIGATION

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market,
and researched Domestication and the Plow.
Cost: 300 Food, 100 Wood
Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.
Note: One of the key steps in the agricultural revolution was
understanding and managing irrigation.  Observation of the natural world
revealed eventually the relationship between planted seeds, good soils,
sunlight, water, and resultant crops.  Large- scale irrigation in both
Mesopotamia and Egypt turned the rich but arid soils near the rivers into
rich farmlands and made possible the rise of the great civilizations on
earth.  Building the dams and channels to irrigate these lands required
sophistication of government, construction, and engineering not seen
previously in any society.

_Government Center Technologies_

ALCHEMY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 250 Food, 200 Gold
Benefits: You receive a +1 attack ability for your siege and missile
weapons.
Note: The beginnings of chemistry can be traced back to ancient attempts
to make gold and silver out of base metals, to find a universal cure for
disease, and to discover secrets of prolonging life.  The experiments and
secrecy of the alchemists gave them an aura of mystery and magic.
Alchemists were both feared and sought out for help.  In an ancient world
of little scientific understanding, mystery, and magic had power.

ARCHITECTURE

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 150 Food, 175 Wood
Benefits: Building construction is increased by +33% and the hit points of
your buildings and walls are increased by +20%.
Note: The art and science of designing and constructing buildings arose
from the practical need to provide first shelter, then storage for food
reserves, and then defenses for both.  One of the specializations that
appeared in the first towns was the builder whose skills and techniques
continue to evolve today.  Builders and architects worked with the
materials available to construct buildings and fortifications.  Over time
new techniques of architecture improved the efficiency, strength, and
utility of construction.

ARISTOCRACY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 175 Food, 150 Gold
Benefits: The speed of your Academy units is increased by +25%.
Note: The Aristocracy was a privileged class, usually hereditary, that
arose within many cultures.  Aristocrats generally derived their power
from control of farmland and the attendant infrastructure of people,
towns, and manufacturing- supported food production.  They kept power at
the pleasure of the ruler, as long as they acceded to his wishes.
Aristocrats may also have had military responsibility, especially when on
the frontier of the kingdom or empire.  In many cultures the aristocrats
provided the senior officer corps or elite troops of the army.  Commanders
of the armies and navies of Athens, for example, were elected from among
the aristocracy of landowners.

BALLISTICS

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 200 Food, 50 Gold
Benefits: It increases the accuracy of missile and siege weapons.
Note: You must research Ballistics before you can upgrade to the Ballista
Tower.  The use of missile weapons for war presented challenges that
hunting with the bow did not.  Hunters stalked game and shot ideally at a
stationary target.  War targets were often armored, partially shielded, or
moving.  Effective use of the bow and other missile weapons required
tactics and training.  Bowmen of low skill were taught to fire in barrages
at an area rather than at specific targets.  Better- trained archers
learned to shoot for specific parts of the target, including the horses of
chariots or cavalry.  Ballistics, the study of projectile flight, was
derived from the name of an ancient missile weapon, the Ballista.

ENGINEERING

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 200 Food, 100 Wood
Benefits: The range for your siege weapons is increased by +2.
Note: You must research Engineering before you can upgrade to the
Juggernaught.  Ancient engineers were able to build remarkable structures
even though the raw materials and tools with which they could work were
often limited.  The Egyptian pyramids, for example, were built of multiton
stone blocks using only the fulcrum and lever, wedge, ramp, sledge, and
rollers.  The pyramid builders of 2600 B.C. used tools made only of wood
and copper.  Advances in engineering were slow and based primarily on
practical experience until advances in mathematics, especially from the
Greeks, led to the new experimentation and techniques.
                                        
NOBILITY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 175 Food, 120 Gold
Benefits: There is a hit point bonus of +15% for Cavalry units, Chariot,
Chariot Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.
Note: Within ancient tribal groups an early hierarchical structure
centered around the strongman, who probably took power in a physical
contest, led the group, and enjoyed special privileges.  As populations
increased, the hierarchy expanded.  Layers of nobility, a class of society
privileged due to fighting prowess or wealth, grew between the stronghold,
or king, and common people and slaves.  The nobility served as
administrators and sub- commanders of the army.  Examples of nobility were
the Persian satraps, who ruled provinces of the Persian Empire, and
Alexander the Great's Companion's, who commanded parts of his army and
formed the core of his heavy cavalry squadrons.

WRITING

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Government Center.
Cost: 200 Food, 75 Gold
Benefits: You share exploration with allies.
Note: The advance of writing is benchmark technology often used to separate
those cultures that were civilized from those that were barbaric.  The key
importance of writing is that it allowed information to be stored and
passed on easily, thereby accelerating the accumulation and spread of
knowledge.  Writing is believed to have been invented between 4000 and
3000 B.C. in Sumeria.  The first writing was in simple pictures called
pictograms that gradually evolved into symbols representing the picture.
Egyptian hieroglyphics first appeared between 3300 and 3100 B.C., and are
thought to have been inspired by cuneiform, the Sumerian symbolic writing.
Writing appeared in China after 1600 B.C.

_Temple Technologies_

POLYTHEISM

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 120 Gold
Benefits: Your priests move +40% faster.
Note: The first religions embraced a multitude of gods, each associated
with one aspect of life.  There might have been a sun god, a moon god, a
god of the forest, a god of the river, and so on.  The multitude of gods
was useful in understanding how the world worked and in directing petition
and prayer for specific help and relief.  The existence of multipple gods
increased the power of priests because each god had special needs and
abilities that needed interpretation.  The ancient Egyptians, for example,
worshipped around 2000 gods.  Many of these were any local deities, but
others were held sacred throughout the country.

MONOTHEISM

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 350 Gold
Benefits: Your priests can convert enemy priests and buildings (except for
Town Centers and Wonders.)
Note: The belief that there is only one God has evolved from the Persian
religion of Zoroastrianism down through Judaism to many of the more
popular religions of today.  Whether monotheism is an advancement or not
is a subjective question.  The widespread popularity over time and the
fervor of adherents indicates that monotheistic religions have more
successfully met the requirements of a religion than other beliefs that
have fallen aside.

MYSTICISM

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 120 Gold
Benefit: Your Priests' hit points are doubled.
Note: Mysticism was a spiritual discipline that sought to achieve contact
with gods or other perceived realities through contemplation, trances, or
meditation.  It was induced or enhanced by drugs in some cases, and it was
part of many ancient beliefs.  For religions seeking to explain the great
unknown, the apparent ability to communicate through media unknown to the
average person was a powerful selling point.  Because peopledream every
night, it was a logical step to believe that a few members of the group
could somehow make sense of dreams or see through the confusion to
communicate with another dimension.

JIHAD

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 120 Gold
Benefits: It increases the attack, speed, and hit points of villagers, but
decreases their gathering efficiency.
Note: The word jihad can mean a crusade or struggle, and comes from the
holy war of Islam directed against all that defied the word of God as
written in the Koran.  The equivalent of jihad can occur in any society
brought to a peak of emotion by religious fervor or other means.  The
value of the jihad to society is that the people caught up in the emotion
of the enterprise place their best interests, even their lives, second to
the purpose of the crusade.  The jihad was especially effective at a most
desperate time when survival of the group hung in the balance.

FANATICISM

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 150 Gold
Benefits: Your Priests rejuvenate 50% faster after converting a unit.
Note: You must research Fanaticism before you can upgrade to Legion.
Religion evolved to provide a spiritual foundation and understanding to
life once humans became sufficiently intelligent to ponder the great
terrifying questions of our existence.  A disturbing byproduct of the
spread of religion was fanaticism- the intense, unquestioning devotion to
the ideas and leadership of other humans.  Fanatics were capable of ant
act, even at great risk to their lives, and were especially dangerous
enemies in war.

ASTROLOGY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 150 Gold
Benefits: Your Priests convert enemy units 30% faster.
Note: Ancient observers of the stars and the heavens noted the correlation
between the sun, the seasons, and the success of crops.  The study of
celestial events was an early step in the attempt to understand and
control the uncertainties of life and became an important part of many
early religions.  The sun god, Ra, for example, was the most powerful of
the Egyptian gods.  Priests who could determine the start and end of the
growing seasons, foretell the phases of the moon, and predict terrifying
eclipses greatly enhanced their power in society.  The power of astrologers
increased when their subjects believed that the influence of the stars and
planets on human affairs could be divined from celestial positions and
aspects.

AFTERLIFE

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and
Temple.
Cost: 275 Gold
Benefit: The range of your Priests is increased by +3.
Note: An important question that ancient religions attempted to address
was what happens when people die.  Many religions held that there was an
afterlife, a place or existence that continued once a person's time on
earth ended.  The promise of an attractive afterlife was a powerful
inducement for behavior that conformed to the goals of a particular
religion.  Fervent believers in an afterlife might give up their lives to
serve their gods.  Well- considered religions that offered a good return
for acceptance, including an attractive afterlife, grew more in power and
influence than those that did not.  Christianity, for example, promised
everlasting life to everyone of faith, not just to the rich buried in great
tombs with servants and goods.

=====================================
VI. War!
=====================================

War is something that is bound to happen.  There isn't a whole lot that I
can say in this spot.  For more war, try the hardest game setting, my
favorite.  Everyone has their own tactics they like to use, so that's up
to you.  You shouldn't sacrafice your entire army at once.  Hold some back
as a backup, when the others are getting hammered.  If the other army is
still beating the Hel* out of you, retreat.  Come back to the S.O.B.'s and
take 'em out.  War is something that there isn't really one way to do.
Every group that you'll encounter will have certain weapons that you don't,
unless you cheat, that will give them a distinct advantage.  You must look
at all of your things and come up of something that they don't, and use it
against them.  You must expose their weakness!!

=====================================
VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios
=====================================

What exactly could I say in this section?  Well, be creative.  Try not to
cheat your opponents too badly.  For example, don't build a fortification
surrounding your opponents, so they can't even move.  Try to build some
scenarios which are simple, just like the scenarios already within the
game.  But the point is to be creative!  If you would like to learn more
on this subject, check out the manual.  I don't really feel like writing
too much in this section, since it's pretty self- explainable.

=====================================
VIII. Assyrians
=====================================

(1800 to 600 B.C.)

The only thing that I can say to introduce the Assyrians is the fact that
they were very powerful and fierce.  They have legendary barbarity, as well.

_Location_

Assyria was located in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) along the Tigris
River.  It was settled after Sumer to the south but was dominated by the
Sumerians both culturally and politically during its early history.

_Capital_

The capital of Assyria was Ashur for most of its existence, but moved to
other sites when kings built new palaces.  Other important cities and
capitals in the Assyrian homeland were Nineveh, Arbela, Khorsabad, and
Nimrud.

_Rise to Power_

Around 2000 B.C., Assyria was invaded by Semitic barbarians called the
Armorites.  By 1800 B.C. an Armorite king of the Assyrians had established
control over most of northern Mesopotamia.  Their power was short- lived
in this period, however, due first to the rise of Babylonia under Hammurabi
and then the rise of the Mitanni in modern Syria.

The period 1363 to 1000 B.C. was the Middle Assyrian Empire.  Several
strong kings reasserted Assyrian independence and then began encroaching
on neighboring empires.  The Assyrians avoided destruction during the
catastrophe of 1200 B.C., perhaps they were already embracing the new
military tactics and weapons that the older kingdoms were not.  In the
political vacuum of the ancient dark age, the Arryrians prospered.  By
1076 B.C. Tiglathpileser I had reached the Mediterranean to the west.

The New Assyrian Empire, 1000 to 600 B.C. was the peak of their conquests.
Their empire stretched from the head of the Persian Gulf, around the
Fertile Crescent through Damascus, Phoenicia, Palestine, and into Egypt as
far south as Thebes.  Their northwestern border was the Taurus Mountains
of modern Turkey.  Other than the vestiges of what had once been the Minoan
(Crete), Mycenean (Greece), and Hittite (Turkey) cultures, all areas of
pre- catastrophe civilization in the West were ruled by Assyria.

_Economy_

The Assyrian economy was based on agriculture and herding, but the Assyrians
also benefited  by being situated astride some important trade routes.
They are not remembered as traders in their own right, perhaps only tax
collectors on traders went through. During the New Empire period, they
profited from the taxes and tribute they collected from their various
provinces and vassal states, including even Egypt for a few years.

_Religion and Culture_

The Assyrian religion was heavily influenced by that of its Mesopotamian
predecessors, mainly Sumeria.  The chief god of the Assyrians was Ashur,
from whom both their culture and capital take their names.  Their temples
were large zaggurats built of mud bricks, like their neighbors to the south.

The principal activity of the rich was hunting from chariots, appropriate
for such a war- like culture.  Despite their fearsome reputation, the
Assyrians embraced civilization.  They wrote using cuneiform and decorated
their cities leberally with reliefs, painted stonework, and sculpture.

_Government_

The king was the head administrator of government, supported by local
provincial governors.  The palace was the site of government.  Advisors
consulted the omens before important decisions were made.

Provinces and vassal cities were required to pay taxes and tribute in the
form of food, goods, gold, labor, military supplies, and soldiers for the
army.  An extensive network of roads and grain depots were built during
the New Empire to speed communication and armies moving to trouble spots.

_Architecture_

The Assyrians built on a large and lavish scale, using mostly mud bricks,
but also stone that was more readily available than it was further south.
Several New Empire kings built extensive palaces and decorated them with
the booty of war and the tribute of vassal states.  Palaces were also
decorated with painted stone reliefs, extensive gardens, and man0 made
streams.  A common decorative fixture was the LAMASSU- a winged hybrid
creature, part bull and part man.

_Military_

The first Assyrian armies were peasant spearmen.  Following a series of
military reforms around 800 B.C., however, they employed a standing army
of conscripts and professionals.  This army was better armed, armored,
and supplied than most of its enemies, giving it important advantages.
The New Empire armies benefited from cheap iron used for improved swords
and armor.

The Assyrians were among the first to adopt the concept of the integrated
army made up of an infantry core for shock, supported by light missile
troops and a mobile wing of chariots, camelry, and cavalry.  The army was
capable of fighting on the plains where chariots and then cavalry were
critical, as well as in rough terrain where horses and chariots had little
use.  They campaigned regularly to the north and east against barbarians
that posed a threat.  The elite of the army for many years were the
charioteers, followed by the cavalry when chariots bacame obsolete.

The Assyrians were accomplished at the art of capturing walled cities.
Their historical records recount numerous city assaults and the brutality
that followed.  Inhabitants were either killed or sent to another corner
of the empire as slaves.

_Decline and Fall_

The brutal policies of subjugation and exorbitant demands for tribute and
taxes made the Assyrians unpopular masters.  Despite the ferocity of their
reprisals, vassal states contnually revolted given an opportunity.  Weaker
kings were unable to hold the empire together in the face of internal and
external pressure.  In 612 B.C., the capital at Nineveh fell to a
coalition of Babylonians and Medes.  The Babylonians were in revolt
(Babylon had been sacked in 648 B.C.) and the Medes (from modern western
Iran) were seeking retribution for past Assyrian invasions of their lands.

The last Assyrian army was defeated soon thereafter by the same coalition
and the Assyrians as a separate culture disappeared from the world's stage.

_Legacy_

The Assyrians are remembered from their boastful inscriptions and biblical
references as ferocious warriors.  Whether they were significantly more
brutal than was normal for the time is unclear.

For several centuries, however, they were the greatest military power in
the civilized world.  Their armies were innovative, and they appear to
have been among the first to use large bodies of cavalry effectively.
They certainly influenced the Persian armies that followed them.

They are not remembered for any significant advances in technology,
philosophy, the arts, or science.  Their cities have been piles of rubble
for thousands of years now and have not given up fabulous treasures that
can compare with those of Egypt and Greece.

=====================================
IX. Babylonians
=====================================

(1900 to 539 B.C.)

The Mesopotamian city- state of Babylon twice expanded to become an
important world empire before being absorbed by Persia.  Its two great
expansions were sufficiently remarkable to earn it a place in history
beside the two other great Mesopotamian cultures, the Sumerians and
Assyrians.  Between its Old and New Empire periods, Babylonia devolved
back into a small but rich city- state that was captured occasionally by
its neighbors.

The predominate inhabitants of Babylon changed several times over its
existence, although the culture remained relatively constant and distinct.
The Amorites, the Kassites, and the Chaldeans were all Babylonians at
least once.

_Location_

The Babylonians took their name from their capital and only major city,
Babylon, located on the Euphrates River west of Sumeria and south of
Assyria.  It was well- placed on the river for agriculture and for trade,
but had no natural defenses.  A strong leader and strong army were needed
to defend it.  Determined attackers were able to sack the city on numerous
occasions during its history when such a leader or army was not available.

_Rise To Power_

Babylonia was founded as a kingdom around 1900 B.C. by Semitic Amorite
barbarians who overran much of Canaan, Akkad, and Sumer one hundred years
earlier.  In 1792 B.C. the small kingdom was inherited by Hammurabi who
ruled until 1750.  During those 42 years, Hammurabi extended the kingdom
to ecompass all of Sumer to the east and Akkad to the north.  He also
defeated the barbarian Gutians in the Zagros Mountains to the northeast
who had previously sacked Akkad.  He also pushed back the Elamites (east
of Sumer) and the Assyrians (north of Akkad).  This was the first great
Babylonian empire.

Following Hammurabi's death, the empire fell into gradual decline.  In
1595 B.C. Hittites drove down the Euphrates and sacked Babylon, plundering
the city and deposing the Amorite kings.  This ended the first empire.
Within 20 yearsm new invaders called the Kassites had settled around
Babylon, establishing a new dynasty.  The Kassites were neither Semetic
nor Indo- European, and probably came from east of the Zagros Mountains.

The Kassites ruled Babylon for several centuries before being coquered by
the Assyrians in 1158 B.C.  Descendants of the Amorites had restored
control by 1027 B.C.

During the Eighth and Seventh Centuries, the Chaldeans, new Semitic
immigrants to the area, and the Assyrians fought for control of Babylon.
The Assyrians claimed sovereignty for a while but sacked the city once as
punishment for rebellion.

A Chaldean sheik seized the Babylonian throne and then destroyed the
Assyrians with the help of the Medes.  The Chaldean Dynasty and the New
Empire lasted from 626 to 539 B.C.  The revived Babylonians overran most
of the Assyrian Empire from the Persian Gulf to the boarders of Egypt.

In 597 B.C. Nebuchadrezzar II captured Jerusalem and forced its king and
nobles into exile.  When the puppet ruler of Jerusalem rebelled, the city
was taken again in 586 B.C. after an eighteen- month siege.  This time
much of the population was deported to Babylon and their descendants
remained there until released by the Persians.  This period of Hebrew
history was called the Babylonian Captivity.

_Economy_

The basic economy of Babylonia was typical for Mesopotamia at the time.
Irrigation and dikes controlled the waters of the Euphrates River,
providing bountiful harvests of grain, vegetables, and fruit in normal
years.  These foods were supplemented by herds of sheep and some cattle.

The Babylonians traded food surpluses for raw materials like copper, gold,
and wood, which they used to manufacture weapons, household objects,
jewelry, and other items that could be traded.

The fabulous wealth of the New Empire (626 to 539 B.C.) derived from
controlling the east- west and north- south trade, primarliy thanks to
control of Phoenicia, Syria, and the other Levant ports.  This area had
been the nexus of civilized trade for over a thousand years, and, for that
reason, the prize for every empire and pseudo- empire of the age.  Not
long after the end of the Babylonian New Empire, the shift of much trade
to the central and western Mediterranean reduced the importance of this
area.

_Religion and Culture_

The Babylonians worshipped many gods, but chief was of these was Murduk,
god of the city of Babylon.  Marduk was represented by a dragon in the
artwork that decorated the city.  Festivals were held throughout the year
in honor of specific gods to assure their favor.  The New Year festival
for Marduk assured the fertility in their fields.

For a brief time the New Empire was among the richest in the world.  The
city reflected that wealth in its extensive and highly decorated monuments.
The interior of the Temple of Marduk was reportedly converted with gold.

At the center of a great and rich trading empire, the people of Babylon
had access to exotic goods and manufactured items throughout the world.

_Government_

The New Empire government of Babylon adopted many of the Assyrian imperial
practices, which probably contributed to its own short life.  The king had
overall administrative power, in addition to his central role in important
religious rituals.  Governors ruled important provinces on behalf of the
king, but most of these were Babylonians appointed from outside the local
area.  Local puppets were often left in place to rule local kingdoms, but
this occasionally led to revolt, as in the case of Jerusalem.

_Architecture_

The city of Babylon was destroyed and rebuilt several times, usually on
top of the old ruins.  Buildings and walls were constructed of mud bricks,
first sun- baked, and then baked with fire.

The Babylon of the New Empire period was one of the wealthiest cities in
the world.  The Chaldean kings rebuilt the city and established its
reputation for splendor for all time.  The Euphrates River passed through
the middle of the city and was directed around its four sides through a
moat.  Inside the moat were double walls.  The Greek historian Herodotus
claimed that the outer wall was so wide that a chariot with four horses
could drive along it.  There were several city gates, each named after an
important god.  The Ishtur gate opened on the sacred Processional Way that
led to the ziggurat and Temple of Marduk.  The gate, sacred way, and
temples were decorated with bright blue glazed tiles depicting real and
fantasy animals in relief.

The two sides of the city were connected by a bridge.  The east side
contained the palace and temples, including many ziggaurats.  The greatest
of these, built by Nebuchanezzar II, had seven levels with a small temple
to Marduk at the top.  This zaggurat was probably the Tower of Babel
mentioned in the Bible.  Nebuchanezzar also built the Hanging Gardens of
Babylon, a multistoried ziggurat decorated with trees and plants to
resemble a mountain.  According to legend, the gardens were built to
remind one of his wives of her mountain homeland.  The Hangine Gardens
were one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

_Military_

Little is known of the Babylonian military from either the Old or New
Empires, although Hammurabi's army of the Old Empire may have made
important use of chariots when these were first coming into use.

The New Empire armies probably copied much from the Assyrians.  This would
suggest that Babylonians made extensive use of cavaly, especially mounted
bowmen.  Foot troops probably used iron weapons and wore iron helmets and
some chain mail armor.  The Babylonians and their less advanced allies,
the Medes, took three leavily fortified Assyrian cities in short
succession, suggesting they had mastered the Assyrian techniques for
storming cities.

_Decline and Fall_

Following seven turbulent years that saw three new kings in succession and
two rebellions, in 556 B.C. the last of the Chaldean Dynasty, Nabonidus,
took the throne of Babylon.  He worshipped the moon god, Sin, but
neglected local affairs and important religious rituals associated with
other gods.  For several years he did not perform the important New Year
festival in the name of Marduk, the deity of Babylon, that renewed the
fertility of the land.  He also introduced reforms that gave effective
control of temple finances to himself.

The unrest and dissatisfaction these events fostered came at a time when a
new power to the east, Persia, had been gradually expanding and spreading
its influence.  Under Cyrus I, the Persians had first overthrown their
masters. the Medes, and then expanded to the northwest into Anatolia.
During these conquests, Cyrus demonstrated a high degree of tolerance and
clemency that encouraged others not to resist.

When Cyrus turned against the Babylonians, he was welcomed by a large
segment of the population, including the influential priests.  Cyrus first
defeated Nabonidus in battle at Opis.  Nabonidus fled to Babylon but the
city surrendered without a fight on October 12, 539 B.C., and the last
Babylonian king went into captivity.  The Jews and other peoples held in
Babylonian captivity were freed.  The entire New Empire of Babylon became
part of the Persian Empire and Babylonia ceased to exist as a separate
entity and culture.

_Legacy_

The first Babylonian empire is best known for the Law Code of King
Hammurabi, circa 1750 B.C., purportedly handed down by the god Shamah.
The laws themselves are preserved on a 90- inch stone stele that was
uncovered in Susa in modern times.  It has been carted off by the Elamites
following their sack of Babylon in 1158 B.C.

The New Empire of Babylon was noted especially for its wealth and grandeur.
This was reported in Old Testament accounts from the period of the Hebrew
Babylonian Captivity and by the Greek historian Herodotus who visited the
city.  The most impressive features of the city were its walls, the Ishtar
Gate, the ziggurat and temple to Marduk, the Processional Way, and Hanging
Gardens.



=====================================
X. Chosens
=====================================

(2333 to 108 B.C.)

The Korean Peninsula was invaded by successive waves of Neolithic peoples,
but the culture of the area changed little until the use of bronze
implements began around the fifteenth century B.C.  The Bronze Age brought
significant change to Korea.  Recovered bronze spear points and arrowheads
indicate conquest and warfare were widespread.  Towns protected by earthen
walls appeared.  Funerary dolmens (rock shelters covered by enormous
capstones) indicate the rise of a stratified political and social
structure.

The Bronze Age in Korea lasted until the fourth century B.C.  During the
Bronze Age, the first large political groupings of walled town states
arose.  The most advanced of these was Ancient Chosen.

_Location_

The state of Ancient Chosen was located in the valleys of the Liao and
Taedong Rivers, in the southwestern part of what is now North Korea.  It
occupied the Taedong River basin originally and spread its influence
gradually over a large region of the peninsula.

_Capital_

The Ancient CVhosen capital was Wanggom- song, now modern P'yongyang (the
capital of North Korea).

_The Rise To Power_

The power of Ancient Chosen grew from around 2333 B.C. to the end of the
fourth century B.C.  The Ancient Chosen expanded possibly due to better
agriculture and population growth, better use of newly available iron
weapons, better leaders, or all of the above.  When the Chinese kingdom of
Yen encountered the Ancient Chosen culture, they referred to them as being
arrogant and cruel, which suggests that the Ancient Chosen were formidable
warriors.

Despite the apparent strength of Ancient Chosen at the end of the fourth
century, they went into decline, nevertheless, following the arrival of
the Yen kingdom across the Liao River.  The Chinese overlord in control of
the Liaotung Peninsula changed several times during the next century and
the political upheaval fostered an immigration of Chinese political,
military, and economic power into Ancient Chosen.  One refugee, named
Wiman, built a power base among the other refugees and eventually drove
the Ancient Chosen king from his throne around 190 B.C.

The new kingdom, called Wiman Chosen, was a hybrid of Korean and Chinese
influences.  Due to its superior military and economic strength, it
subjugated smaller Korean states to its north, east, and south.  This
placed the Wiman Chosen between the now dominant Han Chinese and the
remaining Korean states in the south, allowing it to control trade between
the two regions.  For three generations, the Wiman Chosen dominated north
central Korea.

_Economy_

The principal economic activity of Bronze and early Iron Age Korea was
agriculture.  Rice was the main food crop of southern Korea.  Raising
livestock (oxen, horses, pigs, and dogs) was more important in the north.
The basic farming unit was the village, made up of headmen, free peasants,
and a few slaves.  Peasants and slaves worked mainly on communal farms.
There were some peasant- owned lands as well.  The fre peasants were
heavily taxed and provided labor to the state.  They were not permitted to
bear arms or serve in the armies.

_Religion and Culture_

The leaders of the early walled towns in Korea performed both political
and religious functions.  The dignity and authority of these leaders was
enhanced by their acknowledged descent from a sun god.  Political and
religious power split gradually into two separate functions as the
confederation grew in size.  Rituals were thereafter directed by
specialists.

The primitive religion of prrehistoric Korea was based on animism and
shomanism.  Primative priets were magicians who attempted to move the gods
by evocation.  By the time of Ancient Chosen, priests prayed to the gods
humbly and earnestly for favor.

The ancient Koreans believed in the immortality of the soul and buried
their elite with elaborate ritual.  They also practiced divination.  The
two most important festivals of the year were tied to the growing season.
In the spring, they prayed for abundance, and in the fall, they celebrated
thanksgiving.

_Government_

Village communities were governed by a ruling elite that kept order,
allocated land and resources, collected taxes, and provided security.  The
individual communities were held together in confederation by military and
economic means.  Ancient Chosen took the name wang (king) for its leader
about the time that the nearby Chinese kingdom of Yen employed the same
title.

_Military_

Little is known about the armies of Ancient Chosen except that they were
standing armies and not levies of peasants.  Evidence of horses and
chariots is not widespread, suggesting that only the richest warriors
could afford these enhancements.  Bronze spear points and arrowheads from
the early days of the Ancient Chosen suggest an army of spearmen and
archers.  Later finds include bronze daggers and spears of distinctive
styles, iron daggers, and iron spear points.  The daggers suggest that
these short weapons were used by infantry for close combat in addition to
spears.

The prowess of Ancient Chosen armies can be inferred from their expansion
and dominance of the region and the comments about Ancient Chosen recorded
by their Chinese neighbors.

_Decline and Fall_

Unified China under Han Dynasty was not pleased by Wiman Chosen's growth
and control of eastward trade, and was concerned about a possible alliance
between Wiman Chosen and the Hsiung-nu (barbarians then expanding out of
Mongolia into Manchuria).  The aggressive Emperor Wu of Han launched an
attack against the Wiman Chosen when diplomacy failed to bring them to
heel.  The Wiman Chosen were a tough adversary but were weakened by
defections and collaborations among the nobility.  The Wiman Chosen
capital fell in 108 B.C., and the kingdom came to an end.

_Legacy_

The legacy of the Ancient Chosen was a Korean culture that remained
separate from that of China, despite the proximity and influence of that
enormous neighbor.


=====================================
XI. Egyptians
=====================================

(5000 to 30 B.C)

The Egyptian culture was one of the oldest and most long- lived of
antiquity.  It benefited from an abundance of good farmland, nearby
mineral resources, and a good strategic position.  Despite occasional
invasion and internal strife, it endured as a distinctive culture for
nearly 5000 years.

_Location_

Ancient Egypt occupied almost the same area as modern Egypt does today.
Its civilization stayed very close to the Nile River.  Because it was
almost entirely surrounded by desert, enemies could approach only from the
west and southeast along the Mediterranean coast, from the south down the
river valley, or directly over the sea.

_Capital_

During its long history, the capital of Egypt was located at various times
in Heirakonpolis, Memphis, Herakleopolis, Thebes, It- towy, Akhetaten,
Tanis, Sais, and Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.  Greek overlords, the
Ptolemaic dynasty, ruled from here until 30 B.C.

_Rise of Power_

Agriculture was brought to the Nile Valley prior to 5000 B.C. by immigrants
from the highlands of Palestine.  By 3000 B.C., acriculture had spread
southward up the Nile.  Flooding was under control and irrigation put much
more land under cultivation.  The adundance of food led to large
populations and increased wealth for the area.

The early history of Egypt was a period of consolidation.  Two separate
kingdoms rose and vied for power along the river.  Around 3100 B.C., King
Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and established the First
Dynasty.

Between 3100 B.C. and 1300 B.C., the Egyptians struggled with Nubians and
Kushites up the Nile to the south.  Forts and garrisons held the frontier
but during periods of weakness these were destroyed.  Around 1300 B.C. the
Nubians suffered an important defeat and were neutralized as a thread for
about 500 years.

Egypt's Dynasty XIII, 1783 to 1640 B.C., was very weak.  During this period
the frontier forts to the south were lost and Semitic immigrants from the
east moved into the delta.  These immigrants, called the Hyskos, took
control of the entire delta region in 1674 B.C.  The Hyskos eventually
adopted Egyptian culture and language, and introduced the horse and chariot.

The New Kingdom was founded by Dynasty XVIII in 1552 B.C., following a
successful war to drive out the Hyskos.  This dynasty was the great age of
the warrior pharaohs and Egyptian empire.  The prevent further incursions
from the east, the Egyptians attempted to establish control over the
kingdoms in the Levant and Palestine.  During this period they vied for
control with the Hittites and Mitanni, as well as the local kings.  The
Egyptians were the dominant power in the Near East until around 1200 B.C.
when the entire area was overrun by barbarians.

_Economy_

Egypt was an agricultural society dependent on the water and soil brought
down each year by the Nile from the highlands of Ethiopia.  Extensive
irrigation made it possible to farm fields not adjacent to the river but
still close enough to be inundated each year and receive new sediments.
The principalcrops were wheat and barley that were used to make bread and
beer, the staples of their diet.  They also grew fruits and vegetables and
raised cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, geese, ducks, and pigeons.  The
abundance of food meant a large population and allowed the export of food.

The Nile passes through several hilly regions and some of these were rich
in minerals.  The nearby Sinai Peninsula also held mineral riches.  Unlike
some other ancient cultures, the Egyptians had relatively easy access to
copper and gold, further increasing their wealth.  The hills were sources
of granite, limestone, and sandstone that they used for construction.

The Egyptians were one of the first cultures to build boats and they
eventually took these out into the Mediterranean.  Egypt became an
important Mediterranean part of call as trade increased because it was it
was a rich market for both buying and selling.  Principal Egyptian exports
were grain, food, linen, perfume, and manufactured goods.  Important
imports were timber, slaves, silver, horses, pottery, and wine.

_Religion and Culture_

The Egyptian religion had over 2000 gods, though only a few of these were
predominant.  The important gods had a home town where their principal
temple was located.  One of the most important was Ra, the sun god,
understandably critical to an agricultural society.

They believed in a life after death.  They referred to this as the "next
world," and thought it was somewhere to the west.  They developed elaborate
burials and embalming to preserve the body for this second life.  Goods
and servants were buried with royalty and nobles to serve them.

_Government_

The ancient Egyptians believed their kings were descended from the sun god,
Ra.  They believed they could communicate with the gods through the king.

The king had absolute power but was required to perform several important
duties.  He was responsible for the harvest and irrigation of crops.  He
directed the government, trade, and foreign policy.  He enforced the laws
and led the army.  During the New Kingdom, the pharoahs usually commanded
their armies in the field.

Reporting directly to the pharaoh were two viziers, one for Lower Egypt
based in Memphis, and one for Upper Egypt based in Thebes.  Below the
viziers were rural districts controlled by governors and towns controlled
by mayors.  These officials carried out the pharaoh's orders and collected
taxes.  Scribes kept the records.

The Egyptians had no coinage until they were conquered by Alexander the
Great.  All workers paid taxes by turning over a percentage of their
production, whether it was fish, grain, trade goods, pottery, or other
goods.  In addition, each household had to provide a laborer for several
weeks each year for mining or public works.  The pyramids were probably
built by laborers putting in their annual service.

_Military_

The Egyptians were among the first cultures to possess the necessary
population and wealth to build standing armies of professional soldiers.
Prior to the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot, which were quickly
adopted by the Egyptians in turn.  The dominance of the Near East by New
Kingdom Egypt, from 1600 to 1200 B.C., was primarily due to the large and
powerful chariot armies sent into battle there.  These chariots carried a
driver and composite bow archer and were the elite of the army.

_Decline and Fall_

Egypt survived the catastrophe by 1200 B.C. by fighting off several major
attempted invasions.  They went into decline, nevertheless, following the
death of Rameses III who was the last of the great warrior pharaohs.  Their
decline was partly due to trade coming to a virtual halt for several
generations.  A series of weak kings and civil wars over succession to the
throne also eroded their strength.

In 728 B.C., Egypt was conquered by Nubia and held for 60 years.  In 665
B.C., the Assyrians completed a conquest of Egypt by sacking Thebes.  A
new native Egyptian dynasty arouse in 664 B.C., eventually throwing out
the Nubians and asserting their independence from Assyria by stopping
payment of tribute.  In 525 B.C., Egypt was conquered again from the east,
this time by Combryses II of Persia.  When the Persians faltered in their
war with the Greeks, the Egyptians reclaimed their independence briefly
before succombing once more to Persian invasion by 332 B.C.  Within a year,
however, the Persians themselves were gone, destroyed by Alexander the
Great who was accepted by the Egyptians as their pharaoh.

Greeks ruled Egypt as overlords from the time of Alexander the Great until
30 B.C. when Cleopatra VII, th elast of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and Mark
Antony were defeated by Octavian.  Egypt thereafter became part of the
Roman Empire.

_Legacy_

The ancient Egyptians are remembered for the quality and quanity of
cultural objects that have survived to the present, including the Pyramids,
the Sphinx, the treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb, the other monuments and
temples of the Nile Valley, hieroglyphics, mummies, and papyrus.  They are
also rememberdd in the West because of their prominent role in the history
of ancient Israel as recounted in the Old Testament.

=====================================
XII. Greeks
=====================================

(2100 to 146 B.C.)

The ancient culture with the broadest and most long- lasting impact on the
future of Western civilization was that of Greece.  The Greeks dominated
the known world militarily for only a brief period, but their cultural
influence spread farther and lasted much longer.  Rediscovered in the West
in large part after the Medieval Dark Age, it was an important foundation
for the growth of modern western civilization.

The Greeks never formed a unified kingdom, but existed as city- states,
sometimes working together and sometimes at war with each other.  At the
zenith of Greek military power under Alexander the Great, they were a
collection of city- states in cooperation.

_Location_

Greek culture was centered on the mainland of modern Greece spread to the
islands of the Aegean, into the lower Balkans, across the Aegean to the
western coast of Anatolia, to Sicily, to parts of North Africa, and to
southern France (Marseilles was founded as a Greek colony).  The campaigns
of Alexander greatly expanded the culture, establishing it in central
Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia to the borders
of India.  In the early second century B.C., it was possible to travel from
the south of modern France to India using only Greek to communicate.

_Capital_

As a collection of city- states, there are usually no capital of the Greek
culture.  During the Bronze Age, Mycenea was one of the strongest and
richest citadels.  During the Archaic and Classical periods, Athens (the
cultural center) and Sparta (the strongest military power) vied for
prominence.  During the brief Greek apogee under Philip and Alexander, the
de facto capital was the Macedonian city of Pydna.  Following the death of
Alexander, is empire was eventually divided into three parts.  The
Antigonid Dynasty ruled Greece and Macedonia from Pydna.  The Selucids
ruled Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Syria, the Levant, and Persia from a newly
built built city, Selucia, on the Tigris River.  The Ptolemies ruled Egypt
from another newly built city, Alexandria.

_Rise To Power_

The history of ancient Greek culture is divided into several periods: the
Bronze Age (2100 to 1200 B.C.), the Dark Age (1200 to 800 B.C.), the
Archaic Period (800 to 500 B.C.), the Classical Age (500 to 336 B.C.), and
the Hellenistic Period (336 to 30 B.C.).

The Bronze Age saw the rise of the first cities on the mainland.  These
were predominately fortified palaces on hilltops.  This culture was named
after its greatest citadel, Mycenea.  Excavation of Mycenea by Heinrich
Schlieman in the 1870s revealed fabulous burial tomb treasures.  The
Mycenean culture disappeared around 1200 B.C. following attacks by
barbarians.  The city of troy was also sacked around this time.

The catastrophe of 1200 B.C. (described earlier) devastated the economy of
Greece and ushered in a Dark Age that lasted about 400 years.  Gradually
civilization reappeared at old sites, such as Athens, and at new sites such
as Sparta and Corinth.

By 800 B.C., the city- states of the mainland were economic and military
powers.  During the next 300 years, the Archaic Period, the Greeks expanded
by establishing colonies across the Aegean in Anatoloa (Ionia) and along
the central and western Mediterranean coasts.  They vied with the
Phoenicians for colony sites and trade.  The Archaic Period came to an end
when the rising eastern power of Persia came into conflict with the Greeks
over the Anatolian coast.

The period of 500 to 336 B.C. was the Classical Age of Greece, dominated
first by wars with Persia and then the Peloponnesian civil war between
Athens and Sparta.  Although this period is defined by military events, it
was also a time of many important cultural advances.

The Hellenistic Period takes its name from the Greek word Hellene (meaning
Greek).  This period began with the installation of Alexander as king of
Macedon following the assassination of his father.  In 13 years of military
campaigns, Alexander conquered most of the known world and spread the Greek
culture behind his armies.  After Alexander's premature death in 323 B.C.,
his empire was eventually divided into three parts.  Although these parts
fought each other and gradually shrank due to rebellion and attack, the
culture of the civilized world remained primarily Greek.

_Economy_

Grains and bread were staples of the Greek diet but they could be grown
only in a few fertile areas.  Most of Greece was hilly and not suitable for
large farms on the scale of Egypt or Mesopotamia.  Farmers grew fruits and
vegeatables where they could clear fields.  On the hillsides they grew
olives for food and oil.  Further up the hills they grew grapes for wine.

Horses were raised mainly in Thessaly and Macedonia where there were open
grasslands.  Elsewhere they were kept only by the rich.  Cattle were kept
mainly for milk, pigs and poultry for meat, and sheep for leather and meat.
Seafood supplemented diets in coastal areas.

The Greeks were renowned for pottery that was both functional and beautiful.
Decorations on pottery revealed much about the ancient Greek culture to
historians.  By carefully studying the changing styles of pottery, his-
torians were able to date it and then use chards to help date excavations
and other objects found with it.

The Greeks took advantage of their georgraphic position between the Aegean
and Mediterranean Seas to engage in trade.  City-states traded among them-
selves and overseas.  Thessaly and Macedonia exported horses, for example,
while Athens exported honey and silver.  Important Greek exports were oil,
wine, pottery, sculpture, metalwork, cloth, and books.  Their most
important import was grain from the Black Sea region, Egypt, Italy, Sicily,
and Cyprus.  Other important imports were timber, wool, linen, copper,
dyes, silk, spices and ivory.

Coins were first used in Lydia, a small kingdom in northwestern Anatolia,
at the end of the seventh century B.C.  The concept quickly spread to the
Ionian Greek colonies and then throughout the Greek culture.  The most
popular coins were made of silver.  City-states celebrated their
independence by minting their own coins showing a representative symbol
(the owl for Athens and the Pegasus for Corinth, for example).

_Regligion and Culture_

The Greeks believed in many gods who were responsible for the living and
the dead.  Their gods were very human-like - they got married, had
children, felt love and jealousy, and sought revenge.  Legends of the gods
taught what pleased and what angered them.  The principal gods were the
twelve Olympians thought to live on Mount Olympus.  They were lead by Zeus,
ruler of the heavens.  Temples were built to provide earthly homes for
individual gods.  The Parthenon in Anthens, for example, was dedicated to
the goddess Athene.  Inside was a statue of Athene made of gold and ivory
that stood over forty feet high.  Offerings of jewelry, pottery, and
sculpture were given to the temple.  Animals and birds were given to the
priests for sacrifice.  Festivals were held to please individual gods and
persuade them to be munificient.

Before an important project was started, an oracle orsoothsayer was con-
sulted to learn the will of the gods.  The most famous of these was the
Oracle of Delphi, where a prientess called the Pythia would voice the will
of Apollo.  Priests would interpret the Pythia's often vague replies.  In
one famous example, Croesus, the king of Lydia, asked whether he should
invade Persia or not.  He was told such an invasion would destroy a great
kingdom.  He assumed the Persians were the kingdom in questions, but in
fact Lydia was conquered by Persia.

Women in Greece lead generally sheltered lives and had little active role
in society.  They took their social status from their husbands.  The
emphasis was on having sons and raising them to be citizens and soldiers.
Boys were given an extensive education in reading, writing, arithmetic,
music, poetry, dancing, and athletics.  Both mental and physical develop-
ment was stressed.

Music, poetry, and theater were an important part of the Greek culture.
All Greek cities and colonies built a theater or amphitheater.

Society consisted of two main groups - free people and slaves.  Slaves
were owned by free people and were employed as servants and laborers.
Slaves were purchased in international slave markets or were prisoners of
war.  Free men in Athens were either citizens, born to Athenian parents,
or metics, born outside of Athens.  Both groups were required to serve in
the army, but only citizens could become government officials or jurors.

_Government_

An independent city-state was called a polis.  Each consisted of the city
and surrounding countryside.  The largest of these was Athens, with about
one thousand square miles of territory.

During the Archasic Period, most city-states were governed by a group of
rich landowners.  These were the aristoi, meaning best people, or the
aristocrats.  Resentment of aristocratic rule lead to riots when traders
and craftsmen began to prosper but had no say in government.  Beginning
around 650 B.C., individuals called tyrants were allowed to rule to keep
the peace.  Government was improved under an enlightened tyrant but the
system was susceptible to corruption.  In 508 B.C. Athens introduced a new
system called democracy, in which all citizens took part in their
government.  Women, foreigners, and slaves had no say.

_Architecture_

Greek homes were simple structures of mud and brick but their public
buildings, expecially temples, were beautiful structures of stone.  A
distinctive feature of Greek architecture was the use of columns supporting
horizontal lintels.

_Military_

During the Bronze Age, the armies of the individual palaces were mainly
chariots manned by the richest citizens.  These armies were destroyed by
barbarians around 1200 B.C., sending Greece into its Dark Age.

During the archaic Age, the aristocrats at First dominated the army as
cavalry because they alone could afford horses.  Foot soldiers came from
the poorer classes that could not afford horses or better weapons and armor.

Eventually trade and wealth increased, while the cost fell for new weapons
made of iron.  The cavalry was replaced in importance by a new army of
well-equipped foot soldiers called hoplites.

Each city had a different system for raising its army.  In Athens, all free
men aged 20 to 50 could be called upon in time of war.  Each of the ten
Athenian tribes had to provide enough troops for one regiment and one
commander, called a strategoi.

Hoplites carried on their left arm a large round shield that extended from
neck to thigh.  The shield was decorated with a symbol from their family,
tribe or city.  They wore bronze helmets with a horsehair crest on top to
make the soldier look taller and more powerful.  For body protection they
wore a cuirass of bronze, or leather and bronze, from shoulder to chest,
plus bronze greaves on the front of the lower legs.  Their weapons were a
long spear and a short iron sword.

Hoplites fought in the phalanx, a square of men usually eight ranks deep.
It was important that the phalanx move and fight together.  Flutes and
other musical instruments helped from keep in step.  The terrifying hand-
to-hand clash of opposing phalanxes called for extreme courage and dis-
cipline.

The Greeks distained the use of cavalry and skirmish troops using bows,
slings, or javelins/  As long as they fought amoung themselves or were
lucky, this was not a problem.  Extensive contact with other military
systems during the Persian Wars eventually convinced them that the phalanx
needed to be supported.  The ultimate Greek army employed heavy and light
cavalry, light infantry, and skirmishers in support of its heavy hoplite
infantry.

_Decline and Fall_

Following the death of Alexander the Great, the city-state of mainland
Greece attempted to rebel against Macedonian rule but were defeated in the
Lamian War of 323-322 B.C.  During the next 40 years, the War of the
Diadochi contested the division of Alexander's empire.  It was eventually
divided into three kingdoms (Greece, Egypt, and Persia).  These three
kingdoms made up the Hellenistic world.

The Antigonid Dynasty ruled Greece and Macadon but lost control of their
colonies in southern Italy to the Romans in 275 B.C.  The Greeks supported
Carthaginians against Rome during the Punic Wars and paid for that once the
Carthaginians were destroyed.  Three Macedonian Wars against Rome resulted
in the end of the Antigonid Dynasty in 168 B.C.  Following an unsuccessful
Macedonian revolt, the city-states of Greece became provinces of the Roman
Empire in 146 B.C.

The Selucid Dynasty attempted to rule what had been the enormous Persian
Empire.  This proved impossible and parts began rebelling very quickly.
By 180 B.C. the Roman general Pompey seized the Selucid kingdom and
incorporated it into the Roman Empire.

The Ptolemaic Dynasty consisted only of Egypt. Because of its relative
seclusion and wealth, it lasted the longest of the three Hellenistic
kingdoms.  Queen Cleopatra VII and her husband Marc Antony of Rome were
defeated in battle by Octavian at Actium in 32 B.C.  The last Ptolemy
committed suicide and Egypt became part of the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.

_Legacy_

Greek language and culture spread behind Alexander the Great's armies.  The
Romans in turn adoped much of the Greek culture, preserving it and
spreading it to new parts of the world.  After the fall of Rome, Greek
culture was preserved and expanded upon within the Byzatine Empire and in
the Arab world, and passed on to the West following the Renaissance.

The legacy of ancient Greece has had an impact on many diciplines,
including medicine (the scientific approach to medicine; the Hippocractic
Oath taken by doctors), mathematics (Euclidean geometry; the Pythagorean
theorem), literature (the Iliad and the Odyssey), theater, poetry,
sculpture, language (the Bible's new Testament was written in Greek;
thousands of words passed on to modern languages), architecture (the White
House; the British Museum), history (herodutus is regarded as the father
of history), politics (democracy), philosophy (all philosophical studies
since Plato have been referred to by one writer as mere footnotes to his
work), science (the scientific method; laws of nature; the classification
of plants and  animals; the heliocentric theory), athletics (the Olympic
Games), and trade (Greeks established trade routes to India and the Silk
Road to Asia).

=====================================
XIII. Hittites
=====================================

(2000 to 1200 B.C.)

The extent of the Hittite civilization and empire was rediscovered only
within the last hundred years.  The Hittites had been mentioned several
times in the Olds Testament, but were considered only bit players.
Excavations of sites in Turkey and Syria, plus the dicipherment of
inscriptions and recovered clay tables, revealed that the Hittites were a
world power at one time, rivals of the Egyptians and conquerors of Babylon.

_Location_

The Hittite empire was centered in Asia Minor (modern Turkey).  At its
maximum, it extended from the Aegean coast of Anatolia, east to the
Euphrates River, southeastward into Syria as far as Damascus, and south
along the eastern Mediterranean coast of the Levant.  Hittite King Mursuli
sacked Babylon around 1600 B.C. but did not attempt to hold the region.

Historians do not know where the Hittites originated or how they got to
Asia Minor.  Studies of their language indicate that they were probably
of European origin and migrated south through the Balkans or past the
eastern end of the Black Seam sometime around 2000 B.C.

_Capital_

The greatest Hittite capital was at Hattusas, outside the modern Turkish
town of Bogazkoy in north central Turkey, inland from the Black Sea.  This
city has previously been the capital of the Hatti, a local kingdom that was
conquered by the Hittites around 1900 B.C.  The name Hittite derives from
the name of the Hatti.  The capital was moved to Hattusas around 1500 B.C.
and the city was noted for its massive walls and placement in rugged
terrain.

_Rise to Power_

Around 2000 B.C. when the Hittites entered Asis Minor, the region was
populated by small yet sophisticated, kingdoms each no larger than a
thousand people.  The Hittites began expanding their kingdom around 1900
B.C., using both force and diplomacy to bring rival city-states and
kingdoms in Asia Minor under control.  The Hittite kingdom went through
several periods of expansion and contraction until around 1400 B.C.

Beginning then, several strong kings in succession expanded the Hittite
empire across all of Asia Minor, into Syria, and beyond the Euphrates
River.  The push into Syria brought the Hittites into conflict with the
Egyptians who also sought to dominate this area.

For several generations the Hittites and Egyptians remained diplomatic and
military rivals.  The great battle of Kadesh was fought between these
superpowers around 1300 BC and was commemorated in Egypt by a great
pictoral relief, an epic poem, and an official written record.  After
several decades of uneasy stalemate, the two powers signed a peace treaty
and mutual defense pact, perhaps in response to growing Assyrian power to
the east.  A copy of the treaty was inscribed on the walls of an Egyptian
temple at Karnak where it can be read today.  Duplicate copies of this
treaty on clay and silver tablets were also found by archaeologists in both
countries.

_Economy_

The Hittite imperial boundaries encompassed a diverse geography, including
expansive grassy plains, mountains, sea coast, river valleys, and desert.
Their economy was based mainly on grain  and sheep raising, but they also
possessed large deposits of silver, copper and lead ore.  They were adept
metalworkers and among the earliest makers of iron, although during their
time iron was more valuable than gold and not available in any quantity.

They were an important provider of copper and bronze to Mesopotamia.  When
they attempted to control the trade to and from that area by extending
their influence into Syria, the Levant, and upper Euphrates River region,
they came into conflict with the Egyptians.

_Religion and Culture_

The Great Temple at Hattusas, below the hill on which the palace stood, was
the religious center of the empire.  The Hittite king was also the high
priest of the kingdom and split his time between government, religious
duties, and conquest.  The king's dual role was useful in unifying the
culture of the kingdom among its diverse peoples.  Each year the king/high
priest traveled extensively to preside at festivals.  These personal
appearances brought in rich donations and helped stablize the realm.

Hittite religion was polytheistic.  It was tolerant of other beliefs and
flexible about incorporating new gods already worshipped by newly conquered
peoples.  Their supreme deity, Teshub, the Storm God, was borrowed.

Hittite culture discovered so far pales in comparison to that of their
contemporaries in Babylon and Egypt.  We have only a few bronze and stone
statuettes, seal impressions, and rock carvings to judge their artistic
ability.  One enduring symbol from their artwork is the double-headed eagle
that was adopted as a national symbol by both Austria and Russia.

They used cuneiform for writing as well as their own heiroglyphics.  They
patterned their laws on those of Babylon, though they tempered their
severity.

_Government_

Some researchers believe that the early Hittite government was the first
constututional monarchy.  The pankus, probably an assembly of noblemen,
monitored the king's activites in relation to their laws and probably had
the power to remove and install kings as needed.  Because they had no law
of succession until circa 1500 BC, the death of a king prior to then often
triggered a struggle for power.  The authority of the pankus waned as the
empire  began to grow and after a law of succession was adopted.

During the empire years, the Hittite ruler was called the Great King.  Each
year the rulers of vassal states brought gifts to Hattusas and pledged
their loyalty.  In return for military protection and favorable trading
status, vassal states contributed money and troops to the empire.

_Diplomacy_

Extensive records and correspondence preserved on clay tablets have
revealed much detail about Hittite diplomacy and politics.  Decipherment of
specific tablets connected the Hittites was two of the most famous events
in antquity - the sacking of the legendary city of Troy from the Iliad and
the death of the Egyptian boy Pharaoh Tutankhamen.  Diplomatic letters to a
city on the east coast of Asia Minor helped establish the site of the city
of Troy.

In 1353 BC the greatest Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, was besieging the city
of Carchemish that controlled an important ford and trade route over the
Euphrates River.  During the siege he received a letter from Ankhesenamun,
the newly widowed wife of Tutankhamen.  The queen of Egypt asked that
Suppiluliuma send one of his sons to be her new husband and king of Egypt.
The stage was set for a very important alliance by marriage.  Suppiluliuma
took too long to investigate and negotiate, however.  An Egyptian
courtier-priest seized the widow and the throne, and peace between the two
great powers was not arranged until 70 years later.

_Military_

Hittite foot troops made extensive use of the powerful recurved bow and
bronze tipped arrows.  Surviving artwork depicts Hittite soldiers as stocky
and bearded, wearing distinctive shoes with curled-up toes.  For close
combat they used bronze daggers, lances, spears, sickle-shaped swords, and
battle-axes shaped like human hands.  Soldiers carried bronze rectangular
shields and wore bronze conical helmets with ear flaps and a long extension
down the back that protected the neck.  They were apparently very competent
at conducting sieges and assaulting cities that resisted.

They were possibly the first to adopt the horse for pulling light
two-wheeled chariots and made these vehicles a mainstay of their field
armies.  Egyptian engravings of the Battle of Kadesh show three men in the
Hittite chariots using spears, but other evidence suggests that they
carried only a driver and archer.  Perhaps the chariot archer replaced the
chariot javelin thrower.  Hittite chariot armies were feared by most of
their contemporaries.

_Decline and Fall_

Following the establishment of peace with Egypt around 1280 BC, there
ensued 80 years of relative peace and prosperity for much of the civilized
world.  During the great catastrophe circa 1200 BC, however, the Hittite
empire was suddenly destroyed.  The fortifications at Hattusas were thrown
down and the city burned. Stone sculptures were smashed apart. It is not
known by whom, but it is possible that the Hittite armies fell off in
ability during decades of relative peace while the growing riches of the
empire made it an ever more attractive target, probably to barbarians from
the west and north.  The Kaskans, barbarians from the Russian Steppes,
penetrated the empire around 1300 BC and plundered Hattusas.  They may have
returned to finish the job for good.

_Legacy_

The legacy of the Hitties is limited because they were lost as a culture
until rediscovered only recently.  They are remembered in the Bible as
relatively small but sturdy warriors, but for little else.  A small
remembrance of the Hittites is their pointed shoes with turned-up toes seen
in many carvings and reliefs that survive.  This style of shoe is still seen
occasionally in Turkey as ceremonial dress.

=====================================
XIV. Minoans
=====================================

(2200 to 1200 B.C.)

Primitive agricultural communities sprang up around the Aegean Sea by 6000
B.C., but this area lagged behind Egypt and Mesopotamia in advancing toward
civilization.  For reasons not yet understood, the island- based Minoan
culture made a sudden leap forward around 2000 B.C. and became the first
civilization of Europe.  The sudden take- off may have been stimulated by
trading contact with Mesopotamia through Levant ports of through contact
with Egypt.  One theory suggests that refugees from Egypt during a time of
turmoil may have emigrated to Crete and brought technology and ideas with
them.

_Location_

The Minoan culture was centered on the island of Crete, but extended to
other nearby islands, including Thera and Rhodes.  They may have colonized
the Anatolian coast at Miletus and elsewhere.  By the extension of trade,
they influenced the developing Greek culture on the mainland and other
Aegean islands.

_Capital_

The palace at Knossos on Crete was the capital of the Minoan civilization.
It remained a hidden ruin until rediscovered and revealed in the twentieth
century.

_Rise of Power_

The Minoans were an economic power, not a military one.  They preserved
their economic advantages by apparently controlling ship traffic in the
Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.  For approximately 800 years, they dominated
trade in these regions. They were so secure on their islands, protected by
their ships, that they never fortified their cities.

_Economy_

Crete was rich in natural resources, including farmland, water, supplies,
timber, copper, building stone, and access to the sea.  The Minoans were
prosperous thanks to agriculture and fishing, but grew rich primarily on
trade.

The Minoans grew grain, fruit, herbs, and olives.  Grain, wine, olive oil,
timber, ceramics, and manufactured goods were theri principal exorts.  They
imported tin, silver, gold, linen, luxury items, and raw materials for
manufacturing.

_Religion and Culture_

The high standard of living, the relative abundance of food and other good
things, and the security of their island homes gave the Minoans an outlook
on life substantially different from other contemporary cultures.  Perhaps
because life was good, worship and communication with gods was not
stressed.  They built no great temples.  Their religion was dominated by
female goddesses who protected the household, the crops, and the animals.
The Minoans made regular offerings of food, statues, and other objects.

The Minoans may have practiced human sacrifice at one time.  There is a
famous tale of a minotaur, half man, half bull, who lived in a labyrinth
beneath the palace.  Young people were sacrificed to the minotaur each
year.  The high priest or king may have worn a bull mask for the sacrifice,
creating the illusion of half man, half animal.

They believed in an afterlife and buried the dead with food and possessions
that would be of use.  Two sacred symbols were bull horns and the double-
sided axe.

The Minoans developed a hieroglyphic writing system around 2000 B.C.,
perhaps following trading contract with the Egyptians.  By 1900 B.C., they
had developed a new script now called Linear A.  Athird script called
Linear B came into use as Knossus around 1450 B.C.  To date, onlu Linear B
has been deciphered, but most of the surviving examples are accounting
records that reveal little about their history and culture.

Surviving artwork shows the people of Crete engaging in the sport of bull-
jumping.  The significance of this activity is not known.  Young men and
women are depicted approaching a charging bull, grabing it by the horns,
and somersaulting over the animal's back to land behind it.

The everyday life of the Minoans was pleasant and relatively free of war
and unrest, as witnessed by the richness and exuberance of their frescos,
wall paintings, and decorative objects.

_Government_

The great palace at Knossus was also a giant warehouse.  The distribution
of food and other goods may have been organized from here.

The only king whose name survives was Minos.  It may be that the word,
Minos, referred to the office, not the man, like the Egyptian term, pharaoh.

_Military_

The Minoans had little apparent need for an army, relying instead on their
navy to keep any enemies from approaching.  Minoan ships were galleys,
manned by rowers on both sides.  Narrow galleys were fast and maneuverable,
allowing them to overtake slower sailing ships of the day.  They did not
employ rams at this early date, according to the evidence of surviving
artwork.

_Decline and Fall_

The idyllic life of the Minoans was disrupted by natural disasters.  The
archaelogical remains indicate that the palace of Knossus was destroyed by
an earthquake in 1700 B.C. and rebuilt.  The nearby island of Thera was
partially sunk by a volcanic eruption and the resulting tidal wave probably
struck Crete, causing extensive damage.  The Minoan culture suffered from
recurrent earthquakes and the Thera explosion, but the extent of the damage
and its effect on their civilization is debated.

There are two main scenarios for the end of the Minoan culture.  According
to the oldest theory, mainland Greeks invaded around 1450 B.C., essentially
destroying the culture, although it lingered for 700 years more until
mainland Greece itself was overrun.  In the second scenario, based on more
recent research, the Minoans suffered through disaster and a resulting
loosening of their control of sea trade and movement, but did not succomb
to the mainland Greeks.  The Minoans were instead destroyed along with the
Myceneans on the mainland by barbarians as part of the catastrophe of 1200
B.C.  Evidence suggests that by 1180 B.C., the Cretans had moved from
coastal towns and palaces to defensive city sites high in the hills.
Attacks and the threat of further attacks were the probable cause of this
shift.

_Legacy_

The Minoans are remembered today for their fabulous palace and frescoes at
Knossos, now partially restored.  It may have been the largest and most
beautiful palace of the late Bronze Age.  They are also remembered for
their mysterious writings, some of which continue to defy linguists.

=====================================
XV. Persians
=====================================

(700 to 332 B.C.)

The Persians were originally one of the several Aryan tribes that migrated
into modern Iran from the plains of southern Russia around 1400 B.C.  They
settled the southwest corner of the Iranian plateau, on the north shore of
the Persian Gulf, on lands vacated by the Elamites who had been conquered
and enslaved by the Assyrians.  The Persians were separated from the great
civilizations of Mesopotamia by the Zagros Mountains.

At its peak, the Persian Empire stretched from the Indus River across the
Near East to the eastern Mediterranean coast, south into Egypt along the
Nile to Sudan, across Anatolia, and into Thrace and Macedonia.

_Capital_

During the history of the Persian Empire, five cities served as the royal
capital.  The first was Pasargadae, built by Cyrus to commemorate his
victory over the Medes.  It was remote and impractical as an administrative
capital.  Babylon was rebuilt by Cyrus as a royal capital for his use when
affairs brought him to Mesoptamia.  Darius moved the empire'sadministration
to Susa, the old Elamite capital, perhaps for efficiency.  It was well-
located at the hub of a road and water transport network.

The extreme summer heat of Susa drove the Persian court first to the higher
altitudes of Ecbatana, the old Median capital in the Zagros Mountains.  In
520 B.C., Darius began building the greatest of the Persian capitals at
Persepolis.  Construction of Persepolis was interrupted for long periods
and was not completed nearly 200 years later when the city was sacked and
burned to the ground by Alexander.

_Rise To Power_

The Persians settled on relatively poor and remote lands where they were
little troubled by first the Elamites to their west, then the Assyrians who
destroyed the Elamites around 640 B.C., and then the Medes (to their
northZ) nd resurgent Babylonians who conquered Assyria in 609 B.C.
Throughout this period, the various petty Persian kings were vassals of the
richer and more advanced Medes.  Cyrus II became king of the small Persian
kingdom of Anshan in 559 B.C.  Within ten years he had subjugated the
eastern part of Persia and established a reputation among even his rivals
as a natural leader to whom men gravitated.  When the Median king attempted
to reassert control over Persia around 550 B.C., the Median army revolted
on the battlefield, handing over their king to Cyrus and surrendering their
own capital at Ecbatana.  The Median Empire, stretching across northern
Mesopotamia into Anatolia, underwent a nearby bloodless change of
management.  Cyrus II was now Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian
Empire.

Cyrus then conquered in quick succession the Lydians of Asia Minor (led the
King Croesus of legendary wealth who had invented coins), Greek colonies on
the Aegean coast, the Parthians, and the Hyrcanians to the north.  In 541
B.C., he marched into the steppes of Central Asia, establishing a fortified
border along the Jaxartes River.  In 540 B.C., his 19th year as king, Cyrus
turned on his onetime ally, Babylon.  After one battle, the army and people
of Babylon surrendered their king, city, and empire that stetched from
southern Mesopotamia to Phoenicia.  Before Cyrus could expand into Egypt or
toward Greece, however, he was killed fighting nomadic tribesmen who were
threatening his eastern provinces.

The first successors to Cyrus conquered Egypt, gathered new provinces in
North Africa, and extended the empire into India to the Indus River.  They
turned next against the Greeks who were commercial rivals of Persian
Phoenicia.  In 513 B.C., a huge floating bridge was built across the
Bosphorus Strait, linking Asia and Europe.  The Persian army took Thrace
and Macedonia to cut off grain to the Greeks, but could not subjugate the
elusive Scythians.  This was the peak of the Persian Empire.  The stage was
set for the mighty struggle with the city- states of Greece that lasted 50
years.

_Economy_

The early Persian economy was based on herding because the land was so poor
for agriculture.  The Persians attributed their toughness to the meager
lifestyle to which they has been acclimated for generations.

The sudden acquisition of the Median Empire, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, and
gold- rich areas in India made Persia an economic powerhouse.  It controlled
the rich agricultural areas of Mesopotamia, the grasslands of Anatolia, the
trade routes in every direction, and rich deposits of metals and other
resources.  Great King Darius instituted many economic innovations and
reforms: systematized taxation; standardized weights, measures, and monetary
units (the first successful widespreaduse of coins); improvedtransportation
routes, including the 1600- mile Royal Road from Susa to Sardis and an early
Suez Canal; royal trading ships; promotion of agriculture; a banking system;
and promotion of international trade.

_Religion And Culture_

The Persian kings and nobility were Zaroastrians, a religion named after its
founder, Zarathustra, called Zoroaster in Greek.  Zarathrustra conceived his
religion around 600 B.C., and it had great influence later on Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam.

Zoroastrianism was monotheistic, centering on one supreme god who created
everything material and spiritual.  The powers of good and evil worked on
humans who had to choose constantly between the two.  An eternal afterlife
of pleasure or torment were the possible results of god's judgement after
death.  These concepts of monotheism, good versus evil, free will, and
posthumous reward or punishment were a departure from the polytheistic
religions prominent in the area previously.  These concepts greatly influenced
religions that followed.

_Government_

The head of the Persian government was the king whose word was low.  His
authority was extended by a bureaucracy led by Persian nobles, scribes who
kept the records, a treasury that collected taxes and funded building projects
and armies, and a system of roads, couriers, and signal stations that
facilitated mail and trade.  In the early years when the army was predomin-
ately Persian, it capably preserved the internal and external peace.

Much of the empire was divided into provinces called satrapies, ruled by a
satrap.  All of Egypt was usually a single satrapy, for example.  The satraps
were normally Persians or Medes to help ensure their loyalty.  They ruled
and lived like minor kings in their own palaces.  Some satraps became strong
enough to threaten the king.  Strong kings kept their satraps in check by
holding close the reins of the armies and the treasury.

_Military_

All Persian men to the age of 50 years were obligated to serve in the armies
of the Persian Empire.  Greek historians report that boys were trained in
riding, archery, hand- to- hand combat, and mounted combat.  At the age of 20
they were eligible for military service.

The army consisted mainly of four types of units: spearmen for infantry shock
combat, foot archers to act as skirmishers, light cavalry mainly with bows,
and heavy cavalry that wore some armor and carried spears.  In the early
years of the empire, the predominantly Persian army was highly motivated and
responsive on the battlefield, making it a dangerous foe.

The elite of the Persian army were the Ten Thousand Immortals, so called
because the unit was always kept at a full strength of 10,000 men.  The loss
of any man to death or incapacitation was immediately made good by promotion
from another unit.  One thousand of the Immortals were the king's personal
bodyguards.

In its later years, the ratio of Persians to provincial levies declined.
The hardened army of desciplined and well- trained Persians was replaced by
a mixture of formations, weapons, and methods.  These troops lacked the
discipline of the Persians and proved difficult to maneuver and employ on
the battlefield.

_Decline And Fall_

The Persian Empire peaked aroung 500 B.C., although the seeds of its decline
were planted earlier.  A recurring problem was court intrigue and its ill-
defined rules for succession.  The death of a king often triggered a scramble
for the throne that exhausted the treasury, eroded morale, and loosened the
governmental hold on the provinces.  Wasteful spending led to inflation and
unpopular tax increases.  Disputes in the provinces, usually over taxes, were
often settled brutally, further increasing dissatisfaction.  Five of the six
kings that followed Xerxes' death in 464 B.C. were weak leaders that held the
empire together only by increasing harsh measures.

The Greeks and Persians had been on a collision course for many years when
conflict began between the two cultures in 499 B.C.  Despite what appeared to
be overwhelming strength and economic resources, the Persians failed to
defeat the Greeks in 50 years of war on land and sea.  The Greeks, though
victorious, were not capable immediately of carrying the war into Persia.

Following the Greco- Persian Wars, the weak Persian kings concentrated on
maintaining their ever more tenuous hold on the empire.  Recurring revolts
in outlying provinces, especially Parthia, Lydia, and Egypt, weakened the
economy and military.  Before the empire could dissolve from within, it was
dispatched by Alexander the Great in an amazingly short period of time.
Alexander invaded in 334 B.C., captured Lydia by 333, took Egypt in 332, and
became king of Persia in 331.

_Legacy_

The Persians are best remembered in the West as the antagonist in the dramatic
Greco- Persian Wars, from which so much history has been preserved.  The most
famous events from this period are the bridging of the Hellespont, land battles
at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Platea, the great sea battle at Salamis, and
the sacking of Athens.  Most of this history is biased, however, because we
have mainly the Greek accounts to study.

The Persians are also remembered in several Biblical accounts for the toler-
ance of their later courts.  Cyrus the Great is remembered especially for
freeing the Hebrews held prisoner in Babylon when he took that city and
allowing them to return to Israel.

The greatest legacy of the Persians was the aggression and mixture of Asia
and African cultures.  Most of the advances of civilization to that point
had come from these areas.  This cultural gift was preserved by the Persians
and passed on first to the Greeks and then to Europe and the West.

=====================================
XVI. Phoenicians
=====================================

(1200 to 146 B.C.)

There was never a country or empire called "Phoenicia."  The historical
name of this culture was coined by the Greeks and was not their name.  The
name Phoenicia derives from the Greek word Phoenix, meaning in this case a
dark red or purple- brown color.  The phoenicians were renowned for their
cloth dyes, especially an expensive purple one popular with royalty.
Because Greek language and writings were preserved in abundance, versus
Phoenician texts which are very scant, the name stuck.

_Location_

The Phoenicians appeared on the historical scene around 1200 B.C., a time
when most of the civilized world was being overrun by barbarians.  In the
political and military void of a 400- year ancient dark age, this small
group of traders were able to prosper and gradually expand their influence.
Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous lands, they gradually
built, instead, a large trading and colonial network from their home base
of a few independent cities along the coast of what is now Lebanon.

They were the remnants of the Canaanites, a Semitic people who occupied
city- states in this region prior to 1200 B.C.  The most important of their
early cities were Tyre, Sidon, Berytus (modern Beirut), and Byblos.  These
coastal cities were hemmed in on the land side by the Lebanon Mountains.
The only onvious opportunity for expansion and economic gain was by sea.

_Rise To Power_

Prior to the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., Canaanite traders had been
restricted to perhaps the Levantine coast, Egypt, and the southern coast of
Anatolia.  The Minoans on Crete blocked entrance into the Aegean,
controlled all trade further west.  The Canaanite coastal towns were
usually controlled by Egypt, and one of their principal businesses was
providing wood (the cedars of Lebanon) to the Nile region.

The Minoan civilization was destroyed in 1200 B.C., removing most of the
constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean Sea trading bu others.  The
Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill the void.
Their cities were well- positioned for this enterprise by being located
literally in the center of the known world.  The Aegean, Mesopotamia, and
Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, south, and east.  For any
of the three regions to trade with another, the easiest trade route was
through the Phoenician cities.

By the ninth century B.C., the ancient dark ages was nearing an end.  The
Phoenicians were growing rich as traders and this attracted enemies,
principally the Assyrians.  In the face of repeated assaults or heavy
tribute payments at the least, the Tyrians adopted the strategy of
establishing colonies to the west.  Colonies were removed from the grasp
of the Assyrians and also helped with the exploitation of metals and trade
in the western Mediterranean.

The most important Phoenician colony was at Carthage, established around
700 B.C.  Other important colonies were in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, and
Spain.  Over the next 500 years, Carthage grew rapidly in size and power.
Most of its wealth came from the ore mines of Spain.  Carthage fought for
control of the western Mediterranean with the Greeks first and then the
Romans.

_Economy_

The early Phoenician economy was built on timber sales, wood working, and
cloth dyeing.  Dyes ranging in color from a pink to a dark purple were
made from the rotting gland of a sea snail.  Gradually the Phoenician city-
states became centers of maritime trade and manufacturing.  Having limited
natural resources, they imported raw materials and fashioned them into more
valuable objects that could be shipped profitably, such as jewelry,
metalwork, furniture, and housewares.  They borrowed techniques and styles
from all corners of the world that they touched as traders.

While exploring the western Mediterranean, they either discovered large
metal deposits in Spain or took them from Greeks who may have been there
first.  By fortifying sites on Sicily and North Africa, they effectively
denied other traders access to the riches of Spain, the west Africa coast
(gold, exotic woods, and slaves), and Britain (tin, which was used to make
bronze.)

_Religion and Culture_

Phoenician religion was polytheistic and their other gods required
continual sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Boal, the god of
storms.  No significant Phoenician temple has yet been discovered, but most
of their ancient cities lie buried under modern cities.  The Bible recounts
human sacriices by the Phoenicians but this practice was eventually
stopped.  It carried on in Carthage, however.  A cemetary outside of
Carthage was found to obtain thousands of urns of infants sacrificed to the
gods.  (BURN BABY BURN!!)  Noble families of Carthage got into the habit
of substituting animals and slaves for their children, but following a
military disaster in 320 B.C., 500 infants from the best families were
sacrificed.  (HA HA!!)

Early Phoenician culture was influenced to a large degree by their Semitic
origins and Semitic neighbors.  Their later culture was heavily influenced
by the Greeks.  There are few objects known today that are clearly
Phoenician.

One of their lasting copntributions to civilization was a proto- alphabet
where each letter represented a consonant.  This cut down significantly the
number of symbols required to make written words.  When written, the vowels
were implied.  Later advances by the Greeks added symbols for vowel sounds,
creating the first true alphabet.

_Military_

When the Phoenicians began competing with the Greeks for trade and
colonies, the contest led to construction of the first ships built
expressly for war.  These were rowed galleys armed with a ram at the front
and marines for boarding.  Sea warfare grew in importance during the fifth
century when Persia fought the Greek city- states for control of the
Aegean, western Anatolia, and eastern Mediterranean.  By this time the
Phoenician cities were under control of Persia. Phoenician ships made up
the bulk of the Persian fleet that was defeated at Salamis in 480 B.C.
Phoenician galleys of the time were larger and less maneuverable than their
Greek counterparts, and this was a fatal shortcoming in restricted waters.

The Carthaginian navy dominated the early Punic Wars with Rome, but the
Romans captured a Carthaginian ship that went aground and built duplicates.
The Romans eventually cleared the Mediterranean of Carthaginian ships and
carried the wars to a successful conclusion in North Africa.

The Carthiginians had the only significant land army that can be considered
Phoenician in derivation.  Their greatest general was Hannibal, who invaded
Italy from Spain, passing the Alps in winter with his army and elephants.
Most of his troops were Celts enlisted from Spain and Gaul.  One strength
of his army was cavalry from North Africa that was usually able to drive
off the Roman cavalry, surround the Roman infantry, and help annihilate it.
The Romans defeated Hannibal eventually, not by fighting him, but by
attacking where he wasn't- Spain first, and then North Africa.

_Decline and Fall_

The Phoenician home cities were periodically under the thumb of one eastern
conqueror after another from roughly 900 to 332 B.C.  They were never
strong enough to hold off the powerful armies from Assyria, then Babylon,
and then Persia, although they were often rich enough to buy them off.  In
332 B.C., Alexander the Great took them one by one, ending their on- again,
off- again independence.  They became Greek cities and lost their identity
as Phoenician for good.

The Carthaginians lasted another 200 years.  Having held off Greek
expansion past Sicily successfully for many centuries, they met their match
in the more populous and better organized Romans.  At the end of the Punic
Wars in 146 B.C., the people of Carthage were carried off to slavery and
the city was destroyed.

_Legacy_

The Phoenician tradition as traders carried on in Lebanon down through the
years to modern times, regardless of who was in political control.
Phoenicians are also recalled as great mariners.  They are believed to have
been the first civilized culture to reach Britain and the Azores.  There
is evidence that Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa on commission by the
Egyptians around 600 B.C.  There is some questionable evidence that they
reached the New World.

Their most important contribution was their revised alphabet, which they
spread around the known world.  When further refined and spread by the
Greeks and Romans, it became the alphabet used today by most western
cultures.

=====================================
XVII. Shangs
=====================================

(1800 to 1000 B.C.)

China has been a mystery to much of the world since word of its existence
first spread west in ancient times.  It was isolated first by geography, and
then by a conscious policy on the part of its rulers.  It was thought to be
one of the oldest civilizations but modern archaeology and research has
revealed that the civilizations on Crete, in Egypt, and in Mesopotamia predate
it significantly.

China encompassed a number of fertile river valleys, especially the Huang Ho
(Yellow) and Yangtze, that were ideal sites for agriculture.  New technologies
spread gradually from the west and the first Chinese farming communities
appeared along these rivers around 5000 B.C.  Although all ancient civiliz-
ations eventually shared a common threshold of agricultural and technological
knowledge, the relative isolation of China allowed it to form a unique
culture.  The Chinese distinguished their civilization by being first to
achieve many important advancements.

_Capital_

The first recognized dynasty of Chinese kings is that of the Shang, who were
located in the north along the Huang Ho River.  Their principal city was
An-yang, southwest of modern Beijing.  The Chou dynasty overthrew a decadent
Shang king and ruled for 400 years from the city of Hao in the northwest
province of Shensi.  When barbarians from the north sacked Hao, the Chou
capital was moved east to Loyang.  Although the Chou dynasty soon lost
control of most of China, it continued to rule a state of varying size from
its central position until 221 B.C.  In 221 B.C., China was unified by the
Ch'in, from whom the country gets its modern name.  A new capital was built
at Hsien-Yang, also southwest of modern Beijing.

_Rise To Power_

The Shang dynasty ruled over a conglomeration of northwestern Chinese feudal
territories from 1766 to 1027 B.C.  The remainder of the counrty was made up
of territories that the Shang could not reach or influence.  In 1027 B.C.,
a particularly decadent Shang ruler lost control of the kingdom and succombed
to either revolt or the deliberate attack from the more western province of
Chou.  A Chou dynasty established itself and then expanded its control to
the middle and southern areas of China over the next 400 years.  With the
help of a deposed queen, barbarians from the north invaded Chou in 722 B.C.
and sacked the capital.

The Chou dynasty relocated further to the east but never regained its domi-
nance.  The weakening of the Chou led to the Spring and Autumn period (722
to 481 B.C.) that takes its name from the title of a history of the era.
New feudal kingdoms emerged and fought each other for territory, strategic
materials, and population centers.  Warfare between the feudal territories
and barbarians to the north was incessant.  By 500 B.C., and 200 feudal
territories of China had consolidated into 20 independent states.

A peace was arranged around 540 B.C. at a conference instigated by smaller
states that had suffered continual invasion and despoiling.  Peace lasted
40 years and then hostilities resumed, setting off the age known as the
Warring States (481 to 221 B.C.).  Seven major states emerged in this period,
buteach was subjugated by the Ch'in, one after the other, beginning in 230
B.C.  In 221 B.C., Prince Cheng, the Tiger of Ch'in, proclaimed himself
Shih Huang-ti-- the emperor of China.

_Economy_

Early Chinese farmers grew millet and vegetables, andkept dogs and pigs.  By
4000 B.C., rice was being grown and became the most important food crop of
Asia.  By 2500 B.C., cattle, chickens, sheep, and goats were raised, and
water buffalo were being used to pull plows and wagons.

Despite the ravages of war, the ancient Chinese economy continued to grow and
improve.  An elaborate road network improved communications and trade.
Massive irrigation projects dammed entire rivers, breaking them into small
streams that carried water over extensive plains for rice cultivation.  Most
impressive were canals connecting rivers or taking water into previously
arid regions.  The first of these was built in 486 B.C. to supply troops.
The eventual dominance of the Ch'in was due in part to the rapid population
growth that resulted from canal and irrigation projects that dramatically
increased food production.

Bronze did not reach China until around 1500 B.C., and iron followed in the
sixth century B.C.  Another advantage of the Ch'in was their iron deposits
and iron seventeen centuries before that technology was achieved in Europe,
and iron- making was a key factor in the shaping of their society.

China was unique to the ancient world for its general lack of slavery and
a large peasant class of land owners.  The reasons for this are not fully
understood.  These two conditions probably contributed to the enormous food
production and population that China supported.

_Religion And Culture_

The religion of ancient China was dominated bt ancestor worship.  Kings
traced their ancestry back directly to Shang- Ti, the ancestor and founder
of the people, and the ruler of the natural world.  Shang- Ti and deceased
forebears were petitioned by sacrifices for guidance in all aspects of life.
Political power was linked to the spiritual.  The ruler was the Son of Heaven
and ensured the welfare of the people.  These ancient beliefs were modified
eventually into a state religion by two competing philosophies that devel-
oped around the sixth century B.C. in response to growing dissatisfaction
with feudalism.

The oldest of these philosophies was Taoism, based on a collection of profound
sayings.  Conformity to the Tao was achieved by unassertive action and
simplicity.  Taoism urged a return to a naturally sharing society that was
cooperative, not acquisitive.  A typical Taoism saying read, "He who feels
punctured, must have been a bubble."

The second and most influential philosophy was Confucianism, a more practical
and socially aware doctrine.  This was a philosophy of honesty and cooperation
in relationships based on loyalty to principles.  Virtue was acquired by
self- cultivation and self- denial.  The Confucian ideal was a perfection
of the human personality through sacrifice in deference to tradition values
passed down from one's ancestors.  Heaven was the reward of the dutiful
descendant.

_Government_

The various dynasties of China ruled over a hierarchy of feudal states linked
by kinship and vassalage.  Feudal society was supported by peasant farmers
who produced unpaid labor.

Following the formation of the first empire in 221 B.C., the long failing
feudal society was replaced by a new structure.  The aristocracy were only
relatives of the emperor.  Four classes of society were ranked below them.
The shih were lesser nobility, landowners, and scholars.  The nung were the
peasant farmers, who paid taxes, lobored on public works, and served in the
armies.  The kung were the artisans, and the shang were the merchants.

_Architecture_

Ancient Chinese architecture was concerned primarily with building walls.
Walls defended villages and towns, but also divided towns into sections.
Controlling access to sections of cities enhanced the power of authorities.
The earliest walls were built of earth tamped down between wooden slats that
held it in place.  The use of earth in this manner led to two major chara-
cteristics of Chinese architecture-- walls did not usually bear loads and
roofs supported generous overhangs to keep water off the walls.  Walls were
improved first with sun- dried bricks on their facings and then with fire-
baked bricks by the end of the Warring States period.

The Great Wall of China was constructed following the unification of 221 B.C.
for two purposes.  It was intended first to keep out or discourage attacks
by mounted barbarians from the north.  It also was an outlet for the labor
of thousands of men who had previously served in the massive armies now made
unnecessary by the unification.

_Military_

The ancient Chinese fielded armies that at times dwarfed those seen previo-
usly in the Near and Middle East.  Casualties from a battle often numbered
100,000 or more according to records well regarded today for accuracy.
Professional armies were supplemented by large militia levies called up for
temporary service.

The most militaristic states were those to the north and northwest who were
forced to become proficient in war because of repeated attacks by mounted
barbarians.  Provinces in this region learned to fight large field armies
from neighboring states as well as the barbarian hordes.  The three dominant
dynasties of ancient China originated  in the northern provinces.

Chariot archers dominated the battlefields of the Bronze Age Shang era, but
they were supplanted by mounted archers and large  infantry armies armed with
crossbow, not seen elsewhere for many centuries.  Crossbows were manufactured
in large quantities for the arming of the militia, as well as regular troops.
This fact influenced the widespread building of walls fro protection.  For
reasons not known, armor was made predominantly of wood and bamboo.

_Decline And Fall_

The empire established in 221 A.D. was further modified by the former Han
dynasty up to 9 A.D.  In that year, ausurpergrabbed the throne and ruled
for 16 years.  Attempts to reform land ownership failed, however, and the
usurper was eventually beheaded.  This period makes a convenient break point
in Chinese history, even though the empire continued to exist into the
twentieth century A.D.

_Legacy_

The principle legacy of ancient China was its philosophy, including the
concepts of face, ancestor worship, virtue, and balance with nature (Yin-
Yang), which continue to shape its culture today.  The most recognizable
physical legacy is the Great Wall, the only man- made object on Earth
visible from space.

=====================================
XVIII. Sumerians
=====================================

(5000 to 2230 B.C.)

The Sumerians were one of the earliest civilizations.  Their growth and
expansion was dependent on rich river valley farmlands.  They were not as
fortunate as others in terms of mineral resources or strategic position,
however, and did not enjoy the existence of the Egyptians.  They are
considered one of the most important early cultures, nevertheless, because
of the many advances attributed to them.  Because their location was weak
in terms of defense and poor in terms of resources, they were forced to
innovate.  In many ways they were more important to history because of
their innovations than the much richer Egyptians.

_Location_

Sumer was located in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers come together before flowing into the Persian Gulf.  By 5000 B.C.
primitive farmers had come down to the valley from the Zafros Mountains to
the east.  The land was rich but baked hard in the summer sun after the
late spring river floods.  The early settlers learned how to control some
of the flooding with dikes and how to irrigate their summer fields.  Early
settlements at Ur, Uruk, and Eridu grew into independent cities first and
then city- states.

_Capital_

As a conglomeration of city- states, there was no clear capital for the
Sumerians because the center of power shifted from time to time.  The
cities of Ur, Lagash, Erech, Eridu, and Uruk were the most important.

_Rise to Power_

From 5000 to 3000 B.C.. agricultural communities of Sumer gradually
coalesced into city- states along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers.  The peak of this city- state culture lasted from 2900 to 2400
B.C.  They warred with one another from time to time and competed for land
and trade, but never conglomerated or built an empire that expanded from
their traditional homeland.

The city- states of the river valley were relatively rich from food
production, manufacturing, and their position along important trade routes.
This made them tempting targets when more powerful and warlike neighbors
came into existence to the north and east.

_Economy_

The Sumerians grew wheat, barley, peas, onions, turnips, and dates.  They
raised cattle and sheep, fished, and hunted wildfowl along the river.  Food
was generally abundant and populations grew accordingly.

There was no copper in the river valleys, but copper was found in the
mountains to the east and north.  The Sumerians learned how to obtain
copper from ore by 4000 B.C. and to make bronze by 3500 B.C.

They traded food, cloth, and manufactured items for raw materials, such as
timber, copper, and stone, which they fashioned into items of everydat use,
weapons, and more valuable trade goods.  Their merchants traveled up the
Tigris and Euphrates to trade with the people of Anatolia and the
Mediterranean coast.  They also traded in the Persian Gulf for items from
India and further east.

_Religion and Culture_

The Sumerians worshipped hundreds of gods, with each city having its own
patron deity.  The principal gods, such as Entil, the god of air, were too
busy to bother with the plight of individuals.  For that reason, each
Sumerian worshipped a particular minor god or goddess who was expected to
interact with the major gods.

The Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife and were realistic about the
limits of human goodness.  They accepted that although the gods were above
question, they were not always kind.

The soul and center of each city- state was its temple to the patron god.
The Sumerians believed that the god owned the city- state.  Part of the
land was farmed directly for the god, often by slaves.  The remaining land
was farmed by the temple staff or by farmers who paid rent to the temple.
Rents and offerings paid for temple operation and supported the poor.

Slaves were an important part of the community and were one objective of
any military campaign.  Even locals could become slaves to satisfy debts.
Slaves were allowed to work extra hours for themselves and use any savings
to buy their freedom.

_Government_

Each city in Sumer was ruled at first by a council of elders, although a
war leader, called a lugal, was selected to lead the army during conflict.
Eventually the lugals assumed power as kings and established dynasties.

Evidence suggests that the Sumerians may have taken the first steps toward
democracy by electing a representative assembly.  They consisted of two
houses- a senate of important citizens and a lower house made up of those
available for military duty.

Preserved clay tablets reveal that the Sumerians maintained courts of
justice where people could expect a fair trial.  One table recorded the
oldest murder trial in history.

Most of the food production and distribution was controlled through the
temple.  A noble class arose based on land ownership, control of land, and
manufacturing.  Most trade and manufacturing was outside the temple's
control.

_Architecture_

The Sumerians were handicapped by having no easy access to stone or wood
for building.  Sun- dried mud bricks were their main building material and
this required some ingenuity.  They were the first to employ the arch,
vault, and dome.  Their cities were completely enclosed by brick walls.
Their most important buildings were temples, built as large mounds called
ziggurats.  Through cycles of attack, destruction, and restoration, the
temples were rebuilt again and again at the same site, gradually getting
larger with each reincarnation.  Mud bricks eroded and crumbled much more
quicker than stone, however, and little Sumerian architecture survives.

_Military_

The key influence on the Sumerian military was their poor strategic
position.  Natural obstacles for defense existed only on their borders to
the west (desert) and south (Persian Gulf).  When more populous and
powerful enemies appeared to their north and east, the Sumerians were
susceptible to attack.

Surviving artwork and archaelogical remains indicate that the Sumerian
soldiers used spears and short swords of bronze.  They wore bronze helmets
and carried large shields.  Their armies were not particularly noted but
records are sparse.

They engaged in siege warfare during their many inter- city wars.  Mud
brick walls did not stand against determined attackers who had the time to
pry out the bricks or pound them to dust.

The Sumerians invented chariots and were the first to use them in battle.
These earlt chariots were four- wheeled and pulled by wild asses, and were
not effective in battle as the later two- wheeled design pulled by horses.
Sumerian chariots may have served primarily as fast transports, but
surviving artwork suggests that spears or javelins were thrown from them.

_Decline and Fall_

A group of Semitic people called the Akkadians settled north of Sumer along
the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.  The Akkadians adopted very quickly the
culture, religion, and writing of the more advanced Sumerians who had
preceeded them.  In 2371 B.C., Sargon I seized the throne of Kish and
gradually conquered all of the city- states of Akkadia.  He turned south
and conquered the city- states of Sumer, which were unable to unite in
defense.  Sargon established the first empire of history during the reign
from 2371 to 2316 B.C., extending his control along the Fertile Crescent
from Elam, to the east of Sumer, to the Mediterranean coast.

Sargon's empire collapsed after his death but was restored briefly by his
grandson.  Around 2230 B.C. the Akkadian empire was destroyed by an
invasion of Gutians, the barbarian hill people from the Zagros Mountains.
New cities and towns soon grew up along the river valleys, but the
Sumerians were gone as a distinct and indepentent culture.

_Legacy_

The Sumerians are most noted for the invention of the wheel and writing.
The wheel was important for transport and for pottery making.  Sumerian
writing, cuneiform, consisted of groups of stylus wedge impressions pushed
into clay to form stylized pictograms representing words.  This writing
grew out of record keeping and seals from business transactions.

They were among the first to use boats, including round boats made of hide
stretched over a wooden framework.  These coracles were especially popular
among the reeds and waterways of the river delta.


=====================================
XIX. Yamato
=====================================

(300 to 800 A.D.)

The Yamato period of Japanese culture is also called the age of the great
tombs because of the appearance in these centuries of great tombs and tomb
clusters, presumably for the burial of rulers and other elites.  The name
Yamato comes ffrom the region of Japan that was the home of the first clan
to consolidate rule over most of the islands.  During the Yamato period,
Japan accelerated its advance in technology by adopting the cultivation of
rice, improving its pottery, developing iron working, building social
hierarchies, and accomplishing a political, economic, anc cultural
consolidation of the islands.

_Location_

The hereditary lands of the Yamato clan are on a peninsula on the southwest
coast of Ise Bay.  This bay is located on the main island of Honshu,
southwest of modern Tokyo.

_Capital_

Prior to the late seventh century A.D., there was no permanent capital of
Japan.  Each king ruled from his own palace, which was usually abandoned
following his death.  As the Yamato began to adopt the Chinese system of
governemntal bureaucracy and organization, the need for a permanent seat of
government arose.  The first capital was founded at Fujiwara in 694 A.D.
and served three emperors before being abandoned in 710.  The second
capital of this period was built at Heijo and occupied from 710 to 784.

_Rise To Power_

Chinese documents from the second century A.D. make reference to 100
countries existing in Wa, a.k.a. Japan.  By the third century, the Chinese
refer to a queen of Wa, probably of the Yamato clan, who had consolidated
30 countries under her rule.  During this period, the Yamato clan
consolidated its control over most of Japan with a combination of military
conquest, intermarriage, and diplomacy.

_Economy_

Under the Yamato, the Japanese economy remained dependent on rice growing.
It was primarily a barter economy and taxes were paid in rice, cloth, and
other commodities by reasants who worked public lands.  Beginning with the
seventh century, coins were imported from China to facilitate tax
collection.  An attempt was made to mint Japanese coins, but rulers could
not resist the temptation to debase the local coinage and it fell out of
use.

_Religion and Culture_

New concepts were added to the ancient Japanese beliefs and rituals during
the Yamato period, including respect for clan ancestors and a mythology of
divine ancestry for the Yamato dynasty.  Under the influence of Chinese
Buddhism propaganded by Forea during the sixth century, the Japanese
religion became more formalized as Shinto, the Way of the Kami.  The kami
were an infinite number of natural spirits and powers that could be called
upon for aid or appeased when angered.  The hierarchy of Shinto divinities
was defined and the mythology was written down.  The rulers of Japan
descended from the sun goddess, the supreme Shinto deity.

Early Shinto was positive and concerned with the present, not the past or
an afterlife.  It fostered a reverence for a natural universe that was seen
as good and ethical.  Evil was identified with impurity and the unnatural.
Sincere honesty was the central virtue.

_Government_

During the Yamato period, tribal states of various sizes and power were
brought together gradually by a dynasty of Yamato clan rulers.  The leader
of the Yamato in the second half of this period was known as the Daio, or
Great King.  The power of the Yamato was expanded and strengthened through
blood ties within the clan, their apparent military supremacy, diplomacy,
and manipulation of the sun myth that bestowed divinity on their ancestry.

The different tribal groups or clans were the nobility or uji class.
Serving the uji was an occupational/ professional class called the be, who
worked as farmers, scribes, traders, and manufacturers.  The lowest class
were slaves.  Immigrants fit in among the uji and be, depending on their
skills and wealth.

In the seventh century, the Yamato transformed the government of Japan
based on influences from China.  The Yamato sovereign became an imperial
ruler supported by court and administrative officials.  The uji class was
stripped of land and military power, but given official posts and
stripends.  This political system remained in effect until around 1200 A.D.

_Architecture_

The outstanding architectural achievements of the Yamato are their tombs.
These are mounds of earth in the shape of a keyhole if viewed from above.
The largest tombs are found in the Yamato region of Japan, and is further
evidence of power emanating from that locale.  The Nintoku tomb on the
Osaka Plain rivals the Pyramids in size.  The central tomb is 500 meters
long and 35 meters high.  It is surrounded by three moats with intervening
belts of trees and covers 32 hectars (approximately 3.4 million square
feet).  Stone burial chambers were evacuated in the earth below the central
tomb mound.

Tombs thought related to the imperial family are now controlled by a
government agency.  Although some have been pillaged in the past, many
remain unexcavated.

_Military_

Based on the large numbers of warrior figures, weapons, and pieces of armor
found in burial tombs from this era, warfare was apparently a common
feature of Yamato culture.  Despite the existence of a dominant ruler,
clan groups found reason for conflict.  All adult men were available for
military service and were required to serve for at least one year.  The uji
class provided the elite troops and officers for armies.

Warrior figures from tombs are shown wearing full body armor and visored
helmets.  The most commonly found weapons are swords, spears, and bow
quivers.  Horse figures are also found in abundance, suggesting the
existence of cavalry.  The sudden appearance of horses in burial goods
around the fifth century has led to the hypothesis that Japan was invaded
by a cavalry army at that time.  It is more probable that the horse was an
import that became a status symbol for the elite who were most likely to
receive a ceremonial burial.  The elite uji class made up the cavalry of
the period because they could afford the horse and equipment.

_Legacy_

The Yamato period is remembered for the sun goddess mythology from which
all later emperors of Japan claimed divine ancestry.  The Yamato period
also formalized the Shinto religion that would compete with imported
Buddhism to the present day.  Most modern Japanese consider themselves
descentants of the Yamato.  The great tombs spread about the countryside
are the most material legacy.



=====================================
XX. The Buildings
=====================================

ACADEMY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Academy lets you train elite infantry units, including the
Hoplite, Phalanx, and Centurion.  Researching Architecture increases the
hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  The
academy was the Greek equivalent of a school.  Students, usually only free
men and favored slaves, received an education at the academy.  Subjects of
study included the typical fare of schools but also politics, athletics,
and military training.  The most rigorous of the Greek academies were those
of Sparta, where boys were taken from their parents at an early age and
educated in a military environment.  The academy prepared the individual
for service to the state as a citizen and as a soldier in the phalanx.  In
one of the remarkable encounters of history, the future Alexander the Great
was educated at the Academy of Aristotle.

ARCHERY RANGE

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.
Cost: 100 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Archery Range lets you train archers, including the Bowman,
Improved Bowman, Composite Bowman, Chariot Archer, Elephant Archer, Horse
Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.  You must build the Archery Range before
you can build the Siege Workshop.  Researching Architecture increases the
hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  The bow
was developed as a hunting weapon long before the first towns appeared and
was easily adapted to warfare.  Because the bow allowed fighting from a
distance and from behind cover, archers did not have to fight face- to-
face with their enemy.  As the first civilizations grew in size and their
armies grew correspondingly, formal training of archers was instituted.
As part of this training, bowmen practiced shooting on archery ranges to
improve accuracy.

BALLISTA TOWER

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched the
Watch Tower, upgraded to the Sentry Tower, upgraded to the Guard Tower,
researched Ballistics, and upgraded to the Ballista Tower.
Upgrade Cost: 1800 Food, 750 Stone
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit Points: 200
Attack: 20
Armor: -
Range: 7
Special: Fire Rate once every 3 seconds
Upgrade of: Guard Tower
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Ballista Tower is the ultimate tower.  It has more attack
strength than the Guard Tower.  You must research Ballistics before you
upgrade to the Ballista Tower.  Towers are defensive structures that fire
missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range.  Researching
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases
accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.
The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served
several purposes.  It extended the visual range of lookouts that would be
watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors.  An early warning
might have been the difference between a successful defense and the fall
of the town.  The tower was a superior firing position for archery.  Bowmen
shooting down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows
versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may
have remained visible to archers in the tower.  The tower itself was an
independent bastion that could serve as a defensive position of last resort
if the wall was carried.  The Ballista Tower was the ultimate defensive
fortification of the ancient era.  It could withstand a lajor attack and
was equipped and designed to take a heavy toll on attackers.

BARRACKS

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
Cost: 125 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Barracks lets you train infantry, including the Clubman, Axeman,
Short Swordsman, Long Swordsman, and Legion.  You must have built the
Barracks before you can build the Archery Range, Siege Workshop, Stable, or
Academy.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases
the construction time of this building.  When the first armies came into
being, places were needed eventually to make weapons, store weapons, drill
troops, and house troops.  The Barracks in Age of Empires represents these
places.

DOCK

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
Cost: 100 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Dock lets you create boats, including the Fishing Boat, Fishing
Ship, Trade Boat, Merchant Ship, Light Transport, Heavy Transport, Scout
Ship, War Galley, Trireme, Catapult Trireme, and Juggernaught.  The Dock is
also where fishing vessels deposit food and trade vessels deposit gold from
trading.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases
the construction time of this building.  The earliest boats were simply
tied up to rocks or trees on shore to take on or drop off cargo or were
physically pulled onto the beach.  Later, wooden structures were built out
into the water to facilitate loading and unloading.  Docks were also safer
for ships because ships could avoid being beached, which strained the hulls
and increased leaking.  When the dock was extended beyond the shallows,
even larger ships could be tied up, farther improving efficiencies.

FARM

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 75 Wood
Hit Points: 50
Note: The Farm provides a reliable supply of food, which can be gathered by
a villager.  Because Farms produce food at a fixed rate, assigning more
than one villager to work on a Farm does not increase its productivity.
Farms eventually go fallow, in which case you can build another one.
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the
construction time of this building.  Domestication, the Plow, and
Irrigation increase Farm production.  The humble farm was the foundation of
the great civilizations of antiquity and most human societies since.  The
farm was the technological advance that provided the large and dependable
supplies of food necessary for civilization to arise.  Farming began when
edible seeds and fruits were preserved from one growing season and
systematically planted in prepared ground the following season.  The plant
that resulted were nurtured and protected until the edible produce was
suitable for harvest.  Important farming advancements in ancient times
included irrigation of rich but arid land, the plow that opened the soil
for receiving seeds, and the continual selection of seeds from the most
succesful plants that gradually improved food plant yields.

FORTIFICATION

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must heave built the Town Center, Granary, researched the
Small Wall, upgraded to the Medium Wall, and upgraded to the Fortification.
Upgrade Cost: 300 Food, 175 Stone
Cost: 5 Stone
Hit Points: 400
Upgrade of: Medium Wall
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Fortification is the ultimate wall. It has more hit points than
the Medium Wall.  Walls are defensive structures that can be built around
your empire or important areas.  Villagers and military units cannot move
through standing walls, however, they can attack the walls.  Stone
Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are
particularly effective for destroying walls.  Researching Architecture
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall.
The great civilizations of ancient times built ever- larger fortifications
to protect their important cities and frontiers. Herodotus reported that
the walls of Babylon were sufficiently thick that a chariot could be driven
on them around the city.  Archaelogy indicates that large walls were not
invulnerable- every great ancient city appears to have been stormed
eventually- but only a large and well- equipped army could surmount them.

GOVERNMENT CENTER

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 175 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Government Center lets you build additional Town Centers, and
research technologies that improve your buildings and military units,
including Writing, Architecture, Engineering, Aristocracy, Alchemy,
Nobility, and Ballistics.  Researching Architecture increses the hit points
 and decreases the construction time of this building.  The government
center was the administrative center of the town, village, city, kingdom,
or empire.  It was often the palace of the strongman or king.  It was here
that justice was dispersed, records kept, taxes collected and stored,
diplomacy conducted, and plans made.  The development of the government
center spurred technology such as architecture through the commission of
public works and writing for the keeping of records.  The expansion of
kingdoms led to a hierarchy of elites, often a nobility, that were needed
as middle managers when the expanse of lands exceeded the ruler's ability
to control directly.  The provinces of the Persian Empire, for example,
were ruled like independent stores by satraps who owed tribute and
allegiance to the king in Susa.

GRANARY

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Granary lets you build walls and towers, including the Small
Wall, Medium Wall, Fortification, Watch Tower, Sentry Tower, Guard Tower,
and Ballista Tower.  You must research the Granary before you can built the
Market.  Foragers and farmers can deposit food from Farms and forage sites
at the Granary instead of the Town Center.  Researching Architecture
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this
building.  Following the advance of farming, humans faced the first time
the happy problem of how to safely store large quantities of food grains.
The Granary made it possible to preserve growing season surpluses for
consumption during winter months.  The Granary was a central location where
grain could be warehoused, guarded, and distributed fairly as needed.  The
need to protect food supplies was an early reason for building walls and
fortifications.  Without protection, the surpluses in the Granary were
easily taken by raiders from nearby hunting and gathering groups.

GUARD TOWER

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and the Granary, and
researched Watch Tower, upgraded to Sentry Tower, and upgraded to Guard
Tower.
Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 100 Stone
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit Points: 200
Attack: 6
Armor: -
Range: 7
Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
Upgrade of: Sentry Tower
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Guard Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than
the Sentry Tower.  The Guard Tower can be upgraded to the Ballista Tower.
Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and
military units within range.  Researching Architecture increases the
construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.
Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and
Craftsmanship, increase range.  The tower discovered on the wall at the
ancient site of Jericho served several purposes.  It extended the visual
range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and
other visitors.  An early warning might have been the difference between a
successful defense and the fall of the town.  The tower was a superior
firing position for archery.  Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in
range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies
hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in the
 tower.  The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as the
 defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried.  The Guard Tower
 was a superior fortification, well- designed for holding out against attack
 and for bringing weapons to bear on an attacker.

HOUSE

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
Cost: 30 Wood
Hit points: 75
Note: A House supports up to four villagers, military units, or boats.  You
 must have enough houses before you can create new units.  If a House is
destroyed, you do not lose the units it supported, but you must build new
houses before you can build new villagers, military units, or boats.
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the
construction time of this building.  Shelter increased in importance when
humans expanded their range farther away from the equator in the wake of
the receding ice sheets and into climates of wide seasonal variation.
Growing hman populations quickly occupied the few natural shelters available
in these areas.  The provision of man- made shelter made existence in
challenging and variable climates possible.  Without houses, year- round
populations could not have increased beyond minimums.

MARKET

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary.
Cost: 150 Wood
Hit points: 350
Note: The Market lets you build Farms, pay Tribute to other civilizations,
and research technologies that improve your military units and the
effectiveness of your villagers, including Woodworking, Artisanship,
Craftsmanship, Stone Mining, Siegecraft, Gold mining, Coinage,
Domestication, the Plow, Irrigation, and the Wheel.  You must build the
Market before you can build the Government Center or Temple.  Researching
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
of this building.  The specialization made possible by the development of
agriculture created the need for a place where craftsmen could meet to
barter their wares for those of others and for food.  The Market in each
town and village was the place where barter and exchange took place.  The
development of the Market marked the change from the small hunting/ foraging
group that shared its harvest to the much more complex economy that rose
with the rise of towns and cities.  Specialization resulted in efficiencies
 of scale and greater overall production fairly among the food providers
and specialists.  The profit motive spurred innovation to increase
production.  The potter, for example, looked for ways to make more and
better pots for the same effort to increase the amount of food that he
could obtain by trading pots.

MEDIUM WALL

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched
Small Wall, and upgraded to Medium Wall.
Upgrade Cost: 180 Food, 100 Stone
Cost: 5 Stone
Hit points: 300
Upgrade of: Small Wall
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Medium Wall has more hit points than the Small Wall.  The Medium
Wall can be upgraded to the Fortification.  Walls are defensive structures
that can be built around your empire or important areas.  Villagers and
military units cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack
the walls.  Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the
Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls.  Researching
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
of this wall.  One of the earliest human setlements yet discovered is the
city of Jericho near the Jordan River in modern Isreal.  This site from
7000 B.C. is remarkable for possessing a stone masonry wall, dry moat
around the wall, and a tower.  At an astonishingly early date, Jericho
demonstrated that the ancients understood principles of fortification that
would carry forward essentially unchanged until the development of
gunpowder.  The Medium Wall is a defensive structure built of stone or other
 substantial construction to withstand a protracted attack.

SENTRY TOWER

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched
Watch Tower, and upgraded to Sentry Tower.
Upgrade cost: 120 Food, 50 Stone
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit points: 150
Attack: 4
Armor: -
Range: 6
Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
Upgrade of: Watch Tower
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The SEntry Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than
the Watch Tower.  The Sentry Tower can be upgraded to the Guard Tower.
Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and
military units within range.  Researching Architecture increases the hit
points and decreases the construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases
attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship,
and Craftsmanship increase range.  The tower discovered on the wall at the
ancient site of Jericho served several purposes.  It extended the visual
range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and
other visitors.  An early warning might have been the difference between a
successful defense and the fall of the town.  The tower was a superior
firing position for archery.  Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in
range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies
hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in
the tower.  The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as
the defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried.  The Sentry
Tower was an improved fortification of strong materials and designed for
defense.

SIEGE WORKSHOP

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery
Range.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Siege Workshop lets you build siege weapons, including the Stone
Thrower, Catapult, Heavy Catapult, Ballista, and Helepolis.  Researching
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
of this building.  The earliest fortifications yet discovered date from
7000 B.C., but evidence of siege weapons doesn't appear until much later.
We can assume, however, that siege equipment was in use long before the
first evidence that has survived.  Evidence of a scaling ladder does not
appear until about 2500 B.C.  The earliest record of a simple battering
ram comes from 1900 B.C.  Amore powerful ram plus the undermining of walls
appears by 880 B.C.  The mobile siege tower first appears one hundred years
later.  The catapult was invented by Greeks in 397 B.C.  There were no
further significant advances in siege engines until the advent of gunpowder.
Siege weapons were researched and built in siege workshops.

SMALL WALL

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched
Small Wall.
Research cost: 50 Food
Cost: 5 Stone
Hit points: 200
Research at: Granary
Note: The Small Wall is the wealest of the walls.  Upgrades include the
Medium Wall and Fortification.  Walls are defensive structures that can be
built around your empire or important areas.  Villagers and military units
cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack the walls.
Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis
are particularly effective for destroying walls.  Researching Architecture
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall.

STABLE

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.
Cost: 150 Wood
Hit points: 350
Note: The Stable lets you train cavalry units, including the Scout, Cavalry,
Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract, Chariot, and War Elephant.  You must build the
Stable before you can build the Academy.  Researchinf Architecture increases
hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  The
horses that survived the last Ice Age were relatively small animals unsuited
for riding or pulling.  They were hunted out of existence in the Americas
and domesticated first for food on the steppes of Asia.  Over many
generations of selective breeding, they grew large enough to be of use other
than as food.  One issue that had to be resolved was how to harness them
without causing choking.  Humans eventually learned to ride, first from the
rear, non- control position over the hips, and then from the forward
position that we are familiar with today.  The first evidence of horses
being ridden appears in the second millenium B.C., although it is generally
accepted that they were ridden earlier in Asia.  The Stable represents the
application of animals, primarily the horse, to warfare, first pulling
chariots and then carrying warriors.  Detailed records survive from Assyria
and elsewhere related to the acquisition, training, equipping, and
employment of horses in battle.

STORAGE PIT

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center
Cost: 120 Wood
Hit points: 350
Note: The Storage Pit lets you research technologies that improve the armor
and attack strength of military units, including Toolworking, Metalworking,
Metallurgy, the Bronze Shield, the Iron Shield, Leather Armor for Infantry,
Scale Armor for Infantry, Chain Mail for Infantry, Leather Armor for
Cavalry, Scale Armor for Cavalry, Chain Mail for Cavalry, Leather Armor for
Archery, Scale Armor for Archery, and Chain Mail for Archery.  Hunters,
fishermen, and miners can deposit meat, fish, stone, wood, and gold at the
Storage Pit instead at the Town Center.  Researching Architecture increases
the hit points and dcreases the construction time of this building.  The
storage pit was the functional equivalent of the granary, but for meat
instead of grain.  Storing meat presented special problems because it
spoiled so quickly and easily.  Meat was generally stored by drying or
salting.  The Storage Pit also represents the tool- and weapon- making
skill of hunting societies, leading eventually to metalworking, making war,
and armor making.  In this capacity it also serves as a storehouse and
collection point for the raw materials of tool and weapon making: wood,
stone, and gold (representing all metals).

TEMPLE

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Temple lets you train Priests and research technologies that
increase their powers, including Polytheism, Mysticism, Astrology,
Monotheism, Afterlife, Jihad, and Fanaticism.  Researching Architecture
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this
building.  The temple was a religious center.  It was often the earthly
home or point of communication with a particular god or goddess.  Priests
or priestesses in the temple acted as the servants of the resident god or
goddess and managed contact to and from the people, plus instruction,
rituals, petitions, and answers to questions.  The most common form of
petition was the prayer.  Another was the provision of gifts that supported
the temple and its servants.  A less common petition was the sacrifice of
animals or even humans.  The general belief of the time  was that the more
elaborate a temple, the taller it was, and the more grand, the more disposed
the god or goddess would be to provide good weather, rainfall, and crop
yields, while keeping away pests, disease, and human invaders.

TOWN CENTER

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must already have a Town Center, and you must have built
the Granary, Market, and Government Center.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 600
Note:  The Town Center lets you create villagers and advance to the next
Age.  It is also where villagers can deposit food, wood, gold, and stone.
The Town Center supports four villagers, military units, or boats.  Priests
cannot convert Town Centers.  After you build a Government Center, you can
build additional Town Centers to expand your civilization's dominance and
build Town Centers closer to distant resources.  You can also replace your
Town Center if it is destroyed in combat.  Researching Architecture
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this
building.  Allvillages and towns had an administrative center that was the
site of governmental power and leadership.  In the earliest villages this
might have been the leader's home.  Later it might have been the king's
palace.  The center was often the place where important supplies, especially
food surpluses, were stored.  Vessels for storing grain and oil were found
in the ruins of the Palace at Knossos of Crete.  Some of the earliest
accounting records yet found were clay tablets left in long- forgotten
storerooms in ancient Sumeria and in Hittite cities.  The destruction of the
 town center usually meant the destruction of the town's governmental
infrastructure.

WATCH TOWER

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched
Watch Tower.
Research Cost: 50 Food
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit points: 100
Attack: 3
Armor: -
Range: 5
Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
Research at: Granary
Note: The Watch Tower is the weakest of the towers.  Upgrades include the
Sentry Tower, Guard Tower, and Ballista Tower.  Towers are defensive
structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within
range.  Researching Architecture increases hit points and decreases the
construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.
Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship
increase range.  The Watch Tower was a simple tower, easily built, and
intended mainly to give early warning.

WONDER

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: Advance to the Iron Age
Cost: 1000 Wood, 1000 Stone, 1000 Gold
Hit points: 500
Note: Building a Wonder can be a victory condition that wins the game or it
can provide score points.  You can build more than one Wonder.  Researching
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time
of this building.  A Wonder is a massive structure, a crowning achievement
of technology, resources, and construction time for civilizations that build
one.  Examples of historic ancient wonders are the Egyptian Pyramid, the
Great Wall of China, and the Athenian Acropolis.  You must advance to the
Iron Age before you can build a Wonder.  Priests cannot convert a Wonder.

=====================================
XXI. The Units
=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================
XXII. Extra Stuff
=====================================

_Cheats_

To enter the following cheats, you must press [Enter] anytime during
gameplay.  Next, type the letters to the left, and press [Enter].

BIG BERTHA- Turns Heavy Catapults into Big Berthas

BIGDADDY- A black sports car with a rocket launcher

BLACK RIDER- Turns Horse Archers into Black Riders

COINAGE- 1000 gold bonus

DARK RAIN- Turns a Bowman into a Composite Bowman which turns into a tree
when not moving

DIEDIEDIE- All enemy units die

E=MC2 TROOPER- Creates a guy in a white suit with a slow- firing nuke gun

HARI KARI- You lose the game

HOMERUN- You win the game

HOYOHOYO- Priests are faster and stronger

ICBM- Your Ballistas and Helepolis have a 99+1 range, if I remember correctly

JACK BE NIMBLE- Your catapults and stone throwers fire villagers, cows, etc.

KILLX- Kill player X

NO FOG- Removes the fog of war

PEPPERONI PIZZA- 1000 food bonus

PHOTON MAN- Create a guy in a white suit with a quick- fire laser gun

QUARRY- 1000 stone bonus

RESIGN- You resign

REVEAL MAP- Reveals the map

STEROIDS- Buildings and units are created instantly

WOODSTOCK- 1000 wood bonus


=====================================
XXIII. Credits
=====================================

- Microsoft
- Ensemble
- GameFaqs and CJayC-- http://www.gamefaqs.com
- Scott Ong
- vgstrategies.about.com
- Cheat Code Central--http://www.cheatcc.com

=====================================
XXIV. Farewell!
=====================================

I hope you enjoyed the guide.  If not, I got two words for 'ya, S*CK IT!!
This guide is Copyright 1999 Jim Chamberlin.  You can't copyright facts,
only style. If you would like me to include something else in the guide,
then e- mail me at the address at the beginning of the guide.  Make sure
you just didn't overlook it and missed it.  Also there will also be a guide
for each of the groups, which will have information about which technologies
they have and which ones they lack.  These won't appear for awhile, since
I'm extremely busy right now.  If you would like to add anything, let me
know.  This guide hasn't been proofread so there are mistakes in there, so
let me know if you find any.  If you wish to post this to your site, ask me
first.

                                                                ///,        ////
                                                                \  /,      /  >.
                                                                 \  /,   _/  /.
                                       - (C)Red Phoenix           \_  /_/   /.
    _____               _____                                      \__/_   <
   /  __ \__________   /  __ \___ _  _____  _________ _  ____  __  /<<< \_\_
  /  / / /  ___/ __ \ /  / / /  // \/  __ \/  ___/   Y \/__/ \/ / /,)^>>_._ \
 /  /_/ /  _/_/ /_/ //  /_/ /  _~  /  /_/ /  _/_/  \   /  />   <  (/   \\ /\\\
/__/ \  >____/_____//  ____/__//__/\_____/_____/__//__/\_//__/\_\      // ````
======\/============\_/========[red_phoenix_1@hotmail.com]============((`=======

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