CHAPTER 1 : Installation Instructions
Combat Air Patrol requires approximately 17 Megabytes of hard drive space for
installation. It cannot be played directly from the floppy disks. To install
Combat Air Patrol onto your hard drive, follow the instructions below:
1. Insert disk one into the floppy drive.
2. Log onto the drive by typing A: (or B: if the disk is in the B drive)
followed by enter from the DOS prompt.
3. Type INSTALL CAP.
The program will prompt you for a destination directory. Your system setup will
then be checked for compatability with CAP and any changes required will be
displayed. On completion, the game will then install to your selected directory.
To run the game, change to the drive and directory containing CAP and type CAP
followed by ENTER. Please note that due to the amounts of data that CAP
requires, the game may take up to two minutes to load on certain machines.
SETTING UP YOUR SOUNDCARD :
To set up your soundcard for use with Combat Air Patrol (CAP), follow the
CAP can be run with certain command line parameters. One of these parameters
refers to which soundcard you wish to use. The first time you run the game, you
will need to run with the parameter for your particular soundcard, however,
subsequent games will
not require this as the information is stored on your hard disk.
To set up your soundcard for a SoundBlaster v2 card, use CAP -a 1
To set up for a Gravis Ultrasound card, use CAP -a 2
For a SoundBlaster AWE32, use CAP -a 3
For no sound, use CAP -a 4
After using these commands for the first time, you will only require to use them
again should you change your soundcard.
OTHER COMMAND LINE PARAMETERS :
Other options available from the command line can be found by typing RUN -?
Possible problems :
Some users find problems when installing programs to compressed drives. This is
due to the fact that as the drive is compressed, the actual amount of free disk
space can vary with the amount that DOS calculates. If you do have a problem
and DOS informs you that you have over 17 Megabytes of free space either free
up some extra space or install to an uncompressed drive.
When compiling a boot disk via the install program, certain mouse drivers cannot
be successfully found. If this happens on your machine, simply EDIT the
AUTOEXEC.BAT file on your boot disk and insert the command C:\MOUSE\MOUSE.COM
(or whatever command in
stalls your mouse driver in your C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT file) before the C: line in the
file. Save this file and your boot disk should now work.
CHAPTER 2 : Introduction
To the majority of us, Operation Desert Storm was seen as a victory. It was the
culmination of months of unwarranted aggression on the part of one country over
another, more peaceful nation. As such, the outcome was regarded with both joy
But whatever the political reasoning behind the invasion of Kuwait - by either
side - to the front line troops involved, it was a situation they had all been
trained for and were ready to accept. Unlike other occupations, the only time
the soldier gets t
o do his job is during warfare. For many of them, this was a rare opportunity
and, as far as they were concerned, this was their job and they were out to do
The conflict in the Gulf was unique in many respects. It came at a period when
all the main coalition powers involved, were cutting back on military spending
and rationalising defence forces. It also gave the commanders of the armed
forces and weapons de
velopers a unique opportunity to test modern weapons under battle conditions.
Never before had the weapons been so technologically advanced and reliant on
electronics. Years of development had equipped the allied forces with a huge and
terrifying array o
f both defence and attack mechanisms including sophisticated scrambling systems
designed to confuse enemy intelligence and communications, in addition to laser
guidance systems for missiles. The Gulf War was to be a test for them all - both
ware and personnel alike - and was to prove the skill and determination of all
involved to the full.
CHAPTER 3 : Chronicle of the War
In 1961, when the British Government formally granted independence to the
Sheikdom of Kuwait, the seeds of conflict in the oil rich region of the Persian
Gulf were planted. The Iraqi government never recognized this new state and laid
claims to many part
s of the new territory as its own over the next three decades.
At the end of the 1980's, as the bloody war with Iran finally ended, the cost of
the battle was calculated. Urgent urban reconstruction within Iraq was required,
however, the Iraqi's believed that Kuwait was using the oil within the Rumaila
oil field (pa
rt of the territory that Iraq believed was their own), to force down the world
price of oil - an action in direct opposition to Saddam Hussein's tactic of
increasing the world price. With this in mind, the Iraqi government decided that
action was neccess
ary, as they felt that they were in a strong enough position militarily, to push
forward and claim the Kuwaiti territory they believed was rightfully their own.
Their military readiness was combined with a diplomatic offensive by the Iraqi
ry towards both Kuwait and other small Middle Eastern states. The date is now
16th July 1990.
One week later, on the 23rd July 1990, diplomatic talks between the middle east
nations had failed to reach a compromise. Saudi Arabia, having a border with
Iraq and fearing the worst, placed its armed forces on alert.
The 26th July saw OPEC agree on production and export quotas for all of its
members. However, these prices were below the Iraqi demands. A day later, OPEC,
under intense pressure from Iraq, raised the price of oil to $21 per barrel. The
patience with Ira
q was running out as the US Senate voted to end all farm credits to Iraq in
addition to prohibiting the transfer of military technology formally.
By the 31st of July, all intelligence sources in the West pointed to the fact
that there were a large number of Iraqi forces assembling close to the Kuwaiti
border. It was however, believed at the time to be a visible threat and a show
of force in order
for Iraq to persuade the Kuwaiti government to agree to their demands.
The diplomatic conflict was heightened when Iraqi representatives walked out of
talks on the 1st August 1990, as the Kuwaiti Government turned down Iraqi claims
to the islands of Bubiyan and Warba, both at the northern extreme of the Persian
Gulf, in add
ition to a refusal to write off the $5.5 billion of debts that Iraq owed due to
the war with Iran.
Iraq decided to move.
At 2:00am on August 2nd 1990, the sleepy silence of Kuwait was shattered by the
sounds of Iraqi troops crossing the Kuwaiti border. The state was seized in
under a day despite the attempt by brave, isolated pockets of Kuwaiti troops to
halt the invasion
. The Iraqi troops were supplemented by special forces whose mission was to take
the Emir's palace in Kuwait City. As the Kuwaiti ground forces struggled in vain
to defend the palace, the Emir of Kuwait, Sheikh Jaber Ahmed al-Sabah managed to
flee to nei
ghbouring Saudi Arabia. Kuwait however, was by now, in Iraqi control.
As the news spread to the rest of the world, action was decided upon. The United
Nations Security Council called an emergency session and passed Resolution 660,
condemning the invasion and demanding an immediate and unconditional withdrawal
of Iraqi forc
es from Kuwait. The US government acted by freezing the assets of both Iraq and
Kuwait and prohibiting trade between the two countries.
Days passed until the 6th August when Operation Desert Shield, a movement of
military forces to the area was implemented by the US President, George Bush,
after an appeal by the King Fahd of Saudi Arabia for foreign governments to send
troops to his coun
try. Operation Desert Shield turned out to be the largest ever military airlift
ever seen. Meanwhile, in Kuwait, Iraqi troops began to round up citizens of
Western states and an announcement from Saddam Hussein stated that the
occupation of Kuwait was 'i
rreversible'. Finally, another resolution from the UN Security Council,
Resolution 661, placed trade sanctions between Iraq, Kuwait and the remainder of
After nearly 5 months of diplomatic argument and stalemate, coupled with a huge
amassing of allied forces in and around the Persian Gulf, Iraq stood firm. On
29th November 1990, Resolution 678 was passed by the Security Council giving
Iraq a deadline of
January 15th 1991 to withdraw from Kuwait. The resolution gave its member states
full authorization to use 'all necessary means' against Iraq after the passing
of the deadline. War was, by now, becoming a very real threat.
One month later, on the 28th December, the USS Theodore Roosevelt left to
supplement the forces now on standby in the Gulf. There were only 18 days left.
As the 15th January 1991 arrived and passed without any military action, the
world began to believe that the deadline was only a hollow threat and that the
coalition forces were only attempting to frighten the Iraqi government into a
U-turn. In fact, thi
s belief had been stated by Saddam Hussein from the beginning. They would soon
find out how wrong they were.
At midnight on Thursday 17th January 1991, Operation Desert Storm commenced.....
CHAPTER 4 : ALLIED FORCES
Grumman F-14 Tomcat
Type: Two-seat carrier-based multi-role fighter.
Weights: Empty 40,104 lb
Loaded 58,715 lb
Maximum 74,349 lb
Maximum Speed: Sea Level 1.2 Mach (910 mph)
At height 2.34 Mach (1,564 mph)
Climb rate: 30,000 ft/min
Service ceiling: 56,000 ft
Range: 2,000 miles with external fuel tanks
One 20mm M61A-1 gun with 675 rounds of ammunition.
Fuselage pallets for four AIM-54 Phoenix AAMs.
Wing pylons used for either two Phoenix, or two Sparrow (AIM-7), or four
The F-14 is also capable of carrying the TARPS reconnaissance pod.
The F-14 is equipped with the AWG-9 radar system which is enhanced with a TWS
(track while scanning) system. This allows the F-14 to detect, select and track
more than 20 air targets, pick out the six most threatening and launch six
Pheonix missiles at a
range of over 100 miles!
McDonnell Douglas/Northrop F/A-18 Hornet
Type: Single-seat carrier based multi-role fighter.
Weight: Empty 23,050 lb
Loaded 49,224 lb
Maximum 50,064 lb
Maximum Speed: Sea Level Subsonic
At Altitude 1.8 Mach (1190mph)
Service Ceiling: 49,000 ft
Range: 461 miles
One 20mm M61A-1 gun with 570 rounds
Wing tip mounts allow 2 AIM-9 missiles to be carried.
Four weapon pylons allow the following air to ground weapons to
AGME-84 Slam, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-62 Walleye, Lau-97 rocket
pod, MK82 low drag
bomb, MK83 low drag bomb, MK84 low drag bomb, MK82 High drag
bomb, MK83 laser
guided bomb and MK84 laser guided bomb.
The Hornet can also carry the AGMA-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile
and the AGM-88
HARM anti-radar missile.
Boeing C-135 Stratotanker
Type: In flight tanker
Weight: Empty 109,000 lb
Loaded 297,000 lb
Maximum Speed: 600 mph
Maximum Ceiling: 40,000 ft
Tansferable Fuel Capacity: 118,000 litres.
The Stratotanker has been in serivce for over 30 years with over 700 in service
in various types.
U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt CVN-71
Type: Nuclear powered aircraft carrier
Displacement: Light 72,798 tons
Loaded 91,487 tons
Maximum Speed: 30 Knots
Weapons: 4 * 20mm Phalanx
3 Sea Sparrow point defense missile systems
Aircraft Complement: 24 F-14 Tomcat
24 F-18 Hornet
14 A-6 Intruder
5 E-2C Hawkeye
5 A-6B Prowler
Complement: 3,000 plus 2,800 air wing
One of the most powerful warships ever built. The Roosevelt is the ship your
Carrier Air Wing is
Type: Guided missile cruiser
Displacement: 9,600 tons full load
Maximum Speed: 30 knots
Weapons: SSMs 8 Harpoon
SAM 2 Twin Mk 26 launchers with 68 SM-2
2 Mk 41 launchers for 122 SM-2 /Asroc ASW / Tomahawk
Guns 2 single 5in turrets
2 Phalanx 20mm
2 40mm (saluting)
Torpedo tubes 2 * 3 Mk32 21in
The Ticonderoga class uses the Aegis Combat System which is used to evaluate air
saturation missile attacks. This system allows 22 missiles to be controlled to
Oliver Hazard Perry Class
Displacement: 2,750 tons light load
3,605 tons full load
Maximum Speed: 29 knots
Weapons: Missiles: 1 Mk 13 luancher for Harpoon (4 missiles
and SAM SM-1 missiles (36 carried)
Guns: 1 3in turret
1 20mm Phalanx
Torpedo tubes: 2 * 3 Mk32
Designed at patrol ships, the Perry class are intended to act in a supporting
role for the
expensive specalized ASW and AAW ships.
Displacement: 45,000 tons standard
58,000 tons full load
Maximum Speed: 30 knots
Weapons: Missiles: 8 quad Mk43 Tomahawk missile luanchers
4 quad Harpoon missile launchers
Guns: 9 16in in three triple turrets
20 5in in ten twin turrets
4 20mm phalanx
The last battleships still in active service. Two of the four saw action during
the Gulf War. The
reactivation of these ships was achieved at a cost per ship less than that of a
new Perry class
frigate! These ships are capable of firing a broadside of 9 16in shells upto 24
miles making them
a weapon to be feared.
Displacement: 5,770 tons light load
7,810 tons full load
Maximum Speed: 33 knots
Weapons: Missiles 2 quad Harpoon launchers
1 eirght tube Asroc launcher with 24 missiles
1 Sea Sparrow SAM launcher
Guns 2 5in turrets
2 20mm Phalanx
Torpedo tubes 2 * 3 Mk 32
The Spruance class is primarily a ASW platform. This class has a formidable
sonar array for
finding targets for the Asroc missiles.
CHAPTER 5 :The Iraqi Forces
Mig 21 "fishbed-C"
Type: Single-seat fighter.
Performance: Maximum Speed 2 Mach (2,125 km/h)
Initial Climb: 25,900 ft / min
Service ceiling: 59,050 ft
Combat Radius: 220 km
Although the MIG 21 is old it is still a capable fighter. It is small,
incredibly tough and reliable.
Mig 23 "Flogger"
Type: Single seat all-weather interceptor.
Performance: Maximum Speed 1.1 Mach (1,350 km/h) at sea level
2.25 Mach (2,500 km/h) at altitude
Initial Climb: Unknown
Service Ceiling: 55,000 ft
Combat Radius: 930 km
The MIG 23 is a formidable opponent in air-to-air combat. Although it is much
larger than the MIG
21 its variable geometry wings and powerful engines make it equally as agile,
yet it carries a
much greater payload of missiles.
MIG 25 "Foxbat"
Type: All-weather long-range interceptor
Performance: Maximum Speed 2.82 Mach (3,010 km/h) at altitude
Initial Climb: 41,000 ft / min
Service Ceiling: 73,000 ft
Range: 300 km
The MIG 25 is a very powerful interceptor. It is solidly built and is capable of
speeds although the downside of this is that it has poor manoeuvrability.
MIG 29 "Fulcrum"
Type: Single seat fighter
Performance: Maximum Speed 1.1 Mach (1,350 km/h) at sea level
2.3 Mach (2,450 km/h) at altitude
Initial Climb: Unknown
Service Ceiling: Unknown
Range: 650 km
The MIG 29 is the Iraqi's newest combat aircraft it is agile powerful and
carries a comprehensive
range of electronic equipment and missiles, it poses the greatest threat to
Type: Single seat interceptor or tactical strike
Performance: Maximum Speed 1.14 Mach (1390 km/h) at sea level
2.2 Mach (2350 km/h) at altitude
Initial Climb: 16,400 ft / min
Service Ceiling: 55,775 ft
Range: 1200 km
Primarily a light interceptor the Mirage has been used by many Middle Eastern
due to its low cost, high speed and reliability.
Type: All weather attack
Performance: Maximum Speed 1.5 Mach (1,600 km/h) fully loaded
Initial Climb: Unknown
Service Ceiling: 57,400 ft
Range: 322 km
The Su 24 is an air-to-ground attack plane it has a wide and varied payload and
laser and infra red guidance systems. It poses a great threat to coalition
Su 25 "Frogfoot"
Type: All Weather attack
Performance: Maximum Speed 915 km/h at sea level
880 km/h fully loaded
Initial Climb: Unknown
Service Ceiling: Unknown
Range: 565 km
The Su 25 is an air-to-ground attack plane, it is slow yet incredibly agile. It
can carry a large amount of external stores and deliver them fairly accurately.
CHAPTER 6 : Flight Options
The carrier screen displaying the USS Roosevelt CVN-71, is where the main game
options are decided. By moving the cursor around the screen using either the
mouse, joystick or numeric keypad, options become available. As the cursor
passes over a certain p
oint in the screen, it will change into text stating the option available. To
select this option, press either the mouse button, the fire button or the ENTER
To exit Combat Air Patrol and return to DOS, move the cursor to the top left of
By moving the cursor to the F-18 at the front left hand side of the carrier, you
can select the single mission option. This option will take you to the single
mission monitor screen where you can select which type of mission to fly.
Various land and sea
based missions are available with numerous targets in addition to strikes on
other enemy aircraft. In order to fly a single mission, a valid pilot must be
selected (see pilot roster below), however, if a pilot is not selected, then you
will be taken to t
he pilot roster screen in order to select one. More detail on the single mission
game can be found in Chapter 7 - Single Mission.
The F-18 at the right of the island takes you into the training mode. This
option allows you to train and practice the many skills required to master CAP
and defeat the Iraqi forces. On selecting this option, various training options
This allows you to practice a takeoff from the carrier deck using the catapult.
This option will place you at 10000ft. Your next move is up to you!
To practice landing on the Roosevelt, choose this option.
FINAL APPROACH (NIGHT):
As above but in the dark at night!
On longer missions, knowing how to refuel is imperative. This option allows you
to train and learn how to refuel.
Once again, as above but at night.
All pilots need to have razor sharp skills in order to survive for a sustained
period of time. This option will allow you to practice air-to-air missile and
cannon strikes against other aircraft.
As above but at night.
Removing key strategic Iraqi ground installations and forces is an integral part
of winning the battle in the Gulf. This option allows you to practice and
experiment with the array of air-to-ground missiles available to you.
As above but, once again, at night.
Each of these training options can be selected by moving the cursor over the
option and pressing the mouse button. The option will then be highlighted. To
complete the choice, you must choose whether you wish to start the training
either on the flight de
ck or airborne. Click on the option at the bottom of the screen to complete your
choice and have fun!
If you select an option under the WEAPONS heading, you will be taken to the
hangar deck for arnament before actually taking to the air in order for you to
select your payload.
NOTE - Certain highlighted options will deactivate the FLIGHT DECK or AIRBORNE
options as obviously you cannot practice your catapult takeoff at 10,000 feet!
INSTANT ACTION :
On selecting the F-14 on the catapult, you will be taken into the instant action
game. This option will take you directly to 10,000 feet in an F-14 with enemy
planes in close proximity. Weapons will be automatically loaded onto your
aircraft so all you h
ave to do is start shooting!
CAMPAIGN GAME :
The full campaign game can be selected by selecting the island. The campaign
game gives you near total control over all factors involved in the conflict.
Remember that if a valid pilot has not been selected before you choose this
option, you will be take
n to the pilot roster for pilot selection. Detailed information about the
campaign game can be found in the chapter entitled - The Campaign.
PILOT ROSTER :
To view or change the pilot roster, select the crew in front of the island. This
option allows you to select a new pilot, starting your first mission as a Rookie
pilot, or to continue a saved game taking on the Veteran status.
The monitor displays a list of pilots along with their current status, rank and
squadron identity. VFA-9 is the call sign of the Roosevelt's F-18 squadron
whilst VF-14 is the F-14 callsign.
Abbreviations are used to signify the pilots status and are detailed as follows:
KIA - these are pilots that have been killed in action. These pilots can not be
resurrected and can play no further part in the game.
RET - these are pilots who have been retired from the force. Retirements are
primarily caused by injuries sustained during repeated ejections from an
aircraft. After repeated ejections, the force of impact when the pilot hits the
ground can cause compres
sion of the spine or other disorders which will make the pilot unfit to fly.
DISHON - these are pilots who have been dishonourably discharged from the force
due to malingering. Missing too many missions through sickness can cause you to
be dishonorably discharged. You are no good to the allies if you pick and choose
s you want to fly!!
MIA - these pilots are those who are missing in action. This is usually caused
when a pilot is shot down over enemy territory.
POW - these are prisoners of war who are held in detention camps until the end
of the conflict. Once again, this is usually after being shot down over enemy
The above statuses refer to those pilots who cannot take any further part in the
conflict. The active status of a pilot still available can either be ROOKIE or
VETERAN. This status is dependent upon the experience and mission history of the
At the bottom of the monitor screen are four options - SELECT, INFO, ERASE and
SAVE. To use these options, you must first select a pilot by moving the cursor
over their name and pressing the mouse button. The pilot should now be
highlighted. To choose an
other pilot, simply repeat the process to change the current pilot.
this will select the current pilot to continue a previous campaign if they are
of Veteran status. If a Rookie pilot is selected, single missions and training
missions will only be available.
NOTE - A pilot will become a veteran once entered into a campaign and all new
pilots start out as Rookies.
displays the pilot information and statistics. Rank, callsign, squadron details,
previous mission success rates are amongst other things recorded here.
this will remove the highlighted pilot from the roster and prompt you for a new
pilot. You will be asked for the pilot's name, callsign and the type of plane to
be flown from Fighter (F-14) or Attack (F-18),
this will save the current highlighted pilot and campaign position to disk. Note
that even though your camapign and pilot status are continually updated
throughout the duration of the operation, you are required to save your pilot if
you wish to leave Op
eration Desert Storm and continue at a later date.
NOTE - To leave the pilot roster screen simple press the right mouse button.
You must enter the pilot roster before entering into a campaign game,
single mission or a training session.
GAME CONFIGURATION :
If you wish to change any of the game options, the configuration option can be
found on the ships hull. By selecting this option, certain aspects of the game
can be changed by clicking the mouse button on the option in order to change it.
To exit this s
creen back to the carrier screen, press the right mouse button.
On selecting this option, the first thing asked will be whether you would like
to calibrate the joystick. If you wish to calibrate the joystick, respond with
'Y' else press 'N'.
JOYSTICK CALIBRATION :
CAP will support most analogue and digital joysticks including two button
versions. To calibrate the joystick, follow the on screen prompts. Note that
like the soundcard configuration, you only need to calibrate the joystick once
as CAP will remember the
settings. If however, you change your joystick, you will require to
re-calibrate the joystick.
MAX ENEMY AIRCRAFT:
This will allow you full control over how many enemy aircraft are in the air at
any one time.
This option allows you to turn off personal damage to yourself, therefore, being
As above but for your wingmen instead.
A normal aircraft has a maximum load of weapons it can carry. When these have
all been used you can't shoot anything. This option allows you to have an
infinite number of weapons!
Obviously, flying into a hill or other solid object can cause some serious
damage to your plane and person! This option allows you to fly through hills and
other solid objects without damage.
CAMPAIGN MISSION START:
This option allows you to choose where you wish to start your campaign missions.
The options are:
TARGET whereby you start in the air in close proximity to the target.
CARRIER which starts you off on the carrier deck.
RANDOM which gives you a random position to start from.
Allows you to change the depth of the 3D landscape. Three options LOW, MEDIUM,
and HIGH are available. If CAP runs slowly on your machine, we suggest you
change the view depth to a lower setting to acheive a good speed.
This option will allow you to fly all mission when ON, however, when set to OFF,
only daytime missions will be available.
Turns the clouds ON or OFF. For greater speed, select OFF.
For external views, this option allows you to have either a visible payload, or
an invisible payload for greater speed.
CHAPTER 7 : Armament
When you enter the hangar deck from either the OPS room (campaign game) or via
training mode or single mission game, you will see your aircraft awaiting its
The bottom half of the armament screen consists of four buttons along with the
complete stocks of weapons. Note that not all of the weapons will be available
as each aircraft carries differing ordinance. (Eg. an F-14 cannot carry A/G
The buttons to the left and right of the weapons are as follows :
DEFAULT - clicking on this option, loads your aircraft with the default payload
CLEAR - this option will clear all loaded weapons from your aircraft
DELETE - when this option is selected, the cursor will change to a spanner.
Clicking this spanner over any weapons currently loaded onto your aircraft will
remove them, thus leaving the pylons or fuselage free for other weapons
ADD - this option will allow you to add weapons onto the aircraft. After you
have selected this option, move the cursor to the weapon required in the bottom
half of the screen and click the mouse button. If the selected weapon is
available for the curren
t aircraft, the available pylons or mountings will be highlighted on the
aircraft. Choose which highlighted mounting you wish to place the weapon and,
still keeping the mouse button held, drag the weapon to the mounting and release
the mouse button. The
weapon should now be seen on the selected pylon. Continue this procedure until
you are satisfied with your choice. When you are satisfied with your choice,
selecting the COCKPIT option will take you to the aircraft cockpit.
<<< AT THIS POINT, THE DATA FOUND IN THE FILE WEAPONS.TXT SHOULD BE INSERTED IN
A TABLE FORMAT >>>
LABELLED 'WEAPONS - QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE'
Multi Purpose Weapons:
This multi-barreled 20mm cannon can be used both in air-to-air and air-to-ground
combat. The weapons is always carried by default by both the F-14 and the F-18
and therefore, there is no need to select this weapon from the hangar deck - it
will always be
there. The M-61A cannon, also known as the Vulcan Cannon, fires up to 100 high
velocity rounds per second through six barrels. The aircraft itself, carries an
advanced targeting system which calculates the distance, heading and velocity of
the target, a
nd aims the cannon according to these instructions, ahead of the target. In
effect, this means that the cannon is not necessarily aimed directly at the
target but ahead of it, allowing for the movement of the target aircraft in the
period between firing
To fire the M-61A, make sure that the HUD display shows the GUN discrete in the
bottom left corner. Note that next to the GUN, you will find how many rounds are
remaining. A circular aiming discrete will appear on the HUD and a square target
box will sur
round any targets viewed through the HUD. Align the target box with the aiming
discrete and a SHOOT message will appear below the HUD when the cannon is on
AIM-54 PHOENIX -
This air-to-air missile is carried by the F-14 only. It is a long range, fire
and forget radar homing air-to-air missile costing over half a million dollars
each! At just over 4m in length, these missiles are by far, the most
sophisticated and costly A/A
missile in the world. This 985lb weapon has a speed of Mach 5 plus and an
operational range of 124 miles (200km). A feature of the Phoenix is the advanced
radar tracking capabilities is has for accurate target identification along with
a default attack
mode which assumes that the target is travelling head-on; a notoriously
difficult strike scenario. The Phoenix tracks the target long range, under
internal guidance. switching to radar to illuminate the target when within a
AIM-7 SPARROW -
Carried by both the F-14 and the F-18, this air-to-air strike weapon is a medium
range weapon with a speed of about Mach 4 and a range of 28 miles. Powered by a
solid motor, the Sparrow features an advanced radar guidance system (SARH - semi
homing), in which the firing aircraft bounces a radar beam off the target which
acts as a path for the missile. In effect, this means that the launch plane must
be travelling towards the target to illuminate it and that continuous tracking
of the target
must be maintained up until impact.
AIM-9 SIDEWINDER -
The mainstay close combat heat seeking missile, the Sidewinder, is cabable of
being carried by both the featured aircraft, the F-14 and the F-18. Equipped
with highly sensitive Infra Red (IR) seeking equipment, the missile can home in
on any IR source em
itted by an enemy aircraft. Primarily used in short range combat situations, the
Sidewinder has an operational range of about 11 miles coupled to a speed of Mach
2.5. One major drawback of the Sidewinder is that it is especially vulnerable to
To fire these air-to-air weapons, it must be remembered that missile selection
is imperative if a high kill ratio is to be acheived. The range indicator is a
vital tool in acheiving this and must be used.
With the HUD in A/A mode, the appropriate missile can be selected with the ENTER
key. As the weapons toggle through, the discrete in the bottom left of the HUD
will change to indicate which weapon is selected. When the MFD indicates an
enemy presence, ch
oose the missile following the range guidelines remembering, however, that due
to the nature of air combat which is played out at high speed in 3 dimensions,
there are an infinitely variable number of strike possibilities. In effect, and
this manual may give you, must be modified with regard to any individual strike
With a sidewinder selected, a large circular discrete will appear on the HUD. If
a target is locked-on to within this zone, then there is a high strike
probability. Pressing the (T) key will command the missile and aircraft systems
to search for a target
and lock on. If a target is found and locked-on to by the aircraft radar
systems, a square box will surround it. The missile borne target detection
systems will then follow this with a diamond shaped discrete which, when it
reaches the square discrete,
will indicate a lock. If the target is in range for the missile selected, the
cockpit will display a SHOOT message signifying the pilot to fire their
The above instructions are identical for all A/A missiles although, with the
Sparrow missile, the SARH system requires that the launch aircraft continues in
the direction of the target until a strike is acheived. The Phoenix and
Sidewinder missiles howev
er, can be left to strike under their own internal guidance systems.
Air-to ground weapons:
The following A/G weapons can only be loaded onto the F-18.
AGM-88A HARM -
The HARM (High speed anti radiation missile), answered the military need for a
missile that could detect and lock onto enemy radar radiation and destroy the
source, preferably before the unit could be turned off. If the unit is turned
off however, the HA
RM will continue its strike path, invariably hitting the target with accuracy.
To fire the HARM missile, select it in the A/G HUD mode. The missile will then
detect any ground based radiation source using the receiver in the HARM nose
cone. Any sources found, can be locked onto using the (T) key and fired with the
AGM-84A HARPOON -
The Harpoon is primarily an anti-ship missile. With a range of over 57 miles,
the Harpoon, once launched, skims the surface of the sea therefore evading radar
detection. Only seconds before striking the vessel, does the missile break into
the radar detec
tion zone. In the final attack phase, the Harpoon suddenly pulls up to strike
the target from above, thus hitting the vessel in its most vulnerable and
To fire the Harpoon, lock onto the target with the (T) key and fire with the
AGM-84e SLAM -
The stand-off land attack missile (SLAM), is a variant on the Harpoon, used for
land based targets. Replacing the radar homing guidance system of the Harpoon,
the SLAM is fitted with the Maverick IR seeker and the Walleye TV guidance
system which, combin
ed with a modified warhead suitable for the penetration of fortified targets,
makes the SLAM a powerful A/G missile.
To fire the SLAM missile, move into the vicinity of the target and select the
SLAM missile. Using f10 to access the missile camera, press SPACE to launch the
missile. The missile will then travel in the general direction, however, a
second press of the S
PACE key will allow manual guidance of the missile using the cursor keys. Manual
control should only be used when the target is in visual contact, as the
internal guidance systems of the missile have a much higher degree of accuracy
over long distances t
han a pilot could hope to acheive. Remember to ensure that the aircraft is in
level flight before switching to the missile view.
AGM-65 MAVERICK -
The Maverick is an air-to-surface surface missile that fills an important gap in
the attack capabilites of a large number of aircraft and was designed for just
that - to be a compact missile designed for carriage by several aircraft. The
possessed a TV guidance system although later missiles are fitted with an IR
imaging system which allowed greater accuracy, even at night.
To fire the Maverick missile, select the appropriate missile and enter the
missile view by pressing f10. A crosshair sight will appear in the centre of the
screen. Carefully manoeuvre the aircraft so that the crosshair is over the
target. Note that you a
re not moving the crosshair but the aircraft itself to attain a lock. When this
is attained, press the SPACE key to command the missile to search the selected
area for a valid target. The Maverick will then scan the area selected and lock
onto any possib
le targets. Press SPACE to fire the missile.
AGM-62 WALLEYE -
The Walleye has been described as 'the most accurate and effective
air-to-surface conventional weapon ever developed anywhere' bu the US military.
Despite being an unpowered glide bomb, this weapon has a TV guidance system
which offers target identificat
ion and the facility to guide the bomb towards the target.
For maximum accuracy and effectiveness, this bomb should be released at medium
to high altitudes. The missile TV camera can be accessed by the f10 view. After
pressing SPACE to release the bomb, it can then be guided towards the target
using the same con
trols used for the aircraft (ie cursor keys, joystick or mouse). Remember
however, to leave the plane in level flight before switching to missile control.
LAU-97 ZUNI -
The Zuni rockets are mutiple fire, non guided rockets and are fired from wing
mounted launchers. These weapons are especially effective against soft skinned
targets such as supply columns and infantry units.
To fire the Zuni rockets, select the weapon and line up the target with the HUD
crosshair before firing.
This family of freefall bombs fulfil a vital tactical role in the arsenal of any
strike aircraft. Essentially a traditional freefall bomb, the range includes low
drag (LD) and high drag (HD) varieties. The low drag bomb allows the attacking
aircraft to r
elease the bomb some distance away from the target - the bomb then continues the
trajectory of the attck towards the target. The high drag variety however,
possesses a mechanism which scoops the air as the bomb descends, therefore
slowing the drop rate o
f the bomb. This ensures that the bomb falls vertically into the target and
allows the pilot to fly straight over the target to release the bomb. It also
allows the pilot to clear the target before the bomb detonates.
To fire the bombs in level flight, align the central crosshair on the HUD
display with the target. Next, lock onto the target by pressing the SPACE key.
If the lock-on box is not aligned with the target, release locking by pressing
(X) and then relock. A
s you close in on the target, a vertical line is drawn on the HUD which allows
you to keep on course for the target. If the line deviates from the centre of
the display, compensate your course in the direction of the deviation until the
line is re-centre
d. When the top of the line hits the centre of the screen, the bombs should be
If a bombing run is initiated from a dive (dive bombing), the pilot must dive
towards the target after gaining sufficient attack altitide and a circular CCIP
symbol (continuously computed impact point) will be displayed on the HUD showing
the point of im
pact if the bombs were to be released at that moment. Once the CCIP is over the
PAVEWAY MK-83/MK-84 LGB's -
Another variation of the above bomb family employing a laser guidance unit to
accurately guide the bombs to their target. For LGB's to be carried, the
aircraft must also carry the ASQ-173 laser guidance system.
To fire the LGB's, select the weapon and using the f10 camera view, lock onto
the target with the (T) key and fire to release the bomb. If the bomb is
released with enough altitude and the plane was flying over the target, then the
bomb should hit if rel
eased within range. Typical release altitudes are between 15,000ft and 20,000ft
so that the attack aircraft is above AAA fire.
ASQ-173 LASER TRACKER -
This piece of equpiment is essential if the aircraft is to use Paveway LGB's. It
is mounted under the aircraft and offers electronic imaging of the terrain
immediately surrounding the aircraft, from which the target may be selected.
Chaff is carried by fighter aircraft as a defence against radar-guided missiles.
When the aircraft detects a radar lock by an approaching missile, clouds of
metal strips are released to fool the missile into thinking that the loud is a
target - thus the
missile destroys the chaff. Chaff is automatically loaded onto your aircraft and
can be released by using the DELETE key.
Like chaff, flares are used to decoy any infra-red missiles approaching the
aircraft. The flares burn with an increased intensity to that of the aircraft
engines thus, hopefully, attracting the attentions of any missiles. After a
flare release, evasive a
ction must be taken to distance the aircraft from the flare. Flares are
automatically loaded onto the aircraft and can be released with the INSERT key.
Hints on weapon use :
Remember that (T) is to lock and (X) will break a target lock
When in the electronic camera view (f10), use your zoom keys for greater clarity
Always ensure that your aircraft is in level flight before switching to camera
CHAPTER 8 - Iraqi targets and threats
This chapter concentrates on the Iraqi targets you may be asked to strike along
with the threats that the Iraqi military can present.
<<<< NOTE THAT FOR ALL OF THESE TARGETS, NO TEXT IS GIVEN - SCREENSHOTS FOR EACH
OF THE TARGETS SHOULD <<<<
<<<< BE PLACED NEXT TO THE TARGT LABEL
SPANNING BRIDGE -
POWER PLANT -
GUARD POST -
OIL RIG -
OIL WELL -
RADIO MAST -
SCUD MISSILE SITE -
OIL TANKS -
AAA INSTALLATION (Small) -
AAA INSTALLATION (Large) -
TRANSMITTING STATION -
SAM SITE -
<2 screenshots here for differing types>
OIL DEPOT -
FILTRATE BEDS -
LOAD PLATFORM -
IRAQI INFANTRY -
IRAQI MECHANISED INFANTRY -
IRAQI ARMOURED VEHICLES -
IRAQI ARTILLERY -
IRAQI SUPPLY VEHICLES -
IRAQI NAVAL FORCES -
RADAR SITE -
SA-6 GAINFUL SAM -
With a 170lb warhead and a range of between 2 and 17 1/2 miles, these missiles,
fitted with a radar proximity fuse, can reach speeds of Mach 2.5
SA-4 GANEF SAM -
These missiles have an operational range of between 5 and 45 miles. Carrying a
297lb warhead fitted with a proximity fuse, they can reach speeds of up to Mach
ZSU-23-4 AAA -
These installations have four 23mm, radar guided cannons with a maximum range of
ZSU-57-2 AAA -
These installations have two 57mm, optically guided cannons with a maximum range
of 3 1/2 miles.
RUSSIAN OSA II -
These fast attack boats are capable of a speed of up to 40 knots. With an
armament of four anti-shipping subsonic SS-N-2 style missiles with a range of 25
nautical miles, these gunboats can cause a lot of swift damage to any free
shipping. The SS-N-2 typ
e missiles can either be radar or IR guided.
In addition to the OSA II gunboats, intelligence reports that the Iraqi forces
have captured six Kuwaiti fast attack boats, all armed with six Exocet missiles.
Keep a look out for them.
The Iraqi's also have many other light and heavy AAA sites within most towns and
CHAPTER 9 : Single mission
The single mission option allows you to choose an individual sortie against a
single selected target. Both air and ground targets are available, however, your
role in the mission will depend on the mission itself and the squadron of the
pilot selected. A
ir to air combat can be undertaken with either aircraft but if a ground target
is selected with an F-14, you will escort the attack aircraft into the target.
You may select a mission from the following list of targets :
FLEET BARCAP :
Enemy aircraft are approaching the naval fleet. Intercept aircraft need to be
scrambled in order to stop them. This is an ideal scenario for the F-14 although
an F-18 armed with Sidewinders or Sparrows are mighty adversaries.
BRIDGE BUSTING :
Bridges provide a vital artery of communication and transport for the enemy.
Removal of bridges was a primary objective during the initial phases of
Operation Desert Storm and will assist the allies greatly, further into the
TRAIN BUSTING :
Railways, like bridges, are a vital supply line for the Iraqi military.
Destruction of trains will severely affect the Iraqi war machine and will assist
CONVOY STRAFFE :
The movement of large convoys of armoured vehicles or troops across both Iraq
and Kuwait make important strike targets for allied pilots. As a note, strafe
refers to the use of heavy cannon fire against a target.
RUNWAY STRAFFE :
Perhaps the most overriding objective of the early stages of the campaign is to
gain air supremacy. An obvious way to acheive this is to knock out the runways,
thus not allowing aircraft to mobilise.
AIRCRAFT SHELTERS :
Unfortunately, airstrips can be repaired relatively easily, however, aircraft
and other precision equipment cannot. Take out the shelters and bunkers close to
the airstrips as these house the aircraft and important flight equipment.
AAA SUPPRESSION :
Anti-aircraft artillery shells (AAA) are fitted with altitude and proximity
fuses. This essentially means that a direct hit is not required, for if the
shell passes close to an aircraft, it will detonate. Beware, the shrapnel can be
. The altitude fuse detonates the shell when it passes a certain altitude - the
altitude that the gun crew calculate to be your height! Be wary and ignore them
at your peril!
SAM SUPPRESSION :
Surface to air missiles (SAM) are major Iraqi threat to allied aircraft. Destroy
these installations to assist the allied forces in forthcoming missions.
SCUD STRIKE :
Scud missiles pose a huge threat to the stability of the Gulf region during the
conflict. These mobile, long range missiles are capable of carrying nuclear,
chemical or massive conventional warheads and are the most effective long-range
to the Iraqis. Sources indicate that Iraq may attempt to involve other Middle
Eastern states in the conflict by targeting strategic installations so far
uninvolved. This must be avoided at all costs - their destruction is imperative.
CONVY STRIKE (MARITIME) :
Warships and cargo vessels can take up a convoy formation to provide maximum
defensive capabilities. These targets combine enormous defensive firepower and
OIL RIG :
Notoriosly difficult to attack from the air, the function of oil rigs changed
during the conflict from the their normal operation to being strategically
important emplacements often housing enemy heavy artillery.
GUN BOATS :
Fast, well armed and very tiny, these targets provide perhaps the most testing
of air to ground scenarios.
IND STRIKE :
Heavy industrial sites are a prime target for allied airstrikes. Removal of
these sites will deal a major blow to the Iraqi threat. Intelligence reports
state that Iraq may possibly producing toxic chemicals at some of these sites
for use with chemical w
SURFACE THREAT :
A surface attack upon the fleet by either an enemy convoy or gun boat will be an
ever present threat to Operation Desert Storm. These attacks will possibly
comprise of a number of vessels with a variety of attack and defence mechanisms
and weapons, and w
ill require both courage and skill from the allied pilots to deal with
effectively. The fleet must be defended at all costs!
Once you have selected which mission you wish to fly, select whether you wish to
start on the flight desk of the Roosevelt or airborne in close proximity to the
NOTE - a valid pilot must be selected for single missions. If a pilot has not
been selected, you will automatically be taken to the pilot roster screen to
select one. In addition, remember that a VETERAN pilot will only fly in the
campaign and a ROOKIE w
ill only fly single missions and training missions.
CHAPTER 10 : The Campaign
The campaign game is where you can influence the outcome of the war with your
flying skills. Complete your missions successfully, and the conflict may come to
an end sooner rather that later, saving thousands of lives in the process.
When entering into a campaign, you must first select pilot from the pilot
roster screen. Remember that only VETERAN pilots may fly in the campaign. After
a valid pilot has been selected, you will be taken to the OPS room.
The OPS room is where you will be able to strategically decide the outcome of
the conflict. All of your decisions will be made here. Like the carrier screen,
there are various options available to you when in the OPS room.
By clicking on the either the projector or the projection screen, you will be
taken into the briefing screen.
At the top of the briefing screen you will see a series of buttons. These
buttons allow you to move through the pages of briefing text and also to start,
stop and pause the reconnaissance film. From left to right, these buttons are :
Move back one page
Pause recon film (note that to pause this feature, you must keep the button
Exit briefing screen
Play recon film
Forward one page
The reconnaissance film is a fly-by film of the target taken by a reconnaissance
aircraft. From viewing this film, you can see the target site, the surrounding
landscape and features and other small details to help you in deciding how to
The briefing will also give you all mission details including mission
requirements, threats, fuel status, radio-frequencies and strike force details.
These details are extremely important if your strike is to be successful with
WEATHER REPORT :
The weather report can be found by selecting the printer. You will be give an up
to the minute weather report indicating cloud cover and other useful flight
Once a mission has been selected, you may decide, for any of a number of
reasons, that you wish to sit out a particular sortie and let the battle
commence without you. To do this, selecting the first aid kit on top of the
filing cabinet will take you to
the medical officer where you can plead your case. Bear in mind however, that
any fighter pilot worth his salt is eager to do his job under any circumstances
and to sit a particular mission out, for whatever reason, is inconceivable! Also
remember that i
f you push your luck once too often, you may be dishonorably discharged for
SAVE GAME :
You may save your game by selecting the filing cabinet. The cabinet will open
giving you the opportunity to save your whole campaign. You are strongly advised
to save your game regularly.
The door on the right hand side of the OPS room allows you to enter the
Once in the corridor, four options are available. Firstly, by selecting the left
hand door, you can return to the OPS room. The right hand door takes you into
the Technical Attack Mission Planning System (TAMPS) room. From here you can set
your plans of
attack for your mission as well as your waypoints. More detailed information
regarding TAMPS can be found in a dedicated chapter further on in this manual.
The final two options available in the corridor both relate to starting the
mission. By going straight through the door ahead you have two options. Firstly,
you can begin the mission by going straight to the flight deck of the Roosevelt
t on the hangar deck or, you can visit the hangar deck and choose which weapons
you wish to use. The choice is entirely in your hands.
The litter bin below the projection screen is the exit option. This option
leaves the campaign game and returns you to the USS Roosevelt screen in order to
make another selection, change pilot etc.
CHAPTER 11 : Mission Planning - T.A.M.P.S
An important piece of equipment used for a mission planning is the Tactical
Aircraft Mission Planning System (TAMPS). This piece of equipment allows the
pilot a graphic display of the Gulf area and allows him to set any waypoint he
wishes for the forthco
ming mission. The map can be manipulated to give a near 'all angle' display
which includes the position of the Roosevelt, waypoints and flight path and also
an overview of the area. The display will also show known enemy threats such as
SAM and artillery
sites and airfields which will be encountered if the flight path is strictly
adhered to. Hint - one advantage of using the TAMPS is that the pilot can
slightly adjust his flight plan in order to avoid threats.
Looking at the TAMPS monitor, you will notice the target crosshair, the
Roosevelt (CVN-71) and the refueling plane (KC-101). These are the relative
positions of these objects. When you first enter the TAMPS screen, the target
and carrier waypoints will h
ave already been set. In addition, at the bottom of the monitor, there are
details refering to the current selected waypoint, its number, velocity and
To the right of the TAMPS monitor, there are a series of buttons that enable a
pilot to change and modify the TAMPS settings.
NEXT - these buttons, when clicked will select either the next or the previous
ALTITUDE - use these buttons to increase or decrease the waypoint altitude. The
waypoint altitude when actually flying the mission, tells the pilot and his
wingmen, at what altitude to fly. Setting the waypoint above 15,000ft will fly
above the anti-airc
raft artillery range.
VELOCITY - increasing velocity makes the aircraft more difficult to hit with AAA
fire at the expense of extra fuel consumption. To change the waypoint velocity,
use these buttons.
ZOOM - the TAMPS monitor allows you to zoom in and out of the screen in order to
see either a long range area of the landscape or a smaller, more detailed area.
To view any enemy installations around your flight path, zoom into the screen
and the enemy w
ill be displayed in red. Further zooming in, will see the enemy appear as icons,
therby facilitating easy identification.
INSERT - if the predetermined waypoints are not to yor satisfaction, or you wish
to alter your flight plan, you may require to insert more waypoints. This
button, when pressed, will insert a new waypoint between the current and the
previous waypoint. Onc
e this waypoint is inserted, it may be dragged around the TAMPS monitor to the
desired point by selecting it and moving whilst keeping the mouse button
DELETE - simply deletes the currently selected waypoint. Once a waypoint has
been deleted, the next and previous waypoints will be joined as the flight path.
A few notes on waypoints
A waypoint is a position towards which the aircraft will fly and is used to
guide the aircraft towards and away from the target. Once a waypoint is reached,
the aircraft should head towards the next waypoint. Waypoints are calculated to
steer the attacki
ng aircraft away from enemy threats and direct the aircraft to the target using
the safest and most direct course.
There are a number of waypoints that are immovable on the TAMPS. These are
detailed below :
INITIAL WAYPOINT - this is the position that all aircraft will head towards to
attain mission formation.
FORMUP WAYPOINT - this is the point at which your aircraft and your wingmen
group together before undertaking their mission.
ATTACK WAYPOINT - this is positioned directly over the mission target and is
used to guide the attacking aircraft on their bombing run.
LAND WAYPOINT - as the name suggests, this is the waypoint of the carrier and is
used to complete the mission and return to the carrier.
If you suspect that airborne refueling will be required, it is wise to move your
flight path close to the refueling tanker (KC-101).
CHAPTER 12 : Flight Control Systems
THE COCKPIT :
As you enter the cockpit, you will see the control and instrument panels. the
outside world through the cockpit windows and the HUD (head up display) upon
which some flight and all combat information is displayed.
The Control Panel :
Both theTomcat and the Hornet share a number of controls and instruments which
are essential for any aircraft. These instruments, such as altimeters and speed
indicators may however, be displayed in a slightly different manner, often using
a variation up
on a standard instrument. The cockpit displays illustrated, show precisely where
each piece of flight information is displayed for each aircraft.
FUEL - Indicates the amount of remaining fuel in fuel tanks (lbs)
RPM - Revs Per Minute. This shows how much power the engine is producing. The
higher the reading, the faster the aircraft is able to fly and the faster the
fuel is used up.
L ENGINE R - This allows manipulation of RPM on the F-18. A maximum of 100% is
available with an extra 63% using full afterburners on takeoff and in combat.
ANGLE OF ATTACK - Attack of the aircraft upon the atmosphere rather than in
combat. When an aircraft rises, the angle of attack of the wing surface upon the
surrounding air increases.
GEAR - Raises or lowers undercarriage - required for takeoff and landing.
HOOK - This is used when landing. On approach to landing, the arrestor hook must
be lowered. When the plane lands on the carrier runway, the hook will catch upon
a strengthened cable which is designed to slow down the aircraft and assists in
aircraft to a halt.
FLAPS - Flaps operate automatically and increase lift at slow flight speeds.
BRAKE - The air brake is used to retard forward motion and assist in landing.
Brakes should be released prior to takeoff.
AIR SPEED INDICATOR - Calibrated in knots, this instrument measures forward
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR - Measures relative vertical speed. Basically, how fast
you are falling or climbing.
ALTIMETER - This instrument utilises external barometric sources such as air
pressure to measure the altitude of the aircraft.
RADAR ALTIMETER - Uses radar to give a precise reading on distance between the
aircraft and the ground - especially useful over undulating terrain.
ARTIFICIAL HORIZON - This is a useful visual indicator to show, at a glance,
just where the horizon is. Co-ordination can become impaired in combat and this
instrument allows the pilot to line up the aircraft with the horizon.
GRAVITY INDICATOR - Measures the force, in G's upon the aircraft and pilot.
The Multi Function Display (MFD) :
This is a multi-tasking display linked to a central processing unit which also
controls a number of vital functions such as target identification, weapons
selection and several other important functions, dependent on which aircraft is
F-14 MFD :
The F-14 MFD shows any radar tracked objects. Friendly or enemy aircraft are
displayed as a radar blip on the display. Once an aircraft is locked on, it will
be automatically interrogated to determine whether the aircraft is friendly or
hostile. If it is
hostile, then the wrong responses will be received and the I (interrogation)
symbol in the top right of the MFD will remain. A friendly aircraft, however
will change the I to an F (friendly).
In addition, the MFD will also show some target information in the bottom left
corner. Here is the heading (H - in degrees), altitude (A - in 100 x feet) and
velocity (V - in mph) of the current target and the top left corner will give
the range (R) in n
In addition, the F-14 MFD accesses the Elecro Optical Camera (EOC) housed in the
nose cone of the aircraft. This camera operates in the darkest conditions and
allows accurate target indentification even at night. The effective range of the
camera is appr
oximately 10 miles although a target may need to be considerably closer for
accurate recognition. Use the (V) key to access this view.
F-18 MFD :
The F-14 has two independent MFD displays however, identical information is not
allowed to be displayed on both screens simultaneously. For example, selecting
two radar-based screens such as the horizontal and vertical display screens is
not possible as
you are then asking the radar to adopt two conflicting scanning modes
simultaneously. The various MFD modes are detailed as follows:
THE ARMAMENT DISPLAY -
The armament display simulates the wings and pylons of the F-18 allowing an
instant view of the remaining weapons and highlighting the currently selected
THE VERTICAL RADAR DISPLAY -
This display offers a view straight ahead from the nose of the aircraft. The
central circle simulates the nose cone and theredore any 'blip' indicates the
presence of an aircraft forward and above the F-18.
THE HORIZONTAL RADAR DISPLAY -
This display offers a plan view from above the aircraft, illuminating the space
immediately forward of the F-18. Your aircraft is at a bottom-central position
and a position directly ahead is indicated by the top central marker. Any
aircraft displayed on
the screen is therefore to the front and either left or right according to its
position to the left or right of the central markers.
THE INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM DISPLAY -
This final MFD display is for use when approaching the carrier for landing. The
Roosevelt appears as a plus sign on the screen. To land, align the plus sign
with the central line therefore lining up your aircraft so that the Roosevelt is
directly in fron
t of you. Use this mode in conjunction with the HUD ILS mode.
As the F-18 has two separate MFD modes, the (1) and (2) keys toggle each of the
The Head Up Display (HUD) :
HUD - This is a glass projection screen upon which, flight information is
displayed. It was developed to allow easier information accessibility for the
pilot. Three scale measurements for speed in knots, heading in degrees (with
waypoint finder) and alti
tude in feet are displayed. The artificial horizon indicator can be seen in the
centre whilst other flight and combat information is displayed in the form of
discretes (letters displayed on the HUD) to the bottom of the screen.
FLIGHT VELOCITY VECTOR - This 'W' symbol shows the actual direction the aircraft
is heading. If the symbol was ahead of the aircraft in the air, the aircraft
would fly straight through it. Notice how the discreet drops down the screen as
a climb is achei
ved. This is because the plane cannot ascend directly to the required point. The
inertia upon the aircraft is such that it may well be pointing in the required
direction, but heading to a position below that point as the aircraft attempts
to adjust its c
GUN 250 WP1 150 - This discrete appears at the bottom left of the HUD and tells
the pilot which weapon is selected and the remaining rounds or missiles, which
waypoint he is heading towards and the distance in nautical miles to the
waypoint. Note that in
A/A or A/G mode, the pilot tells which mode he is in by the weapon selected.
WAYPOINT DISCRETE - Your flight path towards a target is defined by waypoints
that are entered via the TAMPS system onboard the Roosevelt. On the HUD the
waypoint discrete is the 'WP x' symbol that appears where x is the waypoint
number selected. The fir
st waypoint discrete must be aligned centrally on the HUD. When it is in this
position, you are currently heading directly towards the next waypoint.
Deviation from this course will move the waypoint discrete to the left or right
of the central position.
If you are flying way off target, the second discrete will appear to the left
or right of the direction indicator. Adjust your direction in the direction of
the discrete and the waypoint discrete will reappear.
CANNON DISCRETE - Align the cannon discrete with the target and fire!
AIRCRAFT RADAR TARGET DISCRETE - When the radar is operational and the target
lock (T) command is given, the radar will scan for possible targets. When a
target has been found and selected, this square discrete will surround it.
MISSILE RADAR TARGET DISCRETE - Your A/A missiles house radar. The tracking of
this radar is shown by this diamond shaped discrete.
TARGET LOCK-ON DISCRETE - When both the aircraft radar and missile borne radar
lock-on to a designated target, this discrete appears on the HUD. FIRE!
CIRCULAR SIDEWINDER DISCRETE - Fire when the enemy target is within this
discrete and there is a high strike probability.
BOMB TARGET TRACKING DISCRETE - With a freefall bomb selected, this discrete
will show precisely where the bomb will impact - in the centre of the circle.
CROSSHAIR TARGETTING DISCRETE - For all A/G missiles except for freefall bombs,
a crosshair sight allows the missile alignment with the target
The radio in the aircraft allows the pilot to keep in contact with the airbase
and friendly units, thereby keeping the pilot informed of campaign events as
they unfold. An airborne refueling plane, additional support etc. may be
requested via the radio.
There are five radio channels available which are detailed later, and the radio
has two separate tuning channels. However, one of these tuning channels is
permanently set for the guard channel thus allowing the pilot to keep in
permanent contact with fri
endly forces. To activate the radio, use the N key, and the radio will scan for
the appropriate channel. The frequency selected will be displayed at the top
right hand side of the screen.
GUARD CHANNEL - this channel, constantly tuned into your radio, allows you to
keep in contact with your wingmen (fellow pilots on any particular mission).
They will inform you, amongst other things, that they are waiting to take off,
launching, forming u
p for flight to the target, enroute to the next waypoint, beginning an attack
CARRIER ATC CHANNEL - on tuning to this channel, you are informing the carrier
that you wish to land. The carrier ATC will inform you when you have clearance.
If you have an emergency and desparately require immediate clearance, tune into
the carrier eme
rgency ATC channel.
CARRIER EMERGENCY ATC CHANNEL - this channel informs the carrier of an emergency
and requests immediate clearance for landing.
SEARCH AND RESCUE CHANNEL - If you need to eject from your aircraft, you need to
inform the SAR services. By tuning to this channel for as long as possible, you
are increasing your chances of being rescued. Hint, try to fly as far south as
AIR TANKER CHANNEL - When you require airborne refueling, fly to a position
behind a tanker and select this channel, The tanker crew will give you
permission to refuel and tell you when your tanks are full. If there are several
planes waiting to refuel,
you must wait for your turn.
Threats and Warning Indicator :
This instrument displays information about enemy missiles and allows evasive
action without the need for visual recognition. The instruments vary between
aircraft. In the F-14, the threats warning indicator is mounted either side of
the MFD. Radar lock o
n warnings are displayed to the right whilst fuel, fire and missile warnings are
to the left.
RADAR - indicates that a radar of some description is locked-on to your position
A-A - an air to air missile guidance system is locked on to you
S-A - a surface to air missile guidance system is locked-on to you
FUEL - you are low on fuel. Refuel as soon as possible
FIRE - either the port or starboard engine is on fire. Shut down the appropriate
engine as soon as possible
IRM - an infra red missile is currently locked-on and heading towards you.
Evasive action or flares must be used
RGM - a radar guided missile is homing in on your aircraft. Evasive action along
with chaff must be used
In the F-18 however, the threats display is a circular instrument, mounted to
the bottom right hand side of the instrument panel. The Hornet is in the centre
of the the screen and enemy aircraft and missiles are indicated by a red contact
point with frie
ndly aircraft in green. If an enemy aircraft moves within close range of your
aircraft, the display automatically rescales itself so close-in targets can be
displayed with accuracy.
CONTROLLING YOUR AIRCRAFT :
The keys K/M/J select keyboard, mouse or joystick control systems. When using
the mouse, the left mouse button is used to fire the currently selected weapon -
as indicated by the weapon discrete. Moving the mouse will directly control the
aircraft. A tar
get lock-on is attained using the right mouse button and is the equivalent to
the (T) command for other options. When using LGB's, use the right mouse button
for target lock-on and the (X) key to unlock. If using a joystick, only fire and
ds are supported. Target lock-on must be obtained by using the (T) command.
Thrust (shift f1-f10) - increases/decreases RPM from 10%-100%. Thrust must be at
least 100% for take-off and may need to be augmented with afterburners. To
ignite engines, use left or right Alt keys and use the shift and function keys
to change the power
output of the engines.
Afterburners - by using the PgUp and PgDn keys to control afterburners,
increased power for use in take-off and combat scenarios can be acheived. Four
levels of afterburner are available, each accessed by pressing PgUp from one to
four times. PgDn reduce
s the afterburner level by one. Afterburners are commonly used to assist
take-off, especially with a heavy payload.
Launch - pressing (L) signals the flight deck to activate the Roosevelt launch
mechanism. A slingshot accelerates the aircraft to take-off speed in a few
seconds and eliminates a great deal of pilot error on take-off.
Gear - the (G) key raises or lowers the landing gear. The landing gear must be
raised after take-off and lowered before a landing.
Brake - the powerful airbrakes can be applied by using the (B) key. Airbrakes
should be released before take-off and applied either during landing approach to
slow in flight aircraft or directly after the landing.
Arrestor hook - the hook is raised or lowered by using the (A) key. Lower the
arrestor hook before landing.
Direction - either the cursor keys or mouse\joystick movement activate the wing
ailerons and tailerons to manoeuvre the aircraft.
Select HUD mode - the TAB key toggles the HUD between air-to-air (A/A),
air-to-ground (A/G) and instrument landing system (ILS) modes.
Select weapon - by pressing the ENTER key, the pilot can toggle through the
Target lock-on - essential for attack accuracy, the (T) key allows the selected
target to be tracked by the firing mechanisms.
Fire - press SPACE to fire the current weapons as displayed on the HUD.
Eject - if you are in desparate trouble and need to eject, pressing both SHIFT
keys simultaneously activates the eject mechanism.
Illuminate cockpit - in the dark, the cockpit can be illuminated by pressing the
COMED - the Combined Map Electronic Display unit is activated with the (C) key.
This allows the pilot to view aircraft position via satellite imaging equipment.
FLIR - the Forward Looking Infra Red camera allows the pilot to view with
clarity, even in the dark. Use the (V) key to activate this device.
Zoom - to zoom in on most images, use the [ and ] keys.
Time acceleration - the (Z) key will accelerate time. Repeated presses of the
(Z) will increase acceleration up to a maximum of 9. Shifted Z will decrease
acceleration by one and the (\) key will revert back to normal time.
VIEW MODES :
The various view modes that can be acheived in the game are outlined in detail
f1 - toggles between the current view mode and the cockpit view.
f2 - toggles between the cockpit view and the external view. The external view
seen depends on the view selected by the function keys, but is aligned
horizontally with the aircraft whatever the lateral position of the aircraft.
f3 - fly past mode : a stationary camera tracks the aircraft as it flies by.
f4 - satellite view : a view from directly above the aircraft.
f5 - target view : views any land based targets from the aircraft.
f6 - target view : views your aircraft from land based targets.
f7 - enemy view : views your aircraft from enemy planes.
f8 - aircraft view : views your aircraft from other airborne craft.
f9 - missile camera : view from any active missiles.
f10 - electronic weapon view : view throught selected weapon imaging equipment
f11 - tower view : view from the deck of the Roosevelt to your aircraft.
f12 - virtual cockpit
Note that in most views, repeated pressing of the relevant key will toggle
through the various 'targets'. For example, pressing f6 will view your aircraft
from all close proximity land based targets. Repeated pressings will toggle
through all possible ta
In addition, the keypad keys 1-9 can act as if an external camera was circling
the aircraft to give a 360 degree view angle. The / and * keys on the keypad
allow the view distance to be changed and the - and + keypad keys allow the view
height to be cha
nged. The BACKSPACE key
CHAPTER 13 - Flight Instructions
After arming your aircraft in the hangar deck, you will find yourself on the
flight deck of the Roosevelt. Your HUD display will indicate which catapult you
are currently on whilst your aircraft will wait for you to fire the jets into
life and ignite you
r afterburners. The catapult uses steam power to throw the aircraft along the
runway and accelerates the plane to an approximate speed of 150kts with the help
of the aircraft engines. When the aircraft is fully laden with its operational
it may not reach a high enough speed to attain takeoff velocity. In this
instance, a fully augmented takeoff may be required whereby the afterburners are
used to produce more thrust on takeoff. If the plane loses height when leaving
the runway, it may b
e necessary to jettison payload as a trade-off for gaining height. It is
sometimes necessary to actually nose dthe aircraft downwards to gain speed
before pulling up! A third option is to eject if the drop is too great. Engine
fires on takeoff also requi
re similar emergency action.
Looking down the length of the flight-deck, you will first require to fire your
engines with the left and right ALT keys. Selecting the level of engine thrust
is the next step - shift f10 will set both engines to 100% power. Afterburners
should then be u
sed to produce the extra thrust required for take off. Afterburners are a ring
of nozzles around the exhaust of each engine which spray fuel into the path of
the superheated air blasting from the engines - thus allowing this extra fuel to
ignite and crea
te, in the process, extra thrust. To operate the afterburners, the PgUp key will
increase the engine power from 100% up to a maximum of 163% in steps of 16%.
If you wish to change the operation mode, now is the time to change. By using
either J, M or K, you can select whether you want joystick, mouse or keyboard
control. The suggested mode is keyboard although personal preference is
important. When you are pr
epared for takeoff and your engines are at a full 163%, pressing the L key will
activate the launch mechanism and throw the aircraft forwards and off the end of
the runway. Once off the end of the runway, you must first gain height and then
undercarriage by pressing G. If, for any reason, you end up in the Gulf as
opposed to over the Gulf, the Roosevelt's SAR chopper should initiate a search
and rescue mission to locate and retrieve you. The success of any rescue mission
will depend strongl
y on your position relative to the carrier.
Once level flight has been attained, the appropriate HUD and MFD readouts need
to be found. By using the TAB key to toggle through the HUD modes, you can
access the Air to Air mode, the Air to Ground mode and finally the ILS
(instrument landing system) d
isplay. Also displayed on the HUD for easy reference is the speed in knots,
altitude in feet and heading in degrees. Note also, that the triangular waypoint
indicator is located along the heading bar.
Select the required MFD display by pressing the 1 key in an F-14 and both the 1
and 2 keys in an F-18, then activate the radar by shift-R. Depending on the MFD
mode selected, you will now be in a position to track and identify enemy
The aircraft may now be flown using any of the selected methods - joystick,
mouse or keyboard - and may be viewed in flight from any one of a wide range of
exterior viewing modes. For example, if you feel the standard cockpit view
doesn't allow a wide en
ough view of the outside world, pressing f2 allows a view of the aircraft from
the outside. The angle at which the plane is viewed may then be manipulated via
the keys 1-9 on the numeric keypad which cover every 45 degree angle in a circle
around the hor
izontal of the plane. The view may also be zoomed in or out using the [ and ]
keys. In addition, the / and * keys on the keypad may be used to zoom in or out
at a slower speed and the - and + keys will increase or decrease the view
The function keys allow even greater manipulation of the view area and are
outlined elsewhere in this manual. We suggest that the best way of understanding
the differing modes is to actually play the game and experiment using them. It
is worth noting how
ever that the f4 and f5 keys have a useful tracking element to them which allows
the aircraft and the target object to keep in alignment whatever the aircraft
direction. This lets the pilot line up with the target and can be invaluable
when planning bomb
ing runs. The f9 key allows a camera view from an actual missile in flight
allowing the pilot to follow the missile down to the target. Repeated presses of
the f9 key will toggle through active missiles.
Another vital key is the # key which views all mobile units both friendly and
hostile, in the vicinity of both the aircraft and the carrier (where
appropriate). Continued pressing moves from one unit to another.
It would be appropriate at this point to examine the strike capabilities of both
the F-14 and the F-18. Due to the different roles played by each aircraft, the
missile systems and MFD displays are correspondingly tailored to suit the
The MFD allows locked-on target identification, bearing, velocity and altitude
details. When attacking an airborne target, the above information must be used
in order to select the appropriate weapon with the required range and attack
ng aboard the aircraft will do this for you - you're on your own! Note that you
may get a weapon lock on an aircraft 50 kilometres away when Sidewinders are
selected. Obviously, this aircraft is out of a Sidewinders range, but it is up
to the pilot to re
alise this fact.
To begin an air to air missile strike, you first need to get the HUD into A/A
mode. Press TAB to toggle through the modes until A/A is selected and then by
using the ENTER key, select which missile you wish to fire. Once the target is
in your radar, pres
sing T will lock the tracking mechanisms onto the target. The target will then
be interrogated to find out whether it is friendly or hostile. If friendly, an F
will appear on the MFD, if an F does not appear after a short time, then you may
the aircraft is hostile. To fire the missile, line up the two radar tracking
symbols and fire by using wother the SPACE bar or the joystick or mouse button.
Only flares and emergency evasive action can save your enemy now!
When in the situation of being attacked by either an enemy aircraft or SAM,
there are a number of measures you can take. Your first warning of danger will
come from the instruments mounted alongside the MFD. When a heat seeking missile
is in flight and t
racking you, the IRM display will notify you. Flares must be dropped using the
INSERT key, and evasive action must be taken. Similarly, when being tracked by a
radar guided missile, chaff must be used (DELETE key) to decoy. The RGM display
will alert you
r attention to a radar guided missile.
The F-18 is a multi-role strike/intercept aircraft and therefore carries a large
payload of both A/A and A/G missiles. Like the F-14, HUD and missile mode can be
selected with the TAB key and weapons with the ENTER key. Air attack is again,
the F-14 attack mode although the F-18 is equipped with fewer A/A missiles and
has less operational effectiveness in terms of both speed and manoeuvrability.
Since the F-18 only engages in A/A combat as a self-defence mechanism, Phoenix
es are not available to the F-18. All other A/A missiles can however be used and
all A/G missiles are available, depending upon mission objectives.
Enemy aircraft may be viewed on either MFD display with either the 1 or 2 keys,
and will be identified in the same way as the F-14. When approaching a surface
target, the appropriate attack strategy must be used for a successful strike. Be
warned that SA
M activity will be high around most targets. When attacking a target, use the f4
or f5 key to line up with the target before making your bombing run.
ARRESTED LANDING :
This is the suggested procedure for landing on the carrier :
Initial Actions :
- Head to a point a couple of miles behind the carrier. The F-18 MFD display
facilitates a landing system display to help keep you informed on the direction
in which the Roosevelt lies - although, more often than not, visual contact may
be maintained as
the Roosevelt shows up brightly against its background of blue. Unfortunately,
the F-14 does not have this MFD display.
- Switch to ILS mode on the HUD by pressing the TAB key. This will activate the
Instrument Landing System which offers important approach information to the
pilot about the required angle of descent and altitude.
- Tune the radio onto the carrier ATC by using the N key.
- Engines must be cut to around one third power (shift-f3) - under 200 knots. In
addition, use air brakes (B) to cut power even further, as and when
- When the carrier informs you that landing clearance has been granted, head
towards the carrier on final approach.
Final Approach :
- Lower your undercarriage (G) and the arrestor hook (A).
- Line up with the carrier landing strip directly ahead of you and running away
from your line of descent.
- The ILS display indicates whether your approach is too high or too low, or to
either side of the glidescope (a projected perfect approach angle of descent).
In ILS mode, if the horizontal bar is above the centre of the screen, you are
too high and
must lose altitude. If the vertical bar is to one side, you must head in that
direction until the bar moves into the centre. This will indicate when you are
on the correct flight path in line with the direction of the runway. Note that
the vertical b
ar may be centred even when you are flying across the flight path, not
directly towards it. When both bars are centred, the correct angle of approach
- Approach speed must be adjusted according to the payload carried.
- Maintain a steady descent until the touchdown.
- When you hit the deck, cut all engines using the Ctrl keys and hit the brakes
using the B key (if not already applied). Advanced pilots will then hit full
engine power (100% with no afterburners) on touchdown to enable the plane to
takeoff if the a
rrestor cables are missed. Navy pilots try to catch the third cable. If the
cables are missed, engines will be on full power thus enabling and immediate
takeoff. This is referred to as a bolter.
- Identify your tanker unit via your radar and MFD displays. You will recognise
the tanker by a 'friendly' interrogation message and the height and speed at
which it is travelling. The tanker will circle around a predetermined point
(designated on th
e TAMPS screen) and at a predetermined altitude. The tanker will cruise at
- Once the tanker is within radar range, switch to A/A mode and lock-on to the
tanker. The lock-on discrete will then display the target distance in the
bottom right hand corner of the HUD. This will enable you to monitor the rate at
which you are cl
osing on the tanker.
- Match your heading and altitude to that of the tanker and move slowly up
behind the tanker. Smoothness of manoeuvre and maintaining a constant altitude
are the secrets of successful refueling. Use the rudder keys (, and .) to
change heading as the
- Close on the tanker, cutting the engines and using the airbrake to slow your
progress where necessary.
- The trailing fuel line or drogue is manoeuvred by the tanker crew and contains
a strong magnetic attachment to facilitate the mating with your aircraft.
- With persistence, a contact will be made and refuelling will commence.
Remember, airborne refuelling is notoriously difficult to perfect but with a
delicate touch and tenacity, you should succeed. Good luck!
CHAPTER 14 - How to survive
15 HANDY PLAYING TIPS FROM THE 'ED SCIO SCHOOL OF AVIATION'
- Don't fly low and slow - the words sitting and duck spring to mind!
- Save fuel by not flying everywhere with afterburners on, use accelerated time
- Don't get too far away from escorts, let them do their job and escort you
- When playing a campaign game, attempt to take out the radar and SAM sites
early on - later missions will be a lot easier
- If you are using SLAMS, do what their title suggests and Stand Off. There is
no need to get close to a heavily defended target
- Try to fly above the threat envelope, out of AAA range
- For long journeys, conserve fuel by flying at a cruising altitude (ie
- Don't waste your countermeasures. If you can see a missile approaching or you
know where it's launched from, you can out manoeuvre it - hit full 'burner and
head towards it, roll 90 degrees and pull hard on the stick a few seconds before
- If you do need to deploy a flare or chaff, don't release too many unless you
have a few missiles very close. Wait after each release to see if the missile is
- Don't wake up before 1100 hrs
- If the enemy has fired a semi-active radar guided missile at you, remember
that if he is destroyed then his missiles will not guide
- If you are at flying at a low level in a mountainous area, use terrain masking
to place mountains between your aircraft and any enemy aircraft or missiles
- A stall at low level can be recovered by hitting full 'burners, clean up your
plane (gear up, air brakes off) and if your situation is really desparate, dump
and heavy ordinance. If you have the altitude, it is better to nose down to get
the plane to r
eturn to controlled flight
- If the worst happens and your plane is damaged with no hope of making it back
to the Roosevelt, head as far south as possible and tune to the SAR channel on
your radio. It is best to eject at a slow speed at an altitude above 1000ft (in
The further south you travel and the longer you are tuned to the SAR, the
greater your chances of being rescued
- A pilot will be 'Retired from active duty' if he sustains 3 or 4 ejections,
depending on injuries. This means the end of the campaign for a veteran so to
avoid this in a plane that is, for instance, low on fuel, you could try to land
either on a road o
r on the desert. In order to attempt this, it is advisable to lighten your plane
by releasing all external stores in order to get as slow an approach speed as
- If your surface radar warning light illuminates, it will allow the Iraqi
gunners more time to bring their weapons to bear. This will effectively increase
the range at which they will begin firing at you. It may also result in IAF
fighters vectoring tow
ards you. Apart from destroying these sites, you could go to low altitude (less
than 500ft) to break the radar lock
CHAPTER 15 : Victory Scenario
Overall victory may well be acheived in several different ways. Firstly, when
Kuwait is liberated, and all enemy forces are removed from the province, then
victory may be declared. Secondly, you may feel that victory may only occur when
an invasion of Ir
aq is completed, obliterating all enemy forces and leaving the Allies in
complete control of all areas. A more 'diplomatic' victory may well be through
the extermination of Saddam. You may discover, through intelligence reports,
that Saddam has been shot
down aboard a transport aircraft en-route to a communications bunker deep
within Iraqi airspace. with their leader gone, the Iraqi threat must surely
crumble, or will it?
CAP will monitor the amount of missions flown, along with the success rate of
each mission as well as the state and position of enemy forces, and will decide
as and when the conflict has been won or lost.
CHAPTER 16 : CAP Technical Details
18 months of development time
Map area of over 1,000,000 square kilometres (mapped to a resolution of 1cm)
Over 2000 terrain features
Over 160 different 3D objects
11,700 kilometres of road and rail
Over 1/2 meg of 3D objects
Over 1/2 meg of 16bit sound
Doppler shifting stereo placed audibly diminuishing sound!
Mavericks own VirtualSound system
16 different weapons systems
150,000 lines of C and assembler code