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Читы для East Front

Чит-файл для East Front

East Front

 За игрой пока никто не наблюдает. Первым будете?

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчик:TalonSoft
Издатель:TalonSoft
Модель распространения:розничная продажа
Жанры:Strategy (Turn-based / Wargame) / Isometric
Multiplayer:(2) hot seat, модем, PBEM

Даты выхода игры

вышла в 1997 г.

Solution [ENG]

Информация актуальна для
TalonSoft's East Front Rules Supplement

NOTE: The following explanations are intended as a supplement to the
TalonSoft's East Front Players Guide. They provide additional explanations and
examples of most game concepts.

COMMAND REPORT
At the beginning of each turn the program generates a "Command Report" if any
of the following situations apply: Arrival of Reinforcements: An announcement
is made if any reinforcements have arrived (see Reinforcements). Release of
Fixed Units: An announcement of the release of any organization (or even a
single unit) that had previously been "fixed" (see Fixed Units). Improved
Position construction: An announcement is made of the successful construction
(and hex-location) of a just-completed Improved Position (see Digging In). #
of Air Strikes Available: Lists the total number of Air Strikes available for
that side during the scenario.# of HQ Unable to Provide Supply: A list of the
number of HQ unable to provide supply during the current turn (see Supply). #
of Units Low on Ammo: A list of the number of units currently suffering from
low supply. Undisrupted: Lists the number of units that became undisrupted
(compared to the total that were disrupted) and the units' location. Isolated:
Lists the hexes where isolated units are located.

MENU BAR
To toggle the Menu Bar on, press the M key. The Menu Bar contains many
pop-down menus that you will find useful during play (and referred to in these
instructions). The Menu Bar is off by default.

SELECTING A UNIT
To give orders to a unit (that is, to have it fire, move or perform any other
action), or to access additional information on it, that unit must first be
selected. To select a unit displayed on a 3D map view, left-click on its 3D
unit icon. (A selected 3D icon has a green outline.) On both the 2D and 3D
maps, a unit can also be selected by left-clicking once in the "Unit Info Box"
(i.e., the see-through data box that appears in the upper right hand corner of
the screen when you click on a unit on the map). Right- clicking on the Unit
Info Box will cycle through the units in the hex, allowing you to view/select
them individually. To select all the units in a hex, simply double-click on
that hex. To display the Unit Info Boxes of all units in the hex, press the U
key (see Unit List, below). You can also select a unit if its Unit Info Box is
displayed by left-clicking once on that Unit Info Box (a selected unit's Unit
Info Box will display a brighter nameplate along the top of the box). Note:
Left-clicking once on an already- selected Unit Info Box will de-select it.

3D "ROAM MODE"
Whenever the display features a "3D" map "Roam Mode" is enabled. In Roam Mode
3D unit icons on the map are automatically highlighted when your cursor passes
over them. A yellow highlight around a 3D icon indicates a friendly unit, a
red highlight indicates an enemy unit. The selected unit is always shown with
a green highlight (whether friendly or enemy). When you "roam" the cursor over
a 3D icon, its Unit Info Box will be displayed. Such info remains displayed as
long as your cursor is positioned over that 3D icon. As soon as your cursor
"roams" off the 3D icon, the Unit Info Box reverts back to displaying the
selected unit (or, if no unit is currently selected, no Unit Info Box is
displayed).

THE UNIT INFO BOX
The Unit Info Box is displayed in the upper right-hand corner whenever a unit
is selected. (Note that when the Unit List is off you can reposition the Unit
Info Box by the "drag and drop" method if its current location is
inconvenient). Normally, the Unit Info Box will display information about the
selected unit. However, if playing on a 3D map, the Unit Info Box will
temporarily display information on any unit (enemy or friendly) that your
on-map cursor "roams" over. The amount of information thusly displayed will
vary, depending on the current Fog of War option chosen; i.e., no Fog of War,
normal Fog of War, or Extreme Fog of War.

If more than one unit is in the same hex (and the Unit List is not on; see
"Unit List", below), you can cycle through and view the Unit Info Box of each
unit in that hex by right- clicking on the Unit Info Box. Note that a
left-click on the displayed Unit Info Box will select that unit (note how the
nameplate of the unit highlights), or unselect the unit if already selected
(the nameplate will become unhighlighted). If a unit is carrying a passenger
(indicated by a large, full-color helmet icon in the lower-right corner of the
Unit Info Box) a right click will display the unit being carried by that
transport unit.The center section of the Unit Info Box displays the 3D icon.
Other important data is arranged in a circular fashion around the icon.
Starting at "12 o'clock" and proceeding clockwise, the data lists:

Strength (Command): The unit's current Strength Point (SP). Each SP of an
infantry-type platoon represents one "half squad". Each SP of an MG-, mortar-
or gun-type unit represents ne "team" (if MG) or "battery" (for tube weapons
such as mortars or artillery). Each SP of a vehicular platoon represents one
vehicle. Exception: if the unit is a commander, this is his "Command" rating,
representing the value he adds to the attack value of a unit under his command
that he is stacked with if he possesses as many Action Points (AP) as it costs
that unit to attack. Action: The number of Action Points (AP) the unit has
remaining (unused). All units start each "friendly" turn with 100 AP; each
action executed during a turn (and each terrain entered) will cost a given
amount of AP. Note that, due to differing movement rates, different unit types
will expend different amounts of AP for entering similar terrain. To see how
many AP it costs to enter each terrain type, select that unit and press the F2
key to access the Unit Handbook. Assault: That unit's attack value when it
assaults. Defense: That unit's defensive value when it is being fired on or
assaulted. Fire Cost: How many AP that unit must expend in fire. Morale
(Leadership): The unit's current morale (the number it must roll equal to or
less than on a 10-sided die when doing a morale check). In order for a unit to
become undisrupted, it must also roll equal to or less than this number.
Exception: If the unit is a commander, this number is his leadership value,
which modifies the morale of the unit(s) under his command that he is stacked
with. If his morale is greater than that unit's, his morale is used for it. If
his morale equals or is less than that unit's, its morale is raised by one. A
unit's morale appears in red if it's being modified by a commander.

Morale is also affected by the terrain the unit occupies. A list of these
effects can be found by pressing the F3 key to view the game's Parameter Data.


THERMOMETERS
When using any of the 3D map displays, you can toggle the "thermometers" for
each 3D icon on or off by pressing the T hotkey. Depending on what you prefer,
thermometers can be displayed that graphically depict the Action Points a unit
has remaining, or its current Strength, or its current Morale. Note that the
on-map thermometers are color-coded to the color outline of the Unit Info Box
coinciding to that value; i.e., red for Action Points; green for strength
points; blue for morale. A single left-click on the Morale, Strength or Action
Point box of a Unit Info Box will change the displayed thermometer to display
the thermometer measuring that variable. Turning the on-map thermometers on
can also be a quick way to locate units on the map.

THE UNIT LIST
To display the Unit List along the right side of your screen, press the U key.
You can select and unselect one or more units easily with the Unit List "on"
by left-clicking once on the desired Unit Info Box(es) in the Unit List.
Additional information regarding play can be found in the Unit List. If a hex
is selected, Unit Info Boxes for all units in that hex are displayed in the
Unit List, one above the other. You can use the cursor to "drag" the displayed
Info Boxes up or down within the Unit List (this can be necessary if three or
more Info Boxes are displayed in the Unit List). To close the Unit List, press
the U key again. Below the lowest Unit Info Box displayed in the Unit List the
following additional game information is presented: Terrain: This lists the
predominant type of terrain in the hex and the elevation of the hex in meters.

Objective: If the selected hex is an objective hex, its objective value is
listed. Wrecks: The number of wreck SP in the selected hex. Visibility: The
maximum number of hexes a unit can "see" in the scenario. Air Power: The
number of Air Strikes available per side (Allied #/Axis #).* Smoke: The number
of Smoke missions available to eligible artillery (Allied #/Axis #).* Ammo:
The supply (ammo) level per side (Allied #/Axis #).* * If Fog of War is in
effect, the numbers for the opposing side are shown as a "?".

THE UNIT HANDBOOK
Additional information about a unit can be accessed by selecting that unit and
pressing the F2 key. This will display useful information about the unit, such
as its AP terrain costs, its per-SP victory-point value, its "organizational
tree" in the current scenario, some historical text on the unit type, and a
sample illustration. Note: The terrain costs listed for a unit in the Unit
Handbook are the terrain costs associated for the ground conditions (normal,
soft, mud or snow) of the scenario currently open. Clicking the "R" ("Range
Display") button will bring up a graph illustrating the range of it weaponry
(if applicable). The unit's "hard" attack value is shown in red; its "soft"
attack value is shown in blue. The number at the bottom of the range display
indicates the maximum number of hexes the unit can fire. To close the range
display, left-click on the graph, or press the ESC or Enter key. Use the same
keys to close the Unit Handbook, or left-click on the "X" ("Close") button.

SCENARIO INFORMATION
Press the I hotkey to display the Scenario Information. This display lists the
scenario's title and author, the ground and weather conditions in effect, and
the historical copy (Note: Use your keyboard's "Page Up" and "Page Down" keys
to view more of the historical copy). The ground conditions affect the number
of Action Points a unit must expend to enter a given terrain type; the weather
affects the visibility conditions.

MOVE/FIRE MODE
There are two "modes" in the game, "Move" and "Fire". By default, a turn
begins in Move Mode. To toggle between the two modes press the "Move/Fire
Mode" toolbar button (this is the second button from the left on the toolbar).
When in Move Mode this button displays three green arrows and part of a tank
silhouette; when depressed the button is in Fire Mode and displays a bright
red "crosshairs" over a vehicle icon. Additionally, pressing and holding down
the Ctrl hotkey toggles the mode from "Fire" to "Move" or vice-versa. Note
that your on-map cursor changes at the same time. You must be in Move Mode to
move or assault with a unit; you must be in Fire Mode to give a unit
(in)direct fire orders.

MOVING A UNIT
First, be sure you are in "Move Mode". The second button from the left in the
toolbar along the bottom of the screen is the "mode" button. In "Move Mode"
the button is "undepressed" and shows three green arrows and a partial
silhouette of a tank. (If it's "depressed" and displays a large red
"crosshairs", you're in "Fire Mode".) Next, select the unit you want to move,
then right-click in any hex to move the unit toward that hex. (Note: you can
move units only of the side you control - not enemy units.) Alternatively, you
can select the unit, then "drag and drop" it in the direction you wish it to
move. When in "Move Mode" your on-map cursor is a thin "plus sign" (+). Move
Mode is automatically invoked for a side when its turn begins.

Save AP's for Firing: When moving a unit (especially if expecting to move into
"contact" with the enemy) you might want to reserve enough Action Points so
that the unit can fire at least once (either at the end of its move or as
Opportunity Fire duing the next enemy turn). To do this, press the "Save AP's
for Firing" toolbar button before expending many AP for other activities. When
a unit has been selected to save AP's for Firing, a small full-color "bullet"
icon will appear near the top of the icon bar along the left side of the Unit
Info Box. To cancel this, simply select the unit and toggle this off by
pressing the same toolbar button. Note: you can have this feature
automatically in effect for all combat units of your side by selecting "Auto
Save AP's for Firing" from the Options pop- down menu; however, this will not
take effect until a turn begins with this option selected.

Save AP's for Unloading: When moving a loaded transport unit (especially if
getting near the enemy) you might want to reserve enough Action Points so that
the transport's passenger can unload at the end of the move. To do this, press
the "Save AP's for Unloading" toolbar button before expending many AP for
other activities. When a unit has been selected to save AP's for Unloading, a
small full-color "wheel" icon will appear near the top of the icon bar along
the left side of the Unit Info Box. To cancel this, simply select the carrying
unit and toggle this off by pressing the same toolbar button.

Reachable Hexes: Press the H hotkey after selecting a unit to move to
highlight all hexes in which the selected unit can reach during the current
movement phase. This display takes into account the number of Action Points
the selected unit has remaining, and the effects of extra hexes reachable due
to Double Time and if it is marked to "Save APs for Firing", and updates
automatically as the unit moves.

Visible Hexes: To highlight the hexes that can be seen from a specific
location, left- click once in that location (thus "hot spotting" that hex),
then press the V hotkey. All hexes not visible from the hot-spotted hex are
shaded.

Reinforcements: Many scenarios have reinforcements that enter during play. To
view the reinforcement schedule, press the S hotkey (Note: if Fog of War is in
effect, the Schedule Dialog will list only friendly reinforcements). Each
reinforcement group is listed on a separate line with the following
information: turn of entry; percentage chance of entry (shown as "??" if the
Extreme Fog of War optional rule is in effect); hex of entry; first unit of
that group. Since most reinforcements contain more than one unit, you can
double-left- click on any entry of the Scheduled dialog to display a window
listing all units of that reinforcement group. Furthermore, if you left-click
on a reinforcement group in the Schedule Dialog, the map will scroll to
display the entry hex of that group. Example: A line of the Schedule Dialog
might display "5 (50%) at 0,20 German SPW Halftracks,.". This indicates that
on turn 5 a reinforcement group containing German SPW Halftracks (and other
units, not the ".") is scheduled to arrive at hex 0,20. However, their arrival
chance is only 50%. Unless the arrival chance is 100%, the program will
perform a "percentile" (1-100) die roll, beginning on the turn listed, and at
the beginning of each friendly turn thereafter that the reinforcement group
has still not arrived. A die roll equal to or less than that reinforcement
group's printed entry chance results in that being reinforcement group
arriving. Note: If the optional rule for Extreme Fog of War is on, the percent
chance of arrival is always hidden. If the Command Report dialog displayed at
the beginning of your turn mentions that "Reinforcements have arrived" you
should press the A hotkey to display the "Arrived Dialog". Each group of
reinforcements arriving on the current turn is listed on a separate line.
Double-left-click on a listed group in order to have those units placed on the
map. Once placed you can then select and move the units.

Organizational Movement: If you select a unit, press the "Highlight
Organization" toolbar button, and then, while depressing the Alt key,
right-click in a hex you wish the unit to move to, all of the units of that
unit's organization will move toward the selected hex. You can also "drag and
drop" in lieu of right-clicking, if preferred.

Double Time and Fatigue: An infantry or cavalry unit can use "double time"
movement if it is not currently marked with an "F" (fatigued) icon. Such a
unit that is currently capable of using double-time movement is also denoted
by a "charging soldier" icon displayed in the icon bar on the left side of its
Unit Info Box. To conduct double-time movement, select an eligible unit, press
the "Double Time" toolbar button, and move the unit. Once a unit has been
flagged to use double time, it cannot be undone. From the moment that the unit
is commanded to use double time, it pays only 3/4 of the normal Action Point
cost to enter a hex (or cross a terrain hexside).

A unit that begins its friendly turn fatigued (an "F" icon is displayed in the
icon area of the unit's Unit Info Box) cannot double time during that turn.
The "F" icon is automatically removed at the start of a turn in which the unit
did not use double-time in the previous turn. A fatigued unit that attacks
(direct fire or assault) has its attack factor halved (fractions rounded down,
to a minimum of 1). A fatigued unit that defends in melee has its defense
factor halved (fractions rounded down, to a minimum of 1).

Fixed Units: Some scenarios feature units that (usually for historical
purposes) have been "fixed" in place. A fixed unit is denoted by a red
circular icon displaying a white "F" at the top of icon bar of the Unit Info
Box. Such a unit is unable to move until it is attacked or Released (if
released, the Command report will report this occurrence). You can check the
"Release Dialog" by selecting "Releases" from the "Reinforce" pop-down menu.
The Release Dialog lists each organization or unit that is scheduled to be
released during that scenario (if any). Example: A Release Dialog line might
display: "12 (20%) Russian 3rd Battalion". This indicates that the Russian's
3rd Battalion has a 20% chance of being released, starting on turn 12. To
highlight units of the 3rd Battalion on the map, you can left click on its
listing in the Release Dialog. Unless a release chance is 100%, the program
will perform a "percentile" (1-100) die roll, beginning on the turn listed,
and at the beginning of each friendly turn thereafter that the organization is
still not released. A die roll equal to or less than that organization's
printed release chance results in that organization being immediately
released. Note: If the optional rule for Extreme Fog of War is on, the percent
chance of release is always hidden.

FORTIFICATIONS
East Front has several different types of "fortifications", each with
different effects on play. Improved Positions: Any unit in an Improved Postion
gains a defensive benefit, in that the firepower of all attacking units is
reduced by 25%. This is the only fortification type that can be "constructed"
during play (see "Digging In") Trench: The firepower of a unit attacking a
target in a trench location is reduced by 44% (or 56% of the firing unit's
firepower is used). Bunker: Units eligible to receive the defensive benefits
of a bunker have 20 added to their Defense factor, as well as having the
firepower of all attacking units reduced by 25%. Pillbox: Similar to Bunker,
except that a unit receiving the benefit of a Pillbox can only be attacked as
if it were a hard target (this to simulate a concrete implacement). Minefield:
Whenever a unit enters a minefield hex a mine attack is immediately carried
out against it. Minefields come in three strengths: 1, 2 and 3 (the strengths
corresponds to the "odds" line of the Combat Results Table that the attack is
resolved on; i.e., a "3" minefield attack is executed on the 3:1 line. Mines
are the only fortification type that can be removed during play (and then only
by a non-disrupted Engineer unit that begins its turn in the minefield hex).
Blocked: A "blocked" hex represents an impediment to movement (roadblock,
barbed wire, downed trees), and, as such, forces each unit that enters the hex
to expend 65 Action Points.

Digging In: Additional Improved positions can be constructed during play by
"Digging In". Only a unit that displays a "shovel" icon on the left side of
its Unit Info Box is capable of digging in (generally, this includes most
non-HQ infantry-type units, but not vehicles or guns). To have an eligible
unit begin digging in, select the unit, then press the "Digging In" toolbar
button. When currently engaged in digging in, the small shovel icon moves
toward the top of the unit's icon bar of the Unit Info Box. At the beginning
of each turn there is a 10% chance that a unit will construct an Improved
Position if it begins that friendly player turn digging in. If a unit that is
digging in conducts an attack, its attack factor is halved (fractions rounded
down, to a minimum of one).

ASSAULTING
To assault, the attacker(s) must be non-disrupted and in "move mode" and must
have enough AP (Action Points) to assault (20 AP plus the AP terrain cost of
the hex being entered). Then right-click on an adjacent enemy-occupied hex.
(If the assault is "legal", a dialog box will appear announcing the assault.)
If desired, you can repeat this method to add more attackers to the assault.
The more units that participate in an assault, the better the odds that the
assault will be successful (up to the maximum stacking limits of the hex being
assaulted). More than one assault can be conducted by a unit in the same turn,
depending on the number of AP the unit has remaining. A disrupted unit
defending in an assault has its Defense factor halved (fractions rounded down,
to a minimum of one); when "counterattacking" (see below), such a disrupted
unit has its assault factor halved. The defensive value of a fortification
(see the East Front Parameter Data file) in the defender's hex modifies the
assault factor of each attacking unit. The assault factor of an attacking
unit, or the defensive value of a defending unit, is increased by the presence
of a leader of that unit's organization. The assault factor of an attacking
unit that is low on supply is decreased by one-fourth (fractions rounded down,
to a minimum of one). To resolve an assault, click on the "Resolve Assault"
toolbar button. To cancel a planned assault, select "Cancel Assault" from the
"Assault" pop-down menu. The assault factor of a fatigued attacker is halved
(fractions rounded down, to a minimum of one). The defense factor of a
fatigued unit being assaulted is halved (fractions rounded down, to a minimum
of one).

Counter-assault: Each assault also results in a "counter-assault" by the
defending units. Normal assault rules apply to a counter-assault except that a
disrupted unit can make a counter-assault. Assault Odds: Because each assault
also results in a "counter-assault" by the defenders, the "Assault Odds"
dialog will list the assaulting units' attack, as well as how they defend when
being counter-assaulted. The numbers displayed in the Assault Odds dialog are
after all modification due to the presence of a leader(s), low ammo,
disruption and/or the presence of a fortification in the assaulted hex. For
each assault, a number of attacks is carried out depending on the SP of the
(counter) assaulting unit(s). The results are then applied to the proper line
of the Combat Results Table. Example: A platoon of Pz V "Panther" tank
(assault 7; defense 13) is assaulting a village containing a platoon of BA-64
Armored Cars (assault 2; defense 3). The assault odds list "Attacking at 7 to
3". This reflects the 7 assault strength of the Pz V vs. the 3 defense
strength of the BA-64 armored cars. The counter-assault line lists "Defending
at 2 to 13", reflecting the 2 assault strength of the BA-64 when it
counterassaults the 13-defense of the Panthers.

The "7 to 3" assault would be resolved on the 2:1 line of the Combat Results
table, which contains a 10% chance of a 1SP loss, a 25% chance of a
disruption, and a 25% chance of a Morale Check. When a unit attacks, the
program actually conducts a number of attacks equal to the unit's SPs, then
takes each individual result and determines the net result vs. the defender.
If instead the BA-64 platoon occupied a hex containing an Improved Position,
the first line of the Assault odds would list "Attacking at 5 (actual 7) to
3", reflecting that the assaulting unit's actual assault factor of 7 is
reduced to 5 due to the Improved Position the defender enjoys (7 x .75 = 5).
The counter-assault by the BA-64 platoon would be unaffected by the Improved
Position.

FIRING A UNIT
The unit you want to attack with must be selected, and you must be in "Fire
Mode". Depress the second-from-the-left toolbar button (or hold down the Ctrl
key) to toggle to Fire Mode. In "Fire Mode" this button (and your on-map
cursor) displays a "crosshairs" (a circled "+"). When the "Fire Mode"
crosshairs cursor "roams" over a hex containing a valid target (an enemy unit
within range and in line of sight), a small box with two numbers is displayed
over the target hex. This box lists (left to right) the firing unit's nominal
attack strengths vs. any hard and soft targets in that hex. Note that these
factors automatically increase as the range to the target decreases, and
decrease as the range increases, thus simulating "range attenuation" (lessened
firepower at increased range). Example: "10/4" might be displayed when an
anti-tank platoon targets a hex. "10" is the attack factor the platoon would
use against a "hard" (or armored) unit in that hex, and "4" is the attack
factor the platoon would use against a "soft" (or non-armored) unit in that
hex. On a 3D map, when the Fire Mode cursor roams directly over a valid target
and highlights it in red, a more detailed box appears that lists (from left to
right) that target's Strength Points, its name, and the firing unit's nominal
attack strength vs. that target. Example: "5 - BA-20 @ 10" would signify a
5-SP BA-20 (Russian Armored Car) being targeted by a firing unit with an
attack factor of "10".

Infantry vs. Armor: Most infantry units can fire at a hard (armored) target
only when they are adjacent to each other. This represents the fact that most
infantry "light anti- tank weapons" had a very short range (exception: some MG
platoons have a two-hex range vs. "hard" targets). Note that as the war goes
on, the lethality of infantry attacks (especially German) vs. armor generally
increases, representing the increased effectiveness of such anti-tank weapons
(such as panzerfausts and the bazooka-like panzerschreck).

FIRING ARTILLERY
Most scenarios feature a combination of direct- and indirect-firing combat
units. Artillery and mortars fire using indirect fire. All indirect fire must
be "pre-plotted" one turn in advance (simulating the time it takes for a
forward observer to establish access to the battery, plot the fire mission).
Indirect Fire, unlike Direct Fire, potentially affects all units in the target
hex. Note: Most artillery units with full (i.e., 100) Action Points will be
allowed two shots per turn, since the Fire Cost of most artillery units is 50
or less Action Points per shot.Press the "Artillery Dialog" toolbar button to
display the Artillery Dialog window, which displays each indirect fire unit
for the current side. Each entry lists the Strength Points of the battery, the
battery type, and its hex location. An entry listed in black is eligible to be
fired that turn; if the entry is printed in gray that battery is not eligible
to fire that turn (this may be due to the battery being in transit, or because
it is temporarily out of contact with its observer). To plot an artillery
mission: 1) Highlight the battery in the Artillery dialog (Note: pressing the
Artillery Dialog's "Locate" button will display that battery's Unit Info Box
and hot-spot the hex that battery is in) 2) "Roam" your cursor over the map.
As your cursor roams over eligible target locations, small boxes appear
listing that battery's hard and soft attack numbers (respectively) vs. that
hex. 3) Right-click on the map (in a location displaying the hard/soft attack
numbers) to plot that artillery fire mission. Most indirect fire units can be
plotted to shoot twice per turn.

Smoke Ammunition: An artillery (indirect fire) unit capable of firing smoke
ammunition displays a small "smoke" icon in the icon bar on the left side of
the Unit Info Box. Firing a smoke mission is identical to plotting a normal
indirect fire mission, except you must depress the Alt key when you
right-click on the target hex. A unit firing into (or out of) a hex containing
smoke has its attack factors halved (fractions rounded down, to a minimum of
1). Line of sight is blocked through a smoke hex.

Indirect Fire by the Map: If the Optional Rule for "Indirect Fire by the Map"
is enabled, you can plot indirect fire missions at hexes that don't contain a
known enemy units, as well as hexes that you don't have a line of sight to. If
not, you are limited to plotting non-smoke fire missions only at hexes that at
least one of your combat units has a line of sight to and that contains at
least one enemy unit.

Drift: It is possible that plotted indirect fire can "drift" off the intended
target hex. This is especially likely to occur if the targeted hex is out of
line of sight of all enemy units.

COMBAT EXPLANATION
When one unit fires at another unit (whether by Direct or Indirect fire) the
basic method in which the attack is calculated is as follows:

(modified attack strength) vs. (modified defensive strength)

This attack vs. defense comparison determines the location of the Combat
Results Table where the attack will be resolved. Note that attack-vs.-defense
strengths between those listed on the Combat Results Table (see East Front's
Parameter Data table from the "Help" pop-down menu) are calculated
individually by the program on a pro-rated basis, based on the result
probabilities of the two CRT lines the attack falls between. For example, a
net attack strength of 11 vs. a net defense strength of 4 has slightly lower
result probabilities than an attack of 3 vs. a defense of 1, but higher
probabilities than an attack of 2 vs. a defense of 1.

The modified attack value is calculated by: (attack factor@* of attacker + c)
x (terrain/fortification modifier of defender's hex)**

@ The attack factor is the hard or soft attack factor listed when the
fire-mode cursor is roamed over the target hex (or if roamed over the actual
3D icon). This number varies depending on the range to the target.c = Command
rating of same-hex leader provided that leader has Actions Points greater than
or equal to the Action Point firing cost of the firing unit. * x .5 if firing
unit is fatigued, disrupted, firing out-of/into smoke (per each occurrence;
FRD; minimum of 1). ** certain terrain and fortification types will reduce the
firepower of units that fire at targets in that terrain type.

The modified defense value is: (defense factor of defender) + (fortification
bonus*)

* +20 if defender can claim benefit of bunker or pillbox.

When a unit attacks, the program actually conducts a number of attacks equal
to the attacking unit's SPs. The number of SP is halved (FRD, to minimum of 1)
if the attacking unit is low on supply. The program then takes each individual
result and determines the net result vs. the defender.

* Attack-vs.-defense strengths between those listed above are calculated
individually by the program on a pro-rated basis, based on the result
probabilities of the two CRT lines the attack falls between. For example, a
net attack strength of 11 vs. a net defense strength of 4 has slightly lower
result probabilities than an attack of 3 vs. a defense of 1, but higher
probabilities than an attack of 2 vs. a defense of 1.

Damage Report Details: By default, the game does not display Damage Reports as
attacks are executed; i.e., "Low Details" are in effect by default. To change
to Medium Details, select "Details" from the "Options" pop-down menu, then
select "Medium Details" from the "Details" pop-out menu. To change to "High
Details", Medium Details must first be in effect. Then, when a "Damage Report"
box appears during the game, click on the toggle switch in the upper left hand
corner of the Damage Report box (the small toggle switch with the "o"). When
clicked on the button toggles to display an "x", thus indicating "High
Details" are in display. Whenever High Details are toggled on, you must
manually close the Damage Report box (by clicking on the "X" button in the
upper right corner, or by pressing the "Enter" key on the keyboard.

Direct Fire: Most combat units attack using Direct Fire, whereby the shooting
unit must have the target unit in its "line of sight" and within the range of
the firing unit. A Direct Fire attack must target a specific unit in the
target hex (unlike Indirect Fire, which can potentially affect all units in
the target location). If playing on the 3D map you can right-click directly on
the 3D icon you wish to fire at; if in a 2D map mode, you will be given a
Target Dialog box when you fire at a hex containing more than one targets.

The below combat example assumes "High Details" are in effect (see Damage
Report Details, above). Example: A Russian T-28 Medium tank is selected while
in Fire Mode. It has 100 AP (enough to fire twice, since its "Fire Cost" is
45). The fire-mode cursor is put over a German Rifle Platoon two hexes away in
village. A small box displaying "4/11" is superimposed over the target hex as
the fire-mode cursor roams over that hex. However, as the cursor is put
directly over the 3D icon of a German Rifle Platoon, the box changes to "6 -
Rifle Platoon @ 11", indicating the target is a 6-strength Rifle Platoon (that
has a "Defense" factor of 7) which can be shot at with an 11 attack strength.
Right-clicking on the 3D icon executes the attack.

The "Damage Report" indicates: "Rifle Platoon; Attack = 11 Defense = 7;
Modifier = 70%; Reduced by 1, Disrupted ". This informs us that 11 attack
factors shot at a target that had a defense factor of 7. The 70% indicates
that only 70% of the attacker's firepower hit the target due to the village
terrain modification of ".70" (see the East Front Parameter Data, available
from the Help pop-down menu, for a complete listing of the different terrain
and fortification modifiers.). The result of "Reduced by 1, Disrupted"
indicates the target unit had its strength reduced by one and is now
disrupted.

ATTACK RESULTS
No effect: The target unit is unaffected by the attack. Retreat (Morale
Check): A unit that fails a Morale Check result is retreated out of its
current hex. (Exception: if in a Pillbox or Bunker, the unit is Disrupted
instead). It the unit cannot retreat it is eliminated.Disruption: The target
unit is disrupted, meaning that its attack and assault strengths are halved,
it cannot initiate an assault, and it cannot move toward the nearest enemy
unit. An additional Disruption result has no effect on a disrupted unit.
Reduction of Strength Point: A unit can lose one or more SP due to being
attacked. Elimination: If an attack results in the loss of all of a unit's SP
that unit is eliminated.

Morale Loss: Besides the above "reported" combat effects, each time a unit
suffers a Strength Point loss or a Retreat result, there is a 35% chance that
its current morale will be reduced by one. Note: A unit that has its morale
reduced to 0 is eliminated regardless of the number of SP it has remaining.

MORALE RECOVERY
At the beginning of each friendly turn a unit whose morale is currently less
than its full morale will have its morale increased by one if it passes a
morale check. The program rolls a 10-sided die for each such unit; if the die
roll is equal to or less than the unit's current morale the morale check is
"passed". The presence of a friendly leader in the same hex that "commands"
that unit will improve the odds of that unit regaining morale (see Commanders,
below).

DISRUPTION LOSS
At the beginning of each friendly turn a disrupted unit at full morale (i.e.,
its current morale rating is at maximum) will become undisrupted if it passes
a morale check. The program rolls a 10-sided die for each such disrupted unit;
if the die roll is equal to or less than the unit's morale its disruption
status is removed. The presence of a friendly leader in the same hex that
"commands" that unit will improve the odds of that unit passing the morale
check and becoming undisrupted (see Commanders, below).

COMMANDERS
A commander (or leader) can perform several crucial functions. Not all
organizations will have a leader present on the map; consider any leader that
is present to be a "special" personality. To locate the units that are under
the command of a leader, select that leader and press the "Highlight
Organization" toolbar button; all units commanded by that leader will be
highlighted. A leader who is in the same hex as a firing unit that is under
his command will modify the attack/assault value of that attacking unit equal
to the leader's command value (listed in the leader's Unit Info Box), provided
the leader has Actions Points greater than or equal to the Action Point firing
cost of the firing unit. A leader used thusly to "direct" fire automatically
expends AP equal to the AP spent by the firing unit. Only the leader with the
highest command value participating in an assault modifies his side by his
Command rating.

A leader will modify the morale of each unit under his command that occupies
his hex. This will be noted by the unit's morale being red in the Unit Info
Box. The morale of the unit will be equal to the morale of the leader if the
leader's morale is higher than the unit's. If the leader's morale value is
less than or equal to the unit's, the unit's morale is increased by one. Since
a leader modifies the morale of each unit under his command in his hex, the
chance of a such a unit regaining morale or losing disruption is increased, as
these are based on passing morale checks.

A leader cannot be singled out as the target of an attack unless he is the
only occupant of a hex. Therefore, it is advisable to keep your leaders
stacked with friendly unit(s) of his command. Each time a hex containing a
leader is attacked there is a 4% chance the leader will become a casualty.

SUPPLY
At the start of each friendly turn, a supply check is made for each friendly
unit that fired in the preceding turn. A "percentile" (0-99) die roll is made
and compared to that side's "Ammo" level (turn on the Unit List to display
this number; hot key "U"). A supply check die roll equal to or less than the
friendly Ammo level means that the unit does not run low on supply for that
turn. If the supply check die roll is greater than the friendly Ammo level the
combat unit can then check to see if it can be resupplied by its HQ. If a
unit's "parent" HQ is not present on the map the unit must depend solely on
(re)supply by the base ammo level for its side; it will not be able to also to
make a second check based on the distance for its non-existent HQ.

Isolated: An Isolated unit can not be resupplied (nor provide supply if such a
unit is an HQ) until it is no longer Isolated. At the beginning of your turn,
the Command Report may report that one or more units are Isolated. Basically,
a unit is Isolated if it has been cut off or surrounded by enemy units.

Resupply by HQ: HQ can only provide supply to units under their command
"umbrella" (to quickly check what units a battalion HQ "commands", select that
HQ and press the "Highlight Organization" toolbar button). All units that are
commanded by that HQ will be highlighted. If a unit fails its inherent supply
check (see "Supply", above), the program then checks that unit's distance from
its HQ and makes another supply check. If a platoon's "parent" (i.e.,
battalion) HQ is not on the map, the program will search the map for other HQ
commanding that unit; e.g., the unit's regimental or divisional HQ. Basically,
the closer such a unit is to its HQ the better the chance of it being
resupplied by that HQ. If in the same hex as its HQ (and that HQ is "in
supply"), the unit will be resupplied automatically. As a unit's range from
its HQ increases, the chance of it being successfully resupplied decreases. At
the ranges listed below a unit has a 50% chance of being resupplied by its HQ.
A unit can still be supplied at ranges much greater than what is listed, but
(again) the chance of resupply decreases as the unit's range from its HQ
increases.

HQ Type Range in Hexes
Army/Corps HQ: infinite
Division HQ: 30
Brigade HQ: 15
Regiment HQ: 15
Battalion HQ: 8

HQ are never able to provide supply on any turn following a turn in which that
HQ changed its location (this simulates the HQ having to re-setup and
reestablish communications). Besides that, each HQ (exception: Army & Corps)
must also make a supply check at the beginning of each turn. Like a normal
combat unit, the HQ first checks simply against the Ammo level for that side;
if that check is not passed the HQ then makes another supply check based on
the distance from its "parent" HQ. Example: If a Battalion HQ fails its
initial supply check (the check made against that side's Ammo level), it then
makes a supply check based on the distance from its parent (in this case,
regimental) HQ. If that Battalion HQ is 15 hexes from its parent regimental
HQ, it has a 50% chance of passing that supply check.

Effects of being Low on Supply: A combat unit that attacks using Direct Fire
will only attack a number of times equal to its Strength Points divided by 2,
fractions rounded up (keep in mind that such a unit normally is allowed a
number of attacks equal to the number of Strength Points it has). A
Low-on-Supply artillery (indirect fire) unit cannot attack (this actually
represents that battery not receiving proper fire orders, or a breakdown in
communications or it being used to support other units in a nearby battle). A
Low-on- Supply HQ is unable to provide supply to other units under its
command. Note that units are never out of supply, a unit that is low on supply
can still attack, albeit at reduced effectiveness (Exception: indirect fire
units). Any Low-on-Supply unit that assaults does so at 3/4 effectiveness.
                                        
A unit that is low on supply is indicated by a "hollow" bullet icon near the
top of the icon bar along the left side of the Unit Info List. To highlight
all friendly units that are low on supply, from the "Display" pop-down menu
select "Highlight" then "Units/HQ Low on Supply". All affected units will be
highlighted. Depending on the map size, you may want to zoom out to locate all
the affected units.

TRANSPORTING UNITS
Any unit currently carrying a passenger of any type has a large, full-color
helmet icon in the lower right portion of its Unit Info Box. If eligible to
carry a passenger but not presently carrying one, the helmet icon on
"standard" transport units (trucks, halftracks, horses, motorcycles, etc.) is
shown as a yellow outline. To see what is being carried by any unit displaying
the full-color helmet icon, right-click on its Unit Info Box. Right-clicking
on the Info Box again will redisplay the transport unit or, if there are other
units in the hex, will display the next unit in the hex. Note that horses,
motorcycles, bicycles and boats cannot move unless a passenger is currently
loaded, whereas trucks, halftracks and artillery tractors (because each is
considered to have an "inherent" driver) can move if not loaded.

Tank Riders: Medium and heavy tanks, as well most assault guns and tank
destroyers, have the ability to carry infantry "riders" but cannot tow guns.
Such vehicles are designated by the presence of a "soldier with submachinegun"
icon in the lower-left corner of their Unit Info Box. Note that these types of
vehicles cannot fire while loaded.

Towing: Certain vehicles (e.g., artillery tractors) can tow guns but cannot
carry infantry. Such vehicles are designated by an "anti-tank gun" icon in the
lower-left corner of their Unit Info Box.

Loading: To load a unit onto any type of "empty" transport, the transport unit
must be in the same hex with and must have at least as many SP as its
potential passenger. Both must also have the requisite number of action points
to load (usually 50). Select both units (you can double-click on the hex if
they're the only two units in the hex; otherwise see the "Multi-Selecting"
below), then click on the "load/unload" toolbar button (which shows a truck
with infantry).

Unloading: To unload a transport unit, select it and click on the
"load/unload" button. Note that it generally costs 25 AP to unload from
"standard" transport types, but only 10 AP to unload "riders" from tanks.

Save AP to Unload: If you wish to ensure having enough AP to unload a
passenger after moving/firing its transport, select the latter and click on
the "Save APs for Unloading" toolbar button - ideally before the transport has
expended any AP. This will allow the transport to expend AP (e.g., to move)
while reserving enough for it to unload at the end of its move.

Multi-Selecting: To load a unit onto a transport in a hex that contains more
than just those two units, you will probably find it easiest to select them by
opening the Unit List (using the U key) and left-clicking on each of their
Unit Info Boxes. Alternatively, you can also select them by a careful
combination of right- and left-clicking on the single Unit Info Box. Each
right-click will cycle to the next unit in the hex, and each left- click will
select (or unselect) the displayed unit. Note that a selected unit has the
nameplate on its Unit Info Box highlighted.

HOW TO WIN
Victory in a standard (i.e., non-campaign game) scenario is determined by the
number of victory points your side has amassed at the end of the scenario.
Victory points are scored in three basic ways:1) Control of Objectives:
Certain hexes on the map are deemed important enough such that the side that
controls them at scenario end gains extra victory points. Each on-map
objective hex is designated by a special marker (this varies, depending on map
view). On the 3D map views objectives are marked by rectangular "plaques"; on
the 2D map views objective hexes are marked by oval or circular symbols.
Regardless of the map view the objectives are always color-coded to the
current controlling side (gold for Russian, blue for German). Furthermore, on
all views but the 2D zoom out the objective markers also list the victory
point value of that objective. The victory point value for that objective is
awarded to the side controlling that objective at the conclusion of the last
turn of the scenario. Note that objective markers are "on" by default. To
toggle them off or on, press the O key. To quickly review the objective hexes
in a scenario, select "Objectives." from the "Status" pop-down menu (you might
find it beneficial to first switch to the 2D normal or 2D zoom out map mode
before doing this). Clicking on the objective listed in the dialog will scroll
the map to that objective. At the start of a scenario each non-exit objective
is considered to be controlled by one side or the other (most objectives are
usually by the defending side). Control of an objective (exception: "exit
objectives" cannot be controlled) is awarded to the last side to occupy that
hex with a combat unit (one capable of direct or indirect fire, even if such a
unit is currently a passenger or rider). Leaders and unarmed transport units
cannot claim control of an objective.

2) Elimination of enemy strength points: Victory points are scored for each
strength point of an enemy unit eliminated (depending on the victory point
value of that SP). To view the current number of victory points scored due to
elimination of enemy strength points, select "Victory." from the "Status"
pop-down menu. The number in the "Total [side] Point Loss" window is the
number of victory points scored in this manner. For a more precise breakdown
of the exact type of losses inflicted, and their point value, select
"Strength." from the "Status" pop-down menu. The windows on the right side of
this dialog list the number and type of each strength point eliminated (and,
in parentheses, the VP value of each such SP). For example, the right window
of the Strength Dialog might contain "5 [3VP]PzKpfw IIIF", which would
indicate that five strength points of PzKpfwIIIF tanks have been eliminated,
each worth 3 VP each, for a total VP gain for the Russians of 15. To find the
VP value of the SP of a unit, select that unit and press the F2 key to access
the Unit Handbook (keep in mind that this VP value is per strength point, not
the total VP value of the unit).

3) Exit Objectives: An objective initially listing a value of "0" is an "exit
objective" for the side corresponding to the color of the objective. Each unit
of that side exited from such an objective is worth victory points to that
side. To exit a unit from the map (whether from an objective hex or not) move
the unit into the map edge hex, select the unit, then select "Remove From Map"
from the "Units" pop-down menu. As units are exited off an exit objective the
current number of victory points exited from that objective are immediately
tallied and reflected by the new number shown on that objective. (Note: If a
unit is removed from the map edge hex that is not an exit objective no victory
points are awarded, but neither does the exiting side lose victory points for
such a removed unit; this is a way to deny victory points to your enemy if the
unit has no recourse but to exit.) A removed unit cannot be reentered during
that scenario.

OTHER COOL THINGS TO KNOW
Map View: To quickly change the map display, use the hot keys 1 (3D Normal
View), 2 (3D Zoom-Out View), 3 (3D Extreme Zoom-Out View), 4 (2D Normal View)
and 5 (2D Zoom-Out View). These are the number keys located above "QWERT" on
the main keyboard. Rotate Map: You can rotate the scenario map's orientation
by 180 degrees (hot key R) by selecting "Rotate Map" from the "Display"
pop-down menu. Find Org.: To quickly locate a specific organization or unit on
the map, pick "Find Org." from the "Display" pop-down menu. Then find that
unit in the Order of Battle file. If the organization/unit is on the map, it
will be highlighted when you highlight its listing in the Order of Battle.

Options Menu: Items toggled off or on in this menu are "remembered" by the
program when the game is reopened. Adjusting your 3D icons: You can easily
rotate the 3D icons of your side by selecting that icon, then using the
"Delete" (rotate counter-clockwise) and "Page Down" (rotate clockwise) keys.
Additionally, you can use the "Home" and "End" keys to move a 3D icon
"forward" and "backward" (respectively) within a hex. Highlight This &
Highlight That: Choosing "Highlight" from the "Display" pop-down menu will
then present you with a pop-out list of many different types of units you can
highlight. This can be especially useful to locate certain types of units like
leaders or HQ, or to find all units currently low on supply or disrupted, for
instance.

Contour Lines: Use the "Display" menu's "Contour Lines" (or hotkey C) to
toggle map elevation contour lines on (and off). These can be especially
useful on the 3D map where it can sometimes be hard to see some of the
elevation changes. Unit Bases: Having trouble seeing 3D icons "hiding" in the
trees? Toggle the unit "bases" on by pressing the "Toggle Bases" toolbar
button (or selecting "Unit Bases" from the "Display" menu). Also, be sure to
try the "On-Map Thermometers" display when playing on a 3D map (hotkey T; see
"Thermometers", above).

EAST FRONT Hot Keys
These hot keys can be used in the Main program:
F1 - Open Main program help file
F2 - Opens Unit Handbook for selected unit
F3 - Open Scenario Parameter Data help file
F4* - Opens Miscellaneous (platoon) Data file
F5* - Opens Weapons Data file
* applies only to versions of East Front numbered 1.01 or higher.

Keyboard 1 - Display in 3D Normal mode
Keyboard 2 - Display in 3D Zoom-Out mode
Keyboard 3 - Display in 3D Extreme Zoom-Out mode
Keyboard 4 - Display in 2D Normal mode
Keyboard 5 - Display in 2D Zoom-Out mode
Number Pad 0 - Load/unload units
Number Pad 1 - Move selected unit down and left
Number Pad 2 - Move selected unit down
Number Pad 3 - Move selected unit down and right
Number Pad 4 - Turn selected unit counter-clockwise
Number Pad 5 - Initiate air attack on current Hot Spot hex
Number Pad 6 - Turn selected units clockwise
Number Pad 7 - Move selected unit up and left
Number Pad 8 - Move selected unit up
Number Pad 9 - Move selected unit up and right
Delete - Turn selected unit counter-clockwise
Next - Turn selected unit clockwise
Home - Move selected unit forward in hex
End - Move selected unit backward in hex
A - Display reinforcements' Arrived Dialog
C - Toggle display of map contour lines
F - Display fixed units' Release Schedule
H - Toggle display of hexes reachable by selected unit
I - Display scenario information
M - Toggle display of program menu
N - Advance to next unit to move or fire
O - Toggle display of objectives
P - Return to previous unit to move or fire
R - Rotate map 180 degrees
S - Display reinforcements' Scheduled Dialog
T - Toggle display of on-map thermometers
U - Toggle display of Unit List
X - Exit Main program
Up Arrow - Scroll map up
Down Arrow - Scroll map down
Right Arrow - Scroll map right
Left Arrow - Scroll map left
Space Bar - Recenter map on Selected hex/unit

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