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Навигация

Чит-файл для Fighter Wing

Fighter Wing

 За игрой пока никто не наблюдает. Первым будете?

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчик:Gemsoft
Издатель:Merit Studios
Жанры:Simulator (Flight Combat) / 3D

Даты выхода игры

вышла в 1995 г.

Solution [ENG]

Информация актуальна для
Ctrl+F1 - On/Off one color of terrain
Ctrl+F2 - On/Off shading of terrain
Ctrl+F3 - On/Off towns on the terrain
Ctrl+F4 - On/Off bitmaps on the terrain
Ctrl+F5 - Switch between method of screen redrawing (for FULL-SCREEN)
Ctrl+F6 - On/Off frame rate
Ctrl+F7 - On/Off Engine noise sound effects
Ctrl+F9 - Change color of HUD

Ctrl+ "-" - Decrease screen size for medium and high resolution
Ctrl+ "+" - Increase screen size for medium and high resolution
Ctrl+Alt+"+" - Restore maximum screen size

F9 - Virtual cockpit mode

     The following are numeric keypad controls for the virtual cockpit:
     1/End - Look to the left
     3/PgUp - Look to the right
     7/Home - Look up
     9/PgUp - Look down

Note: The mouse may be used to control the pilot's view while in virtual
cockpit mode.  (Users may steer the plane with the joystick or keyboard while
using the mouse to control the view in Virtual cockpit mode.)



The Story Scenarios: Extended Background

The historical background information that is detailed in this chapter  is
organized by region and
is intended to serve as an overview to the Story Scenario missions.  The
appropriate
missions are then explained following each historical background section.  To
find a particular mission, simply locate its geographic region in the list
below.

The Former Soviet Union

     Since the collapse of the central Soviet government in the
early 1990's, what used to be the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics (USSR) has since become: Russia, the
Ukraine, the Baltic states and the far eastern satellites (the
so-called "Stan" republics, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan). All these
regions were once under the direct rule of Moscow, but times
have changed.



     Premier Mikhail Gorbachev who assumed control of the Soviet
Union in 1985 has been credited with its dismantling. However,
it is more accurate to say that he oversaw its decay. The
exhausting arms race of the 1970's and the increased military
spending of the Reagan era presented the Soviet Union with a
dilemma. To maintain military superiority, they had to compete
with the more affluent United States. The United States could
afford to devote resources to military spending. The USSR could
not.



     Several factors contributed to this. Overly optimistic
financial planning during the hard-line Brezhnev era had locked
the Soviet economy into a system which simply didn't work.
Productivity declined in the manufacturing sector and no profit
was coming into the country from exports. The Soviet currency
was kept at an inflated rate by the Soviet government and was
difficult to negotiate. A policy against Western business
interests also slowed down economic growth. The USSR simply
could not afford to remain a "closed loop" in a world-market
economy.



     The USSR's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan also played a role in
its dissolution. Considered by many as "Russia's Vietnam", the
Soviet troops were not prepared for the Afghani terrain or the
tribal-style warfare and tenacity of the rebels. The war exacted
a heavy cost financially and in troop morale from the Soviet
military.



     A military withdrawal began in 1989, spurred by Premier
Gorbachev's Glasnost (openness) policies. In addition to a
cessation of militarism, he encouraged improved relations with
the West and promised economic reforms which would "open up" the
Soviet Union while promoting growth.



     The "openness" encouraged dissent and control of the U.S.S.R.
began to slip from under the thumb of Moscow. By the time the
Berlin wall fell in 1990 it was obvious that the Soviet Union
was collapsing, with separate states no longer being taken care
of by Moscow.



     Since the early 1990's, the situation in the former U.S.S.R.
can appear as a free-for-all, with new governments replacing
long-time Soviet rule and frequently grabbing at long disputed
territorial claims. This is most evident in the former
Yugoslavia, where Bosnian Muslims have been targeted for "ethnic
cleansing" (a euphemism for relocation) from Serbian territory.
Similar conflicts have erupted between Georgia and the state of
Abkazia, as well as Azerbaijan and Armenia.



     In the Ukraine, jurisdiction over the Crimea (awarded to the
Ukraine by Stalin in 1954) has come into question. The
economically troubled Ukraine is in need of any equity it
possesses now that it is no longer subsidized by Moscow.
Mission Descriptions



Afghan Border Patrol- Long after the Soviet troop withdrawal,
smugglers are running through Afghanistan into the Soviet
territory of Turkmenistan. They are smuggling arms to be sold to
the Russian Mafia, with the Afghan government turning a blind
eye. The Russians retaliate.



No-Fly in Georgia-  The state of Abkazi is fighting for
independence from the former Soviet state of Georgia. The
Russians have instituted a no-fly zone over the disputed
territories, but are having trouble maintaining it.



Missile Attack- Muslim extremists in Uzbekistan have taken the
opportunity to strike back at Moscow for what they see as years
of oppression. They have launched a hijacked Soviet cruise
missile at St. Petersburg. The Russians try to shoot down the
missile.



Missile Attack- Scenario Two- Zapatista rebels in Mexico have
obtained a nuclear-tipped Russian cruise missile. Aided by
Muslim extremists, they have launched it towards Washington as a
protest against the NAFTA trade agreement. American planes
attempt to shoot it down.



Assassination- Azeri mercenaries have been hired by the Irish
Republican Army to shoot down a British diplomatic 747. This
aircraft is carrying the Queen of England and the British Prime
Minister, and is flying on a goodwill mission to Moscow. The
Russians must try and stop the mercenaries.



Stealth Attack- A terrorist being held outside of Vladivistok in
Russian custody has agreed to reveal his contacts and sources.
He also may have information which would be damaging to the CIA.
The CIA decides to covertly deploy a Stealth bomber to destroy
the Dacha in which the terrorist is staying. The Russians are
informed of this by their spies in the US, and engage the
Stealth bomber.



Strike to the Crimea- Talks between the Ukraine and Russia over
economic and geographic disbursement have broken down. Russian
nationalists in Crimea attempt to seize control of Odessa to
claim it for Russia. Ukrainian bombers are sent from Kiev to
bomb them into submission. Russia sends planes to intercept
these bombers.



No Fly in Yugoslavia- The Serbian shelling of the Bosnian city
of Sarajevo has been going on for months. The UN has instituted
a "no fly" zone over the city. When Serb jets are reported
strafing parts of the city, the American contingent strikes back.



Biological Attack- It is 1997. The President of the United
States has gone insane and is convinced that Russia is planning
to declare war on America. He has attempted to set up a
biological weapons plant in Turkey to develop weapons to attack
the Russians. The Russians respond by intercepting the transport
planes which are supplying the plant.











The Cold War



     The events of the cold war affected the entire Western world.
The frequently uneasy Warsaw Pact/NATO relations shaped foreign
policy for an entire generation. For some, such open hostilities
seem almost unimaginable since the recent Soviet breakdown. But
for others the "undeclared war" is not easily forgotten.



     The post WWII USSR under the direction of Joseph Stalin became
a military superpower and controlled its republics with an iron
fist. Trade with the western world was discouraged and done as
little as possible. This can be attributed to Stalin's policy
that the Soviet Union was the champion of world Communism and
that any capitalist influences which would threaten this
attitude were subversive and to be quashed. Distrust of the west
was a fundamental tenet of Stalin's regime and was so ingrained
in the Soviet character that its effects to this day are still
felt.



     The post WWII threat of further Soviet aggression in Europe and
Asia led to the advent of the Cold War, with the United States
and the USSR locked in a battle for power; the possession of
nuclear weapons created a "cold war" mindset. Both sides kept
the peace utilizing the Mutual Assured Destruction doctrine
(MAD). The war was not a "hot" active war. It was a "cold"
hypothetical conflict. As long as the sides were balanced
militarily, the situation would not ignite.



     This attitude thawed somewhat under Stalin's successor Nikita
Kruschev, who seemed to welcome closer ties with the West,
especially the United States. But the downing of an American spy
plane (The U-2, in 1960) cooled relations and the Cuban missile
crisis - when the USSR put nuclear missiles within easy striking
distance of the USA -  created the "hottest" moment of the
"cold" war.



     A spirit of change ran through the sixties and by 1976 US
President Jimmy Carter's SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitation
Treaty) talks promised real change and a reduction in Nuclear
proliferation. But while the treaty was generally adhered to, it
was never officially ratified. The Soviet invasion of
Afghanistan ended this temporary thaw and the Reagan
administration increased military spending to new heights. The
early eighties were particularly tense; Reagan's "Star Wars"
satellite missile defense system was feasible enough to worry
the Soviets that the United States had an "edge" in the event of
a conflict. Soviet advances towards Iran following the 1979
revolution along with an increased presence in eastern Europe
concerned the Americans and their NATO allies. It was not until
Premier Gorbachev that the cold war began to abate, more for
financial reasons than military ones.





Mission Descriptions

World War III- First Scenario- Ronald Reagan's Star Wars
satellite defense system is a success, bolstering US military
confidence. When American troops enter East German territory,
the Soviets decide to launch a limited first strike. Bombers are
sent to American cities and the Americans respond in kind.





Recon into Germany- The Reagan administration's build up of the
US arsenal has alarmed the Soviets, who bolster their arsenal
accordingly. Both countries fortify their positions in Germany;
the Americans in the West, the Soviets in the East. Fearing that
the Americans might be preparing for a first strike, the East
Germans decide to fly covert recon missions into West Germany.



Recon into East Germany- The 1979 Iranian revolution has made
Iran an unstable country which is vulnerable to Soviet
aggression. Soviet troops mass at the Iranian border and there
is a heavy Soviet military build-up in East Germany. Fearing a
strike on both fronts, the Americans fly covert recon missions
into East Germany to determine troop strength.



Sneak Attack- Soviet jets and arms have been deployed in Cuba,
violating the American edict against any Soviet missiles on
Cuban soil. Diplomatic talks break down and soon Soviet jets are
flying over the Florida coast. American planes are sent to
engage.



Recon into Russia- NATO sources have revealed that all Soviet
weapons operations have been diverted to one factory near the
Chinese border. It is later revealed that the Soviets have
developed a manned orbital armed shuttle (MOAS) which could
overwhelm US defenses. The Americans decide to fly a recon
mission to gather more information.



World War III- Second Scenario- Disarmament talks between the
Soviets and the US break down when it is revealed that Russian
scientists have developed an effective neutron bomb. Sources
reveal that the Russians are testing this weapon in a combat
situation, using it against rebel uprisings in Uzbekistan. The
Americans decide to launch a limited first strike against select
Soviet cities and the Soviets respond in kind.





The Middle East



     The balance of power in the Middle East has always been
jealously contested by all of the countries in the region. It is
rife with "hot spots" and has been a source of unrest throughout
most of the twentieth century.



     The disputed territories of the middle east were under the rule
of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire until the early 20th century.
The Empire had allowed Jewish immigration for many years,
despite objections from some Arab groups. When the Empire
supported the Germans during WWI, the British secretly offered a
deal to the Arab population; if they supported Britain's war
effort, they would be granted independent homelands in Iraq,
Syria, the Transjordan (later renamed Jordan) and Palestine. The
British made similar offers to the Jewish settlers. They also
formed a secret treaty with France, dividing the post-war Middle
East into British and French zones, the British keeping Haifa
and Acre, the French controlling Baghdad and Basra, and
Palestine to be ruled under an international jurisdiction.



     Between 1923-28, conflicts flared between Arabs and Jewish
settlers. By the mid 1930's, with Jewish immigration flooding in
from Nazi dominated Eastern Europe, tensions increased further.
A national strike paralysed the area and rioting made it
impossible to keep the peace. By 1937, the British abandoned
their original mandate and decided to divide Palestine into
separate Arab and Jewish states with an international religious
area in Jerusalem and Bethlehem.



     Following WWII, the fledgling United Nations devised their own
partition scheme, which also created separate Arab and Jewish
homelands. Arab members withdrew from the UN in protest and
later on did not adhere to the mandate because it was not
ratified by the UN's own security council. The British abandoned
the region in May of 1948 and the UN borders (including the new
state of Israel) were established. Israel was then attacked by
its neighbouring Arab states.



     Fighting continued for 9 months. The Arab aggression only
managed to secure Old Jerusalem (by Jordan) and parts of Israel
which had not yet been occupied by Jewish settlers. A US
sponsored Armistice took effect in 1949 and was broken in 1967
by the Six Day War, in which Israel was attacked by Jordan,
Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt.  Israel destroyed the Egyptian
air force and seized control of Old Jerusalem and the Gaza
strip. The 1972 Yom Kippur war reasserted Israel's military
superiority in the region. The peace accord with the PLO in 1993
offers new hope for peace in the region.



     The history of Lebanon is similarly long and complicated.
Lebanon was ruled by the Ottoman empire until 1920, when it was
annexed by the French. It was declared a Republic in 1926. The
French mandate expired in 1943 and Lebanon became independent.
That same year, the "National Pact" system of government was
formed, promising equitable religious representation of the
country's three predominant religions; Maronite Christian,
Shiite and Sunnite Muslims.



     Following constitutional precedent, the head of the national
assembly would be Shiite, the premier would be Sunnite and the
president would be Maronite Christian. This system was
challenged after Muslim factions, citing Egyptian President
Abdel Nasser's call for Arab unity, began to challenge the
Christian dominated government. An armed insurrection was begun
in May of 1958 and lasted six months until US military
intervention put a halt to hostilities.



     During the 1960's, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
was becoming a force to be reckoned with. Thousands of
Palestinians who were displaced by the creation of the state of
Israel had taken refuge in special camps set up in Jordan, Syria
and Lebanon. The mandate of the PLO was that the state of Israel
was stolen land and therefore should not exist. The PLO,
supported by Syria, first operated out of camps in Jordan until
the Jordanian government felt that they had become too powerful.
Fighting between the Jordanian army and the PLO resulted in the
PLO being expelled from Jordan into Lebanon.



     The PLO presence in  and relentless attacks from South Lebanon
angered the Israelis, who began running occasional raids on PLO
camps. By 1975, the animosity between Lebanese Muslims and
Christians had degraded to a state of civil war. To appease the
Muslims, the Christian government offered to dissolve their
majority in the Chamber of Deputies. This was rejected by the
Muslim parties, because the Christians did not relinquish their
hold on the Presidency.



     During the war, Syria became concerned with the amount of
support that the PLO was gaining. In 1976 the Syrians became
involved in Lebanon,  generally supporting the Christian
government and taking the opportunity to bomb PLO positions in
Lebanon. In October of that same year, a peace plan brokered by
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the PLO took effect. The
agreement was that an Arab Defense Force (ADF) of approx. 30,000
men would patrol Lebanon to keep the peace, and that the PLO
would not interfere with Lebanon's government. But when militant
Christians tried to prevent the PLO from returning to their
South Lebanon bases, Syria shifted their support to the Lebanese
Muslims.



     The Syrian concern was that if a civil war partitioned the
country, the Christians would appeal to Israel for support and
Israel would gain more territory if victorious. When the PLO
began shelling Israeli territory from Lebanon on a regular basis
in 1978, Israel invaded and threw their support behind the
Christians. The Israelis cut a six mile "security belt" into
Lebanon to prevent the PLO from setting up missile bases close
to Israeli territory. The invasion was withdrawn several months
later, condemned by the UN security council.



     During this time, the more radical Christian factions objected
to the Maronite offer of power sharing with the Muslims and
opposing factions began armed combat against one another.



     A US brokered cease-fire in 1981 was broken by the Israelis in
1982. Their concern was that the PLO were preparing for a major
push against Israel and had to be stopped.  Israeli air support
began pounding PLO strongholds in Beirut. Fighting continued
until Aug. 20th of that year, when a multinational peacekeeping
force (US, Italian, French) arrived to keep the peace. On Sept.
1st, 14,440 PLO/Syrian troops were removed from Beirut. Later
that year, Israeli troops entered West Beirut.



     After a suicide bombing of an American military barracks in
Oct. 23, 1983 and the endless battles over West Beirut by rival
Muslim factions in 1984, it became obvious that the Lebanese
army had become too fractionalized to remain effective. The
international peacekeeping forces began to withdraw. President
Gemayal formed a new government in March of 1985, carefully
balancing his cabinet with disparate religious and geographical
representatives. However, the factional fighting continued.
Israeli troops facing Shiite attacks in the south withdrew in
1985, after setting up a border security zone manned by the
Christian militia.



     President Gemayal was unable to regain the presidency in the
election of 1988 and rival governments were formed. By September
of that year, Christian groups accepted the Arab League
cease-fire, which remains in place to this day. Syrian troops
left the country and a new government, equally representing
Muslims and Christians, was formed.



     The war between Iran and Iraq drained the resources of both
countries for over eight years. The reasons for the war were not
immediately evident to Western observers. Iran, in 1979, had
just overthrown its US supported government and had replaced it
with an Islamic fundamentalist party led by the Ayatollah
Khomeni. It is possible that the predominantly Sunnite Muslim
government of Iraq felt threatened by the intensity of the
Iranian revolution and feared that the Iranian activism may
spread to their own Shiite population and undermine the
government. The resulting chaos made Iran ripe for invasion.
Iran was also a wealthier country at the time, with better
developed oil fields. Whether the concerns were religious or
financial, Iraqi troops advanced across the Iraq/Iran border at
Khuzestan in 1981, commencing a war that would last for over
eight years and claim thousands of lives from both sides. The
war also caused Iraq to amass billions of dollars of loans from
Kuwait, which was one of the factors which led to the Gulf War
of 1991.



     The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in late 1990 led to the first
military action of what US President George Bush referred to as
The New World Order. The invasion was spurred largely by
financial reasons. Kuwait was owed money by Iraq, which was
exhausted financially and militarily by the long Iran/Iraq war.
The oil-rich Kuwait was small, and not well defended, and fell
quickly to Iraqi troops.



     The invasion was immediately condemned by the United Nations
and was protested by several Arab states. A resolution was
passed that if Iraqi troops did not withdraw by Feb. 15th, 1991,
a state of war would exist between UN forces and Iraq. Iraqi
President Saddam Hussein defied the UN ordinance and tried to
garner support from his Arab neighbours, claiming that the war
would be a "holy war" against US imperialism. The UN formed
Coalition was led by United States and British forces included
over 14 countries, including Saudi Arabia.



     Merciless air attacks by coalition forces and support by
neighbouring Arab countries brought the war to a quick end, with
low casualties for the Coalition forces and almost complete
destruction of the Iraqi army. Since then however, Iraq has been
slow in meeting its obligations under the UN surrender plan, and
tensions in the region remain high.



Mission Descriptions



Syria- It is 1978 and Syrian troops have entered Lebanon in an
effort to quell the civil war which would threaten peace in the
entire region. Israeli forces have cut a 6 mile "protection
belt" into Lebanon to protect themselves from missile attacks.
The Syrians increase their air support in the region to make
sure the Israelis advance no further.



The Bekka Valley- Scenario One- It is 1984 and the PLO have dug
themselves into Southern Lebanon in the Bekka valley. They have
been staging missile attacks on Israeli territory, which spurs
the Israelis into responding with air attacks. The Syrians
engage any Israeli aircraft which fly over the valley.



The Bekka Valley- Scenario Two- The Syrians have not loosened
their hold on the Bekka valley and you must defend Israel's
interests in the region. You will engage Syrian pilots in an
Israeli F-15.



Strike over Kuwait- Scenario One- The last days of the Gulf War
have spurred Iraqi troops into fortifying their positions in
occupied Kuwait city. Coalition forces attempt to stage an
amphibious assault. The Iraqis attack the approaching troop
carriers and their air escort.



Strike over Kuwait- Scenario Two- Coalition jets, escorting a
contingent of troop transports, are attacked by Iraqi air forces
off the coast of Kuwait city. The Coalition forces engage Iraqi
bombers.



Iranian Border Patrol- The tensions before the Iran/Iraq war
have resulted in both countries massing troops at each other's
borders. The Iranians deploy an aircraft to fly a reconnaissance
mission into Iraqi airspace to observe troop movements.



Nerve Gas- After their defeat in the Gulf War, the Iraqis begin
to set up a chemical warfare plant over the Syria/Iraq border in
Syrian territory. The Syrians do not respond to a US request to
search the area. The Americans decide to fly over the area and
shoot down any aircraft which appears to be flying supplies to
the chemical plant.



Patrol over Libya- Two years after the American bombing of
Libya, terrorist activities from that country begin to reoccur.
When Libyan jets encroach upon Egyptian airspace, the Egyptian
government requests help. The US intervenes and engages the
Libyan fighters.



The Asian Theatre



     The balance of power in Asia has long been dominated by
military giants (China, North Korea) and economic powerhouses
(Japan, South Korea). While Communism is waning in the West, the
Eastern style of Communism still flourishes and is still a force
to be reckoned with in the region.



     China has been a Communist country since 1949 when the
Communist leader Mao Tse-Tung took power and declared the
country to be The Peoples Republic of China. A rift with
Stalinist Russia occurred in 1957 when Mao challenged Stalin's
ideology, disagreeing with the Stalinist theory that "The
Socialist camp must have a leader, and that leader is the Soviet
Union." Russia withdrew all its support from China in 1960 and
cancelled any financial aid or technological contracts.



     Two years before, Mao began "The Great Leap", an ambitious
program of agricultural and economic reform that was supposed to
convert the country into a new land, devoid of any Soviet
influence. However, many of the projects were implemented too
quickly to work properly and much of the economic damage was not
rectified until 1962.



     In 1966, the Cultural Revolution began, based on a theory of
Mao's which stated that a true revolution cannot be ordained by
the government, it must come instead from the people. This
revolution, overseen by a peoples army called the Red Guard,
began a campaign of denouncement and paranoia on a Stalinist
scale that would last until the early 1970's. All foreign
diplomats were harassed or expelled. Relations with the Soviets
worsened with Soviet and Chinese forces clashing at the Ussuri
river at the border of Manchuria and Siberia.



     But hostilities with the Soviets eventually led to improved
relations with much of the Western world. Assuming that any
enemy of the Soviet Union would be a friend of China, Western
contact was encouraged, led by US President Nixon's historic
trips to China in the early 1970's. Still, China remains very
much a closed country, especially after the Western sanctions
that were imposed after the Tenninman Square massacre in 1989,
where students protesting for democratic reforms were fired upon
by Chinese troops.



     The Communist state of North Korea, supported by China, has
been a volatile area since its foundation. After its liberation
from Japanese occupation during WWII, the occupying armies of
the USA, Britain, USSR and China agreed that the country of
Korea should be divided. Japanese troops north of the 38th
parallel would surrender to the Soviet army and those to the
South would surrender to US troops.



     In 1948, both states elect rival governments with the North
electing Kim Il Sung in a Soviet style election. The USSR was
anticipating that the South would become a valuable Asian
Communist satellite. On June 25th, 1950, North Korean troops
moved over the border to attempt to reunify the country (under
Communist rule) by force. The newly formed UN sent armed forces
from over 20 countries to defend South Korea and condemned the
North Korean aggression. The war lasted until 1953, with South
Korea signing a protection treaty with the United States and
North Korea signing a similar treaty with the USSR and The
Peoples Republic of China.



     Further attempts at reunification were not attempted until the
early 1970's and have met with only sporadic support between the
countries. The hard line Stalinist rule of Kim Il Sung continued
until his death in 1994.



     The state of Kashmir, lodged between India and Pakistan, has
been a point of dispute between the two countries since its
accession to India in 1947. Pakistan does not recognize the
Indian mandate and claims that Kashmir should be ruled under a
Pakistani government. The Muslim/Hindu tensions between Pakistan
and India are frequently evoked while arguing over the
possession of Kashmir. The predominantly Muslim Kashmiri
population is governed from New Delhi by a Hindu administration,
which causes some dissent. Although the Kashmiri Muslim majority
accepts the Indian government, there are factions within the
country which want to embrace Pakistani rule.



Mission Description



North Korean Bomb- The North Korean army has developed a nuclear
bomb. Western forces learn that the bomb is being flown to
Chongjin and decide it must be destroyed quietly and quickly. A
stealth fighter is deployed to shoot down the Korean transport
plane.



Korean Surprise Raid- Following the death of North Korean leader
Kim Il Sung, South Korea has decided to launch an attack on a
North Korean Nuclear facility, to curtail their burgeoning arms
program. The North Koreans respond to the attack.



War in Asia- A pro-democracy movement in North Korea has
threatened to topple the government. China intervenes, massing
troops on North Korean soil. The South Koreans appeal to the
Japanese for assistance. The Japanese respond and engage Chinese
air forces in battle.



Battle on the Korean Peninsula- South Korea has been massing
troops at the North Korean border, preparing to help the North
Korean people in an uprising against their Communist leaders.
China, not wanting a war on its borders, launches an attack on
South Korean forces.



Kashmir- Enlisting the help of Kashmiri Muslims and Sikhs, the
Pakistani government has managed to gather enough information to
stage an attack on Kashmir. This will hopefully overpower the
Indian military rule over the area. When the Indians attack a
Pakistani airbase near the border, the Pakistanis respond by
engaging the Indian forces.


Aircraft



     The aircraft museum gives you a detailed look at the aircraft
of the game. To the far right of the screen is a scroll bar of
either American and Russian aircraft, target planes or missiles.
When you decide on an aircraft, move the cursor over to it and
either depress the left mouse button or press return.



     The aircraft will be displayed in a 3-D image on the screen.
You can rotate the aircraft in space by moving the cursor over
the arrow control under the screen or by using the arrow
buttons. The aircraft's specifications and history are displayed
in a text window to the right of the rotation control.



     The wide assortment of aircraft in Fighter Wing includes
present day fighters and older classic fighters. All of the
aircraft mentioned are still in active service all over the
world. Any aircraft that are not available for the player to fly
but are encountered in the various missions are listed under
"Non-Player" aircraft.



     Here is a list of the aircraft available in Fighter Wing.   The
names in quotations marks are their NATO designated titles.
Each airplane is described fully in the following pages.
American Planes:    Russian Planes:



                    The F-4 "Phantom"                       The
MiG-21bis "Fishbed"

                    The F-15C "Eagle"                       The
MiG-23MF "Flogger"

                    The F-16C "Falcon"                      The
MiG-29 "Fulcrum"

                    The F-18A "Hornet"                      The
MiG-31 "Foxhound"

                    The F-117A "Stealth"
The Su-27 "Flanker"



     There are other aircraft in the game which you, as the player,
don't get to fly. However, you will encounter them from mission
to mission. These are called Non-Player Aircraft and are as
follows:



     Russian Planes:                         American Planes:

          The Tu-160 "Blackjack"                  The C-132 "Provider"

          The An-26 "Curl"                        The B-52
"Stratofortress"

                                             The Boeing 747
"Jumbo Jet"



     During the early training missions, you will encounter other
aircraft. These are:

          The F-5E "Tiger"                        The Boeing E-3A
"Sentry"

          The Dassault "Mirage" F-1               The Dassault "Mirage"
2000

          The Boeing/Sikorsky RAH-66 "Comanche"






     F-4F "Phantom"







     The F-4 "Phantom" first began development in 1953 as designed
by the McDonnell Aircraft Company. It was first flown in May of
1958. By 1960 the F-4 was put into service by the US Navy air
Force and Marine Corps. The plane was used to great effect
during the Vietnam war and was in production until 1981.



     The F-4 was, at its advent, perilously close to never being
developed. The McDonnell Aircraft Company had lost a development
contract with the US Navy after planning a supersonic
carrier-based fighter. Instead of abandoning the project, they
continued to develop the craft in spite of the contract loss.
Once it was established that this fighter would be a single
seat, all weather, missile capable plane, McDonnell revised
their proposal and the US Navy realized that it was being
offered an outstanding fighter aircraft. This time, McDonnell
won the contract. The rest is history and resulted in one of the
most reliable US created combat fighters. During the F-4's
engagement in Vietnam a cannon was added and has been available
in all later models. It served well in Vietnam and has also been
used to a great extent by the Israeli Air Force. The craft is
still in use with the German, Israeli, Saudi Arabian and British
air forces. In the 1960's and early 1970's it dominated most
performance records.



Flight Specifics



Top Speed- 2,413 km/h (1,508 mph)

Combat flight distance- 4,184 km (2,600 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 19.2 m (63 ft)

Wing span: 11.7 m (38.4 ft)

Height of aircraft: 4.96 m (16.2 ft)

Weight (empty): 8,120 kg (3,690 lb)













     F-15C "Eagle"









     The F-15 "Eagle" was developed by the McDonnell Aircraft
Company. The first prototype flew in July of 1972 with further
developments occurring in 1979, 1985 and 1989, after which
production was halted temporarily. Production was started again
during 1991.



     The F-15 "Eagle" excels at both air-to-ground and air-to-air
combat missions. Its outstanding manoeuvrability and exceptional
aptitude for carrying heavy arms makes it an invaluable addition
to the US arsenal. The F-15C "Eagle" variation, first introduced
in 1979, is particularly well-suited to dogfight combat and can
accommodate up to four "Sidewinder" and "Sparrow" AAM's, along
with a 20mm six-barrel gun with 940 rounds of ammunition and up
to 10,705 kg (23,600 pounds) of bombs. It is considered one of
the world's top dogfighting jets. It is also one of the most
expensive to produce. It has been used particularly well by the
Israeli Air Force.



Flight Specifics



Top speed- 2,655 km/h (1,659 mph)

Combat flight distance- 4,818 km (2,994 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 19.43 m (63.7 ft)

Wing span: 13.05 m (42.8 ft)

Height of aircraft: 5.63 m (18.5 ft)

Weight (empty): 12,970 kg (28,534 lb)















     F-16C "Falcon"









     The F-16 began its development in 1972. It stemmed from the
YF-16 prototype as produced by General Dynamics (which was later
purchased by Lockheed). The first flight took place in February
of 1974 with full-scale development of an improved design
beginning in 1976.



     The F-16 was first developed to be a lightweight efficient
dogfighter, which could be produced with low cost in mind. Since
its inception it has become an exceptionally proficient
multi-role fighter, excelling in both air-to-air combat and
ground attacks. It was the first US craft to utilize
"Fly-by-wire" technology (flight controlled by electrical
signals, rather than mechanical means). The F-16C "Falcon"
features all-weather performance and wing pylons that have been
improved from earlier models. This makes the craft less
vulnerable to G-force limitations during combat. It also
features a 20mm Gatling gun. It has become the benchmark for
fighter manoeuvrability.



Flight Specifics



Top Speed- 2,123 km/h (1,327 mph)

Combat flight distance- 1,371 km (852 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 15.03 m (49.3 ft)

Wing span: 9.45 m (31 ft)

Height of aircraft: 5.09 m (16.7 ft)

Weight (empty): 8,273 kg (18,238 lb)











     F-18A "Hornet"









     The F-18 began its development in 1974 as commissioned by the
US Navy. It was designed by the McDonnell Douglas company with
the Northrop development company as an associate producer. The
first "Hornet" took flight in November 1978, with 11 aircraft
flying by March of 1980. The US Navy took delivery of the first
completed models in May of 1980.



     The history of the F-18 is somewhat controversial. The project
suffered from cost overruns and debates about its need and its
efficiency. Originally, the F-18 was in competition with the
F-16 for an Air Force contract. The F-16 was chosen. A short
time later, the Navy and the Marines decided that the F-18
perfectly suited their needs. The F-18 is bigger than the F-16
and can carry more ordnance, making it a good plane for strike
duties. The F-18 has established itself as an outstanding
multi-role fighter aircraft. It has actually managed to surpass
its original expectations in its performance except when it
comes to its flight range, where it has not met its original
goal. The F-18A "Hornet" is a fly-by-wire aircraft (utilizing
electrical signals rather than mechanical means to control the
craft), featuring an advanced radar system. Being such an
effective all-weather fighter, it is popular with foreign buyers
such as Australia, Canada and Spain.



Flight Specifics



Top Speed- 2,125 km/h (1,328 mph)

Combat flight distance- 722 km (449 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 17.07 m (56 ft)

Wing span: 11.43 m (37.5 ft)

Height of aircraft: 4.66 m (15.3 ft)

Weight (empty): 10,455 kg (23,048 lb)















     F-117A "Stealth"









     The highly secret development of this aircraft began in 1976
under the direction of the Lockheed Advanced Development Company
associated with the US Flight Dynamics Laboratory. The first
prototype crashed in May 1978, the second in 1980. Three
prototypes were developed and flown between 1982 and 1990 and
the first operational deployment was during the US invasion of
Panama in December of 1990.



     The F-117A "Stealth" fighter is the legendary "invisible" US
fighter. The "Stealth" technology enables the plane to be nearly
undetectable to radar. Special slats at the engine outlets
disperse heat, making the craft difficult to spot for infra-red
guided missiles and other IR sensors. Twin engines are mounted
above its fuselage. It is black, unusually flat for an airplane
and resembles the early "flying-wing" type aircraft. The
fuselage consists of aluminum with nickel alloy jetpipes and
some thermoplastic graphite composites used in the rudder
design. It is primarily a bomber aircraft but is capable of
engaging other aircraft in dogfight situations due to its low
detectability.



Flight Specifics



Top Speed- 1,127 km/h (704 mph)

Combat flight distance- 1,112 km (691 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 20.08 m (65.8 ft)

Wing span: 13.2 m (43.3 ft)

Height of aircraft: 3.78 m (12.4 ft)

Weight (empty): 13,600 kg (29,920 lb)







The MiG-21bis "Fishbed" N:









     First planning of the MiG-21 aircraft began in 1953, designed
and manufactured by the Mikoyan Design Bureau. It was developed
under the direction of Colonel-General Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan
and Mikhail Iosifovich Guryevich. In-flight testing began in
1957, with production beginning in 1958.



     The MiG-21 is a standard well designed workhouse aircraft,
whose reliability has been proven time and time again since its
advent in 1958. Initially, performance was substandard; the
first MiG-21's had a low fuel capacity (500km fighting range)
which would be further reduced with combat flying. Improvements
resulted in a manoeuvrable and adaptable plane which could out
manoeuvre the more technologically advanced American planes of
its time. The MiG-21bis "Fishbed" N has been produced since 1980
and features a "swift rod" antennae, seven internal self-sealing
fuel tanks and can carry two AA-2 "Atoll" and four AA-8 "Aphid"
missiles, outboard and inboard respectively. Improvements have
made this a heavier aircraft than earlier model MiG fighters, so
it lacks the agility of smaller MiG variations. Over 10,000 have
been produced and sold to over 20 countries worldwide. The
MiG-21's are expected to be flying well into the next century.



Flight Specifications



Top speed- 2,150 km/h (1,344 mph)

Combat flight distance- 1,150 km (715 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 13.46 m (44.2 ft)

Wing span: 7.15 m (23.5 ft)

Height of aircraft: 4.1 m (13.4 ft)

Weight (empty): 5,750 kg (12,650 lb)









The MiG-23MF "Flogger" G









     The first plans for the MiG-23 were devised in 1964 as a
product of the Mikoyan Design Bureau. A prototype appeared in
July of 1967 at the Domodyedovo Airport in Moscow as part of the
Soviet Aviation Day flypast. The Soviet Air Forces took delivery
of a test model in 1970 and completed models in 1973. Soviet
production ended during the mid-1980's. MiG-23 variations
continue to this day to be manufactured in India.



     The MiG-23 was an important tactical warplane when it was
introduced into the Soviet arsenal. It was the first Soviet
tactical fighter which could match the performance and payload
of such American-designed craft as the F-4. It was also the
first Soviet aircraft to feature "swing-wing" technology. The
MiG-23 "Flogger" G was produced from 1976-81. It is especially
effective in combat when utilizing the AA-7 "Apex" missile but
is not especially well suited for dogfighting because of its
"swing-wing" capability and vulnerability to battle damage.



Flight Specifics

Top speed- 2,500 km/h (1,563 mph)

Combat flight distance- 1,300 km (805 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 16.71 m (54.8 ft)

Wing span: 14 m (45.92 ft)

Height of aircraft: 4.82 m (15.9 ft)

Weight (empty): 10,800 kg (23,760 lb)









     MiG-29 "Fulcrum" A









     The planning for the MiG-29 began in 1972 by the Mikoyan Design
Bureau. Development was under the direction of Rostislav A.
Belyakov. Detailed design began in 1974 and US satellites
photographed the first prototype flying in 1977 at the
Ramenskoye flight test centre in the USSR. Actual production
began in 1982 with the aircraft becoming operational in 1985.



     The MiG-29 was designed by the Soviet air force to compensate
for the leaps in technology made by the US air force in their
F-16 and F-18 aircraft. The Soviet planes were simply too slow
or awkward to deal with such new threats. It soon became evident
that the MiG-29 "Fulcrum" A  was equal to the F-16 and F-18's in
its performance. A large wing area provides high lift and gives
it impressive manoeuvrability. In addition, its cockpit offers
superior visibility to other Soviet-originated fighters. It is a
versatile aircraft and is even able to safely take off and land
on dirt roads in lieu of a proper runway.



Flight Specifics



Top speed- 2,440 km/h (1,525 mph)

Combat flight Distance- 1,500 km (932 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 17.32 m (56.8 ft)

Wing span: 11.36 m (37.3 ft)

Height of aircraft: 4.73 m (15.5 ft)

Weight of aircraft- 10,900 kg (23,980 lb)









     MiG-31 "Foxhound" A


     The MiG-31 prototype was tested for the first time in September
1975 as a product of the Mikoyan Design Bureau. Full-scale
production began in 1979 with the Soviet air force taking
delivery in 1983 to replace MiG-23's and Su-15's. This craft is
still being produced at the Nizhny Novgorod plant.


     The West's first information about the craft which would become
the MiG-31 occurred in 1975 when a Soviet MiG-25 "Foxbat" landed
in Japan. The pilot was Lt. Viktor Belyenko, a Soviet defector.
During his debriefing he revealed that the Soviets were testing
a two-seated variation of the same craft with improved armament
and manoeuvrability. These tests culminated in the MiG-31
"Foxhound" A, an improved version of the MiG-25 "Foxbat"
aircraft. Improvements include a more precise radar system
(similar to the McDonnell Douglas F-14) and an improved
power plant. It has been hypothesized that the Soviets bought an
F-14 from Iranian contacts and dismantled it, utilizing some of
that technology in the MiG-31. The MiG-31 has a powerful
multi-targeting radar and the ability to carry the AA-9 "Amos"
self-homing missile.



Multi Targeting System - This system allows your aircraft to
"lock" onto more than one target at a time. This allows the
firing aircraft to deploy more than one radar homing missile at
a time, allowing it to engage multiple enemy planes (this is
available only on the MiG-31).





Flight Specifics



Top Speed- 3,000 km/h (1,875 mph)

Combat flight distance- 720 km (447 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: (including nose probe) 22.7 m
(74.5 ft)

Wing span: 13.46 m (44.1 ft)

Height of aircraft: 6.15 m (20.2 ft)

Weight (empty): 21,800 kg (47,960 lb)









     Sukhoi Su-27 "Flanker" A









     The Sukhoi Su-27 began its development in 1969 under the
direction of Pavel Sukhoi. The first prototype, the T-10-1, was
built under the supervision of Mikhail Seemonov and first flown
in May of 1977. Actual production began in 1980 and the craft
was put into service in 1984. A version suited for ground attack
was reported in 1991.



     The Sukhoi Su-27 was first devised as a response to the combat
power of the US F-15 Eagle. The plane suffered a difficult
development period and two pilots were killed during test
flights. After these incidents, major design changes were made.
The "Flanker" A is particularly efficient at shooting down low
flying aircraft and cruise missiles. It can carry up to eight
AA-2 "Atoll", AA-8 "Aphid" or AA-10 "Alamo" medium range AAM's
(air to air missiles), making it a formidable opponent. It is
capable of flying manoeuvres which no US built aircraft can
emulate. It is also the first Russian plane to utilize a
"fly-by-wire" system (the plane is controlled and adjusted by
electronic signals rather than by mechanical means).



Flight Specifics



Top speed- 2,500 km/h (1,562 mph)

Combat flight distance- 1,450 km (901 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail: 21.9 m (71.8 ft)

Wing span: 14.7 m (48.2 ft)

Height of aircraft: 5.9 m (19.4 ft)

Weight (empty): 13,600 kg (29,920 lb)



Tupolev Tu-160 "Blackjack"



     The Tu-160 was designed for the Soviet Air Force under the
direction of V.I. Bilznuk. A prototype was first sighted at the
Ramenskoye flight test centre on Nov. 25th 1981 and the first
working model first flew on Dec. 19th 1981. Production began in
May of 1987.



     The "Blackjack" is a bomber intended for high altitude
engagement. It is notable for being a bomber with long distance
capability, superior in range and speed to its closest
equivalent, the USAF B-1B. It is noted for being a very
manoeuvrable aircraft due to its swing-wing design. It is a fly
by wire aircraft (utilizing electric motors, rather than manual
adjustment, for aircraft control). Other features include a
sophisticated ECM system and a terrain-following radar to be
utilized during low altitude flying.



Flight Specifics



Top speed- 2,000 km/h (1,250 mph)            Combat flight distance-
12,000 km (7,457 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail- 42.46 m (139.3 ft)   Wing span-
23.3 m (76.4 ft)

Height of aircraft- 11.05 m (36.2 ft)             Weight of aircraft-
50,000 kg (110,000 lb)





Antonov An-26 "Curl"



     The Antonov 26 was first introduced at the Paris Air Show of
1969. It was produced by the Antonov Design Bureau under the
direction of Oleg Konstantinovich Antonov. The An-26 was
superseded by the An-32 in 1984, but Chinese built derivatives,
models Y7-100 and 200, are still in production.



     Although the "Curl" is a variation of the twin turboprop An-24
its fuselage design is completely different. It is notable for
being able to adapt from being a cargo carrier, to being able to
drop paratroops, to being able to serve as an air ambulance. It
is a strong versatile aircraft which is a valuable tool among
Russia's aircraft customers.



Flight Specifics



Top speed- 435 km/h (272 mph)           Combat flight distance-
2,660 km
(1,652 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail- 23.8 m (78.1 ft)     Wing span-
29.2 m (95.8 ft)

Height of aircraft- 8.58 m (28.1 ft)              Weight of aircraft-
(empty) 14,000 kg (30,800 lb)




Boeing B-52 "Stratofortress"



     Work on the design of the B-52 began in 1945 contracted by the
U.S. air force to the Boeing Aerospace Corp. A first prototype
flew in April of 1952. In 1954 the first production models
appeared. The aircraft has been in operation since 1957.



     The beginning of the B-52 stemmed from a conflict. Boeing and
Convair both competed for the USAF contract to develop a
long-range bomber. Convair had already developed the B-36 and
had proposed a new ship, the YB-60. This craft would have been
more economical than Boeing's proposal, but did not match the
performance of the planned B-52. Boeing won the contract.



     Featuring eight jet engines and a long flight range, there is
almost no destination that cannot be reached by the B-52. It is
a large and very powerful aircraft regarded as the ultimate
bomber workhorse of the USAF and was elemental in the US
involvement in the Asian theatre during the Vietnam war. It is
nearing 40 years of service and shows no sign of being retired.



Flight Specifics



Top speed- 957 km/h (598 mph)           Combat flight distance-
16,093
km (10,000 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail- 48.03 m (157.5 ft)   Wing span-
56.38 m (184.9 ft)

Height of aircraft- 12.4 m (40.7 ft)              Weight of aircraft-
150,000 kg (330,000 lb)





Boeing 747 "Jumbo Jet"



     The Boeing 747  first began production in 1966. It first flew
in February of 1969 and was certified for commercial use on Dec.
30th 1969. Its first commercial flight (for Pan-American
airways) was on Jan. 21st 1970.



     The beginnings of the 747 stem from a US Army contract which
Boeing bid upon and lost. When Lockheed won an Army contract to
develop a large carrier aircraft, Boeing began to re-evaluate
their own design for possible use in the passenger air market.
The largest passenger aircraft at that time was the Douglas
DC-8, and Boeing aimed to create a larger plane by maximizing
load capability in both cabin size and the freight hold. The 747
would be able to hold 3 times as many passengers as the previous
largest airliner.



     Although the venture was expensive (an entire new plant had to
be built to accommodate production), Boeing undertook the
project. An order for 25 such aircraft by Pan-American airlines
boosted investor confidence and the plane has since become an
industry mainstay.



Flight Specifics

Top speed- 910 km/h (565 mph)           Maximum flight range-
10,200 km
(6,338 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail- 70 m (230 ft)        Wing span- 59 m
(194 ft)

Height of aircraft- 19 m (62.3 ft)           Weight of aircraft- (empty)
166,471 kg (366,999 lb)



The Dassault "Mirage" F1



     Various models of the "Mirage" had been in production since
1960. When the first F1 prototype appeared in 1969, it was the
first "Mirage" developed without the delta wing feature which
had been prominent in earlier models. The improved
manoeuvrability of the F1 made it a reliable combat aircraft. By
1973 the craft was in service in such countries as Ecuador,
Greece, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, South Africa and Spain.



Top speed- 2,335 km/h (1,450 mph)            Maximum flight range- 900
km
(560 miles)

Length of aircraft- 15 m (49.2 ft)           Wing span- 8.4 m (27.8 ft)

Height of aircraft- 4.5 m (14.9 ft)               Weight of aircraft-
(loaded) 14,900 kg (24,030 lb)





The Dassault "Mirage" 2000



     The "Mirage" is a two seated French designed aircraft. The
first prototype flew in March 1978 and the completed model began
delivery in December 1983. It has been called one of the
simplest and cleanest fighters ever built. It has been exported
to several Middle-East countries including Egypt and Jordan.



Top speed- 2,214 km/h (1,320 mph)            Maximum flight range- 1,800
km (1,118 miles)

Length of aircraft- 14.35 m (47.1 ft)             Wing span- 9 m (29.6 ft)

Height of aircraft- 5.3 m (17.8 ft)               Weight of aircraft- 7,400
kg (16,315 lb)





The Northrop F-5E "Tiger"



     The first "Tiger" prototype flew in March 1969 and was in
production by August 1972. During its production it was
manufactured in the United States, the Netherlands, Canada and
Spain. By the early 1980's, "Tigers" were flying in over 25
countries worldwide. It is a reliable single seat aircraft,
cheap to produce and easy to handle.



Top speed- 1,489 km/h (925 mph)              Maximum flight range- (max
load) 366 km (215 miles)

Length of aircraft- 14.68 m (48.2 ft)             Wing span- 8.53 m (28 ft)

Height of aircraft- 4.06 m (13.8 ft)              Weight of aircraft- 4,392
kg (9,683 lb)




The Boeing E-3A "Sentry"





     The "Sentry" began active service in 1977. Its function was to
serve the newly formed AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control
System) program of the US Air Force. It is a derivant of the
commercial Boeing 707 and has been a particularly effective
electronic reconnaissance aircraft.





Top speed- 886 km/h (550 mph)           Maximum flight range-
12,000 km
(7,475 miles)

Length of aircraft- 46.61 m (152.11 ft)      Wing span- 44.2 m
(145.8 ft)

Height of aircraft- 12.93 m (42.5 ft)             Weight of aircraft-
loaded 151,315 kg (333,600 lb)





The Boeing/Sikorsky RAH-66 "Comanche"





     The "Comanche" was developed as a joint project of the Boeing
and Sikorsky corporations. It was requested by the US Army in
1982 to replace the UH-1, AH-1, OH-58 and OH-6 attack models. It
is a sleek, very effective air to ground helicopter. It is still
under development and is expected to be in service by 1997.





Top Speed- 328km/h (204 mph)            Maximum flight range- 2,335
km
(1,451 miles)

Length of helicopter- 14.28 m (46.9 ft)      Main rotor diameter-
11.90 m (39 ft)

Height over tailplane- 3.39 m (11.2 ft)      Weight of helicopter-
3,515 kg (7,749 lb)





Fairchild C-132 "Provider"





     Development of the "Provider" first began in 1949 by the Chase
aircraft company, who were designing a transport glider. This
later developed into a piston-engine variant and was first flown
in 1953. The "Provider" is a strong, workhorse aircraft, very
similar to the Russian An-26.





Top speed- 330 km/h (205 mph)                Combat flight distance-
2,365
km (1,470 miles)

Length of aircraft, nose to tail- 23.08 m (75.8 ins)   Wing span-
33.53 m (110 ft)

Height of aircraft- 10.38 m (34.2 ft)             Weight of aircraft-
(loaded) 27,000 kg (60,000 lb)




Obstacles



Balloons- The balloons in this game serve as pylons for pilots
to steer around while flying. This allows them to test their
skills and to determine the capabilities of their aircraft. They
are standard unmanned hot-air balloons sponsored by the Gemsoft
company.


MISSILES



Missile Guidance Systems



     Both Russian and American missiles utilize the same types of
tracking systems. Not all systems are useful in all situations.
An All Aspect Missile can be launched from any angle towards its
target.  Most of the older IR missiles are Rear Aspect Missiles,
which means they can only be fired from behind the target.



     The various types of missile tracking systems are as follows:



Infra-Red (IR)- A missile with IR tracking will pick up on the
infra-red radiation (heat) emitting from the hostile aircraft
(usually from the turbine and tailpipe). An IR missile will
track its target as long as the target is radiating heat. It
does not normally depend on any radar-directed tracking,
although newer IR missiles generally use Radar to get close to
their target before switching over to IR mode. It is sometimes
referred to as a "heat seeking" missile. This is usually a short
range missile due to the fact that IR radiation dissipates
quickly in the open air, leaving the missile unable to track
over long distances. Some IR missiles are All Aspect, but early
IR missiles are Rear Aspect only.



Radar Homing (RH)- A radar homing system utilizes the firing
aircraft's own radar to guide the missile to the hostile
aircraft. To understand this, it helps to think of the radar
waves coming from the firing aircraft as beams of light shone
from a flashlight, illuminating an object in a dark room. When
the hostile aircraft has been "illuminated" and the radar has
"locked" onto the hostile aircraft, the RH missile follows the
firing aircraft's "lock" and is guided to the target. Since the
missile is dependent on the firing craft's radar "lock", if that
"lock" is lost, the missile loses its target. This is an All
Aspect missile and is usually good for medium range targets only.



Active Homing (AH)- A missile utilizing an active homing system
manages to establish a "lock" on the hostile aircraft utilizing
the radar from the firing aircraft. However, after the missile
gets within its active homing range, the missile establishes its
own "lock" using its own radar system. Once it reaches its
active homing distance it becomes independent of the firing
aircraft, which can then fire another missile. This increases
the firing aircraft's combat capabilities. Active Homing
missiles are usually long range, All Aspect missiles.



     Not all the missiles that are available in the game can be used
with all the aircraft.  The first restriction is that only
American missiles can be used with American Fighters, and only
Russian missiles can be used with Russian Fighters.
Furthermore, since the fighter and the missiles are working
co-operatively, a given missile can not work with an aircraft
whose avionics are lacking range or power.  Missiles that
require a higher grade of avionics than a particular craft has
will not be able to be used.



     The missiles utilized in the game are as follows:








     AIM-9 Sidewinder





History:


                                        
     The AIM-9 Sidewinder is one of the world's most successful
missiles (over 200,000 units have been produced). It has been
produced in more variants and has been in service longer than
any other air to air missile. It is named after a desert snake
that uses body heat to locate its victim. The Sidewinder is a
short range infra red homing missile that finds its prey in
much the same way.



     The Sidewinder has been used in combat situations since the mid
fifties. It has equipped everything from F-4 Phantoms during the
Vietnam war to F-16's during the Gulf War where 11 enemy planes
were shot down by Sidewinders. Wherever it has been used, it has
proven to be an effective and lethal adversary.



     The AIM-9 program was initiated in the early 1950's with the
first test firing in September 1953. In 1956, a model known as
the AIM-9B was the first to enter service. During the 1960's the
US Navy and Air Force each produced their own versions of the
Sidewinder.



AIM-9P - Specifications



     The Sidewinder AIM-9P is the last in the US Air Force line.
Future versions of the Sidewinder will be co-operative ventures
between the Air Force and Navy.



Length - 2.87 m  (9.4 ft)                    Diameter - 0.13 m  (5.1 in)

Forward Span - 0.64 m  (2.1 ft)              Tail Span - 0.64 m  (2.1 ft)

Weight - 87 kg  (192 lb.)                    Max. Speed - Mach 3 or 3168
km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 8 km (5 miles)                  Seeker Type - Infra Red rear aspect

Warhead - 11.4 kg (25 lb.) high explosive with preformed rods



AIM-9L - Specifications



      In the 1970's both programs merged and the Navy and Air Force
both now use the AIM-9L and AIM-9M. Production of the AIM-9L
began in 1976. It had a more powerful motor than its
predecessors, improved tracking and manoeuvrability, a more
advanced optical fuse and an all aspect capability. All aspect
capability allows the missile to lock on to a target plane even
if it is viewing it from the front. It is the first Sidewinder
to have this very useful capability.



Length - 2.87 m  (9.4 ft)                    Diameter - 0.13 m  (5.1 in)

Forward Span - 0.64 m  (2.1 ft)              Tail Span - 0.64 m  (2.1 ft)

Weight - 87 kg  (192 lb.)                    Max. Speed - Mach 3 or 3168
km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 8 km (5 miles)                  Seeker Type - Infra Red all-aspect

Warhead - 11.4 kg (25 lb.) high explosive with preformed rods





AIM-9M - Specifications



     The AIM-9M began production in 1982. This missile improves on
the 9L by adding increased performance and increased resistance
to countermeasures.  With the possible exception of the Russian
AA-11 Archer, this is the best short range infra red missile
available.



Length - 2.87 m  (9.4 ft)                    Diameter - 0.13 m  (5.1 in)

Forward Span - 0.64 m  (2.1 ft)              Tail Span - 0.64 m  (2.1 ft)

Weight - 87 kg  (192 lb.)                    Max. Speed - Mach 3 or 3168
km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 8 km (5 miles)                  Seeker Type - Infra Red all-aspect

Warhead - 11.4 kg (25 lb.) high explosive with preformed rods

Smokeless Engine






     AIM-7 Sparrow III





History:



          The AIM-7 Sparrow III entered service with US forces in August
1958. It is one of the most widely used US weapons. The earliest
version was the AIM-7A Sparrow I which employed beam riding as
the method of guidance. An active homing version called the
AIM-7B Sparrow II was abandoned in the 1950's.



     The current Sparrow family includes the AIM-7C, D, E, F and M
models. The AIM-7E was widely used in the Vietnam war. The
current models are the F and M though there are still a few E
models in the US arsenal. Versions of the Sparrow have been
converted into the surface to air Land Sparrow and the sea to
air Sea Sparrow missile.



     The Sparrow has been used in conflicts around the world since
it was first put into production. It has equipped F-4 Phantoms
during the Vietnam war and is still equipping the front line
fighters of many nations. Sparrows accounted for 25 kills during
the 1991 Gulf War.



AIM-7F - Specifications



     The Sparrow AIM-7F is a medium range, all weather, all aspect,
semi-active radar guided missile. As such, it is likely it would
produce the majority of kills in an all out conflict. The plane
firing the missile illuminates the target with its own radar.
The Sparrow flies towards this illuminated target.



Length - 3.65 m  (12 ft)                Diameter - 0.20 m  (8 in)

Forward Span - 1.0 m  (3.3 ft)               Tail Span - 1.0 m  (3.3 ft)

Weight - 228 kg  (500 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 4 or
4224 km/h
(2,640 mph)

Range - 45 km (28 miles)                Seeker Type - Radar Homing

Warhead - 39 kg (86 lb.) high explosive with preformed rods



AIM-7M - Specifications



     The latest model, the AIM-7M, includes a new digital signal
processor, a new autopilot and a new fuse. The solid state
signal processor is programmable to allow changes to be made to
counter any new electronic counter measures advances. In the
1990's the Sparrow has began to be replaced by the AIM-120
AMRAAM (Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile).



Length - 3.65 m  (12 ft)                Diameter - 0.20 m  (8 in)

Forward Span - 1.0 m  (3.3 ft)               Tail Span - 1.0 m  (3.3 ft)

Weight - 228 kg  (500 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 4 or
4224 km/h
(2,640 mph)

Range - 45 km (28 miles)                Seeker Type - Radar Homing

Warhead - 39 kg (86 lb.) high explosive with preformed rods









     AIM-54 Phoenix

History:



     The AIM-54 Phoenix is a long range active homing radar missile.
It was specifically designed for use with the US Navy's F-14
Tomcat interceptor. It allows the F-14 to engage up to 6 targets
simultaneously at long distances



     Development started in March 1968 as part of the F-111B
interceptor program. When that program was abandoned, the F-14
inherited both that plane's radar and the Phoenix missile.



     The Phoenix uses the F-14's radar until it gets within 14 miles
of the target at which time its own active radar switches on. It
has proved itself capable of intercepting planes at long ranges
as well as planes and cruise missile at low altitude.



     The F-14 is not included in this game.   To balance the game
somewhat, we have allowed the AIM-54 to be mounted on the F-15,
although this is not an operational configuration so far as we
can determine.



Specifications



Length - 4.26 m  (13 ft)                Diameter - 0.38 m  (15 in)

Tail Span - 0.99 m  (3.3 ft)                 Weight - 442 kg  (975 lb.)

Max. Speed - Mach 3.8 or 4023 km/h (2,500 mph)    Range - 200 km
(125 miles)

Seeker Type - Active Radar Homing            Active Homing Range - 22
km
(14 miles)

Warhead - 60 kg (132 lb.) of high explosive








     AIM-120 AMRAAM





History:



     The AIM-120 AMRAAM (Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile)
is the first of an new generation of missiles. The AMRAAM
program was initiated by a Memorandum of Understanding between
Germany, France, the UK and the USA dealing with the air to air
family of missiles. It was signed in August 1980. Under this
Memorandum of Understanding, the USA would develop the medium
range missile in this family while Britain and Germany would
develop the short range missile. All countries (with the
possible exception of France) would then adopt the resulting
missiles as their standard. This would pool resources and
simplify NATO air to air missile re supply requirements. The
AMRAAM was developed to meet a specification developed as part
of this Memorandum of Understanding.



     The AMRAAM is an all-weather, all-aspect, radar guided missile
capable of engaging numerically superior enemy forces and of
self homing soon after launch. Self homing requires that the
missile be able to home in on the target without the firing
plane having target lock on the target plane. The AMRAAM is the
replacement for the AIM-7 Sparrow.



     The winning design for the AMRAAM was chosen in December 1981.
The winner of the competition was the Hughes Corporation. In
1984, British Aerospace was chosen as the European partner in
production. The missile went into service in 1989 with US forces.



Specifications



Length - 3.57 m  (11.7 ft)                   Diameter - 0.18 m  (7 in)

Forward Span - 0.53 m  (1.7 ft)              Tail Span - 0.63 m  (2.1 ft)

Weight - 150 kg  (330 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 4 or
4224 km/h
(2,640 mph)

Range - 75 km (47 miles)                Seeker Type - Active Radar
Homing

Active Homing Range - 12 km (7.5 miles)      Warhead - 22 kg high
explosive

Smokeless engine








     AA-2 Atoll





History:



     The AA-2 Atoll missile is similar in size and appearance to the
American AIM-9 Sidewinder. It may be based on captured examples
of that missile. The AA-2 designation is the one used by NATO.
The Russians refer to this missile as the K13A.



     The Atoll is a short range semi-active radar guided missile.
There are two versions, the infra red guided missile (AA-2D) and
the radar guided missile (AA-2C). The Atoll is thought to have
an interchangeable guidance head. The radar guidance head is
about 60 cm (2 ft) longer than the infra red guided version.



     Atoll missiles have been widely exported to foreign buyers of
Russia aircraft. They are also made under license in India and
China. It is still in service with the Russian Air Forces but is
being replaced by the AA-8 Aphid.



     The Atoll has seen combat in many conflicts around the world on
MiG-21's and MiG-23's. It has been used extensively in the
Middle East, Vietnam and the Indo-Pakistani wars. Its
performance appears no better than that of early Sidewinder
missiles.



AA-2C - Specifications



     There were two versions of the Atoll, the original missile and
a later "Advanced Atoll". The AA-2C is the Advanced Atoll, radar
guided version.



Length - 2.9 m  (9.3 ft)                Diameter - 0.13 m  (4.7 in)

Forward Span - .45 m  (21 in)           Tail Span - .65 m  (21 in)

Weight - 70 kg  (155 lb.)                    Max. Speed - Mach 2.5 or 2640
km/h
(1,650 mph)

Range - 13 km (8 miles)                 Seeker Type - Radar Homing

Warhead - 11.3 kg (25 lb.) HE blast fragmentation



AA-2D - Specifications



     The AA-2D is a short range, infra red guided missile. There is
also a radar guided version (AA-2C). The infra red version is a
rear aspect only missile. The AA-2D designation is the one used
by NATO. The Russians refer to this missile as the K13M.



Length - 2.9 m  (9.3 ft)                Diameter - 0.13 m  (4.7 in)

Forward Span - .45 m  (21 in)           Tail Span - .65 m  (21 in)

Weight - 90 kg  (198 lb.)                    Max. Speed - Mach 2.5 or 2640
km/h
(1,650 mph)

Range - 8 km (5 miles)                  Seeker Type - Infra Red Homing -
rear
aspect

Warhead - 11.3 kg (25 lb.) HE blast fragmentation






     AA-7B Apex





History:



     The AA-7 Apex first became known to the west in 1976 along with
the AA-6 Acrid and the AA-8 Aphid. The Apex is comparable to the
AIM-7 Sparrow. This missile is known as the R-23 in Russia.



     The Apex is a medium range, all weather, all aspect,
semi-active guided missile. The firing plane illuminates the
target with its own radar. The Apex flies towards this
illuminated target. It is claimed to have look down and shoot
down capability.



     An infra red version was expected but apparently never produced.



     The Apex is part of the more advanced generation of Russian
missiles that came out in the seventies. It filled the need for
a medium range radar guided missile better than any previous
Russian missile had but was still less capable than the American
Sparrows of the time.



     The Apex has replaced the radar version of the Atoll on Soviet
MiG-21's and MiG-23's. It has also been exported to customers of
Russian aircraft.



Specifications



Length - 4.5 m  (14.8 ft)                    Diameter - 0.26 m  (10.2 in)

Forward Span - 1.4 m  (4.6 ft)               Tail Span - 1.4 m  (4.6 ft)

Weight - 244 kg  (705 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3.0 or
3600 km/h
(2,236 mph)

Range - 27 km (18 miles)                Seeker Type - Radar Homing

Warhead - 35 kg (77 lb.) high explosive fragmentation






     AA-8 Aphid





History:



     The AA-8 Aphid is a small infra red guided missile for use in
close dogfighting. It was specifically designed to be small and
highly manoeuvrable, suitable for attacking evading targets at
close range. It is known as the R-60 in Russia. Development
began in the late 1960's with the missile entering production in
1973.



     The Aphid is a short range, infra red guided missile designed
to replace the infra red version of the AA-2 Atoll. It is one of
the smallest modern missiles. Two can fit on a single weapon
point on many Russian aircraft. This greatly increases the short
range firepower of these planes.  The small warhead can,
however, reduce its lethality.



     The Aphid is more advanced than previous Russian missiles and
uses solid state technology to allow its small size.



Specifications



Length - 2.1 m  (6.6 ft)                Diameter - 0.13 m  (4.7 in)

Forward Span - .52 m  (19 in)           Tail Span - .52 m  (19 in)

Weight - 45 kg  (143 lb.)                    Max. Speed - Mach 2.5 or 2970
km/h
(1,845 mph)

Range - 7.2 km (4.5 miles)                   Seeker Type - Infra Red
Homing -
all aspect

Warhead - 3.5 kg (7.7 lb.) HE fragmentation with Uranium






     AA-9 Amos





History:



     The AA-9 Amos is a long range active homing radar missile
designed for use with the MiG-31 Foxhound. It is similar in
appearance and function to the American AIM-54 Phoenix missile.
It is known as the R-33 in Russia.



     The Amos is intended for long range interception missions of
multiple targets. It is designed to be used with the MiG-31's
multi-targeting radar. This will allow a plane to shoot down
multiple enemies at long range before they can get into medium
missile range. The Amos has an inertial guidance system with
active radar terminal homing.  The missile has its own built in
radar which turns on 20 km from the target.  It guides it to its
target from this point. The missile has the ability to attack
targets as low as 50 m above the ground. This and other advanced
modern Russian missile designs make Russian built fighters
dangerous opponents.



Specifications



Length - 4.0 m  (13.1 ft)                    Diameter - 0.4 m  (1.3 in)

Forward Span - 1.0 m  (3.3 in)               Tail Span - 1.0 m  (3.3 in)

Weight - 490 kg  (992 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3 or
3168 km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 120 km (75 miles)                    Seeker Type - Active Radar
Homing

Active Homing Range - 15                Warhead -  47 kg high
explosive








     AA-10 Alamo





History:



     The AA-10 Alamo is a medium range missile designed for use with
the new MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters. The first AA-10 missiles were
photographed by the west in 1986. It is available in both
semi-active radar versions and infra red guided versions. This
series of missiles is known as the R-27 series in Russia.



AA-10A - Specifications



     The AA-10A Alamo is the semi-active radar guided version of the
Alamo. This will increase the punch of Russian fighters at
medium ranges.  It has become the standard Russian medium range
missile.



Length - 4.0 m  (13.1 ft)                    Diameter - 0.19 m  (7.4 in)

Forward Span - .7 m  (2.3 ft)                Tail Span - .7 m  (2.3 ft)

Weight - 235 kg  (518 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3 or
3168 km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 60 km (37 miles)                Seeker Type - Radar Homing

Warhead - 39 kg high explosive



AA-10B  - Specifications



     The AA-10B is the infra red version of the Alamo and  is
roughly comparable to the latest all-aspect versions of the
AIM-9 Sidewinder.



Length - 4.0 m  (13.1 ft)                    Diameter - 0.19 m  (7.4 in)

Forward Span - .7 m  (2.3 ft)                Tail Span - .7 m  (2.3 ft)

Weight - 235 kg  (518 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3 or
3168 km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 40 km (22 miles)                Seeker Type - Infra Red
Homing - all
aspect

Warhead - 39 kg high explosive



AA-10C - Specifications



     The AA-10C is a longer range version of the radar homing
version (Alamo A).  The electronics are basically the same, but
it has been fitted with a larger rocket motor. It is designated
as the R-27ER in Russia.



Length - 4.8 m  (15.7 ft)                    Diameter - 0.26 m  (10.2 in)

Forward Span - .97 m  (3.2 ft)               Tail Span - .97 m  (3.2 ft)

Weight - 350 kg  (772 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3 or
3168 km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 130 km (81 miles)                    Seeker Type - Radar Homing

Warhead - 39 kg high explosive








     AA-11 Archer





History:



     The AA-11 Archer is a short range infra red guided missile.  It
has been designed for use against agile enemy fighters. The
Archer has complex control system designed to maximize
manoeuvrability. It has an all-aspect engagement capability and
is able to recognize flares. This missile is known as the R-73
in Russia.



     The Archer represents a step forward in Russian missile
technology and is currently thought to be superior to its
western counterparts in many respects.  Its high manoeuvrability
allows it to be launched at targets at almost any angle.  Future
versions will allow the pilot to even launch the missile at
targets behind the plane.



     AA-11 Archer development was believed to have started in the
late 1970's.  The first examples are thought to have entered
service in 1987.



Specifications



Length - 3.60 m  (11.8 ft)                   Diameter - 0.21 m  (8.3 in)

Forward Span - .48 m  (18.9 in)              Tail Span - .48 m  (18.9 in)

Weight - 110 kg  (243 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3 or
3168 km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 30 km (19 miles)                Seeker Type - Infra Red
Homing

Warhead - 7.4 kg high explosive fragmentation






     AA-12





History:



     The AA-12 is a medium range active radar guided missile similar
in appearance and function to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM. It
has been named the "AMRAAMSKI" by some of the western press. The
missile is thought to use technology from the AA-7 and AA-10 as
well as from some Russian short range ballistic missiles. This
missile is known as the R-77 in Russia.



     The ballistic missile technology used in the AA-12 gives it
higher manoeuvrability and a lower radar cross-section than is
usual with missiles of this type. The AA-12 is pushing the
boundaries of current missile technology.



     The AA-12 project was probably started in the mid 1980's. The
first example of this missile was seen in 1992 in Minsk. It is
believed that the AA-12 entered service with the more modern
Russian fighters in 1993.



Specifications



Length - 3.60 m  (11.8 ft)                   Diameter - 0.21 m  (8.3 in)

Forward Span - .48 m  (18.9 in)              Tail Span - .48 m  (18.9 in)

Weight - 175 kg  (386 lb.)                   Max. Speed - Mach 3 or
3168 km/h
(1,980 mph)

Range - 90 km (56 miles)                Seeker Type - Active Radar
Homing

Active Homing Range - 10 km (6 miles)        Warhead - 18 kg high
explosive fragmentation
Other Stores



     Fighter aircraft can carry more than missiles. The other pods
can hold guns, reconnaissance equipment, ECM (Electronic Counter
Measures) devices or extra fuel. The additional ordnance is
explained below:





Recon Pod



Description:



     Reconnaissance pods are used by both Russian and American
planes to gather intelligence information. The pods can be
fitted to planes which have not been specifically designed for
the reconnaissance role.



     The pod will contain several cameras pointing at different
angles. They may also contain other sensors such as infra red
and radar as well as special sensors required for a particular
mission.





Fuel Tank



Description:



     Fuel tanks are an integral part of a modern fighter's arsenal.
Most fighters do not have the fuel capacity to reach medium
range objectives. Discardable fuel tanks are therefore used to
increase the aircraft's range. Once their fuel is used up, they
are usually jettisoned.



     American planes can carry fuel loads of 800, 1200, 1700, 1900
or 2200 litres. Russian aircraft can carry 500, 600, 800 or 1200
litres.





ECM Pods (Electronic Counter Measures)



     ECM pods are used by American planes to boost the ECM abilities
of their older planes.  This type of ECM pod gives a plane
equivalent ECM capabilities to those of the F-15 Eagle.



     ECM pods are used by Russian planes to boost the ECM abilities
of their older planes.  This type of ECM pod gives a plane the
equivalent ECM capabilities  to those of the MiG-29.









Gun Pods



     These pods carry machine guns. They are used in both Russian
and American planes. Russian aircraft can carry the Vulcan 23mm
GSh pods, and American planes can carry the Vulcan 20mm pod.
Adding these pods will allow a plane to fire twice as many
rounds in a given time.



     The Russian 23mm weapon is a more powerful weapon than the
20mm, but cannot fire as quickly or carry as much ammunition.
The American "Vulcan" was first utilized in Vietnam-era
"Phantom" jets in order to boost their firepower for dogfighting.



23mm GSh Gun Pod



     This pod allows the addition of a Russian 23 mm GSh-23 cannon
to one of the centre line weapons points of Russian fighters.
It was originally intended to allow the addition of a cannon to
jet planes that were designed without one.



     The 23 mm cannon is the standard cannon fitted on Russian
fighters. It has a lower rate of fire and carries less
ammunition than the Vulcan 20 mm gun pod but is slightly more
powerful.





Specifications



Length - 4.0 m  (13.1 ft)                    Diameter - 0.52 m  (20 in)

Weight - 500 kg  (1100 lb.)                  Rate of fire - 3000 rounds
per
minute

Rounds carried - 200



Vulcan 20mm Gun Pod



     This pod is designed to give more short range firepower to
American fighters. Gun pods were used on Vietnam era Phantoms to
give them the machine gun capability which the earlier Phantoms
lacked. The Vulcan 20mm is same gun used on nearly all American
fighters mounted in an external pod. This pod is mounted on an
external weapons points located on the centre line of the plane.



Specifications



Length - 5.1 m  (16.7 ft)                    Diameter - 0.56 m  (22 in)

Weight - 785 kg  (1730 lb.)                  Rate of fire - 6000 rounds
per
minute

Rounds carried - 120




Enemy Ratings Explained

Poor      0.40      Radar Range is divided by 2 to make enemies pilots
seem less aggressive.  Pilots use a direct approach algorithm,
which allows only log g's and separates altitude and heading
controls.  Enemy aircraft can not evade guided missiles, drop
decoys or use ECM.  Missiles fired by enemy aircraft are twice
as likely to lose lock.  An easy opponent.

Average   0.70      Same as Poor except for missile avoidance
know-how and operative ECM.  Average enemies also have their
real radar range.  A more dangerous opponent but still no match
for a good player.

Veteran   1.00      Same as Average pilot except for the added
ability to deploy decoys.  Fire missiles with real performance
characteristics making them more difficult to escape.  As well,
Veteran enemies will use combat manoeuvres such as those
described in the Dogfight chapter.  A real challenge to any
flight simulator jock.

Ace  2.00      The most dangerous opponent Fighter Wing can throw at
you, ace enemies will deploy decoys twice as frequently as
Veteran pilots and will use their entire g envelope when
manoeuvring against you.  A formidable opponent - this guy is
hard to beat!

     * Human players have a ranking of 1.0


Realism Ratings Explained

Full      Aircraft perform like real aircraft do.  Including
stalling, real radar coverage (13-30 degrees depending on
aircraft) and accurate g limits.  Older IR missiles can only be
fired from behind enemy aircraft (rear aspect missiles).

Medium    Aircraft will not stall when air speed bottoms out -
rather the aircraft continues to fly at it's minimum speed.
When it reaches its operating ceiling, the aircraft continues
to fly at that altitude.  Still has realistic radar constrains,
but no g limits.

Easy      Aircraft will not stall.  No g limits, and turns are
allowed to exceed physical aircraft limits.  Radar operates at a
full 360 degrees (locking still takes place in a realistic
sweep).  The computer will automatically choose the best weapon
for the player to fire.  Computer will also dispense decoys and
deploy ECM.


Designer's Notes

     The main design goal of Fighter Wing was to create a game that
was user-friendly.  We wanted a game that someone who had never
played a flight simulator before could sit and play within a few
minutes.  It was envisioned that Fighter Wing would often be
played in offices, possibly during lunch, where not everybody
had the time or inclination to learn all the intricacies of
flying a jet fighter.

     For this reason we omitted landings and takeoffs.  We saw these
as adding complexity without adding much play value.  We also
simplified the flight controls and the operation of the avionics.


     That said, however, we also took great pains to make the rest
of the game as realistic as possible.  Extensive research was
done on the characteristics and performance of the planes,
missiles and avionics.  In so far as we could manage to find out
the planes carry their correct complement of missiles (with some
small modifications for play balance).  The range, speed and
effectiveness of the missiles are based on the best information
available in the summer of 1994.  In the historical scenarios,
the plane types and the missile types available are historically
accurate.  The cockpits have been designed from pictures of the
insides of the actual planes.

     The scenarios themselves are all hypothetical but are based on
real world events.  The sections in the scenario descriptions
labelled as history are true historical events and were
carefully researched.  The sections labelled as Scenario are our
own hypothesized events.  Events move so quickly in our era that
some of the scenarios partially came true during the development
of the game.  Others became less likely as hot spots cooled
down.  We hope you will consider the scenarios plausible and
interesting.

     One area where Fighter Wing breaks new ground (as well as in
the leading edge graphics) is in its support of networks.  With
up to 16 people playing Fighter Wing at once, the possibility
exists of some interesting and challenging dog fights going on
in offices everywhere.  We think that the network option can
lead to some very challenging game play.  No computer generated
enemy can fly as intelligently as a real human.

     Overall, we hope you have as much fun playing Fighter Wing as
we did creating it.


                                   Pedro Serrador

Credits

Producer/Director
                Mark Vange

Assistant  Producer
                Anatoly Levin

Designer
                Pedro Serrador

3D Engine
                Alexander Efimov

Programmers
                Vladimir Lagutin
                Alexander Efimov
                Dmitry Mikhailov
                Michael Baranov
                Yuri Tsyganenko
                Anatoly Levin
                Boris Shirvinsky

3D Objects
                Michael Dorokhin
                Oleg Goncharook

Art
                Sergey Lozovoy
                Andrey Gorelov
                Vadim Dulenko
                Oleg Kovalenko

Music
                Stas Shalimov
                Mark Vange

Writer
                Michael Derbecker

Manual
                Michael Derbecker
                Mark Vange
                Roddy McGinnis
     Steve Zimmerman

Special Thanks to
                Roddy McGinnis
                Mickey Shaw
                Mike Petro
                Colleen Mogan
                JuJu

Bibliography

Braybrook, Roy- F-15 Eagle, Osprey Publishing Ltd. 1991

Bulloch, John & Morris, Harvey- The Gulf War, London, Methuen
Ltd. 1989

Cerf, Christopher & Sifry, Micah L.- ed. The Gulf War Reader,
New York, Times Books, 1991

Crickmore, Paul- McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Salamander Books
Ltd. 1992

Duchateau, Phillipe & Huertas, Mafe Salvador- Mirage, Salamander
Books Ltd. 1986

The Encyclopedia Americana, Danbury, Grollier Incorporated, ed.
1989

Eyermann, K.H.- MiG-Flugzeuge, Berlin, Transpress VEB Verlag fur
Verkehrswesen, 1986

Fighting Jets, Publications International Ltd. 1990

Fisk, Robert-  Pity the Nation; Lebanon at War, Oxford, Oxford
University Press, 1992

Gabriel, Richard A.- Operation Peace for Galilee, New York, Hill
and Wang, 1984

Gunston, Bill- An Illustrated Guide to Modern Airborne Missiles,
London, Salamander Books Ltd. 1983

Gunston, Bill- An Illustrated Guide to Modern Fighters and
Attack Aircraft, London, Salamander Books Ltd. 1987

Gunston, Bill- An Illustrated Guide to Modern Fighters, London,
Salamander Books Ltd. 1988

Halberstadt, Hans- Mikoyan MiG-29: Design and Development of
Russia's Super Fighter, Motorbooks International Publishers &
Wholesalers, 1992

Jenkins, Dennis R. & Miller, Jay- Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker aerofax
Inc. 1991

Kinzey, Bert- F-4 Phantom in Detail and Scale, Detail and Scale
Inc. 1983

Kopenhagen, Wilfried- Sowjetisch Bombenflugzeuge, Berlin,
Transpress VEB Verlag fur Verkehrswesen, 1989.

Lowe, Malcolm V.- Fighters: Modern Military Techniques,
Minneapolis, Lerner Publications Company, 1985

Luftwaffen-Forum, #3, 1991, #2 1992

Jane's Air Launched Weapons Systems, London, Macdonald and
Jane's, 1993-94

Jane's All the World's Aircraft, London, Macdonald and Jane's,
ed. 1974-75, 1982-1983, 1992-1993.

Jane's Weapons Systems, London, Macdonald and Jane's, 1983-84

Mackey, Sandra- Lebanon-Death of a Nation, Chicago, Congdon +
Weed Inc. 1989

The Rand McNally Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft, New York,
Crescent Books, 1990

Miller, Jay- Lockheed F-117 Stealth Fighter aerofax Inc. 1991

Richardson, Doug- General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon,

Salamander Books Ltd. 1990

Russia's Top Guns, New York aerospace Publishing, 1990

Spick, Mike- McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, Salamander Books
Ltd. 1991

Stacey Allan- Visiting Kashmir, London, B.T. Batsford Ltd. 1988

Stapfer, Hans-Henri- Fighting Colours: MiG-21 Fishbed in Color,
Squadron/Signal Publications, 1989

Taylor, Michael J.H.- Soviet & East European Major Combat
Aircraft, London, Tri-Service Press Ltd. 1990

Wells, Tim- 444 Days; The Hostages Remember, Orlando, Brace
Jovanovich Publishers, 1985

Wheeler, Barry C.- An Illustrated Guide to Aircraft Markings,
London, Salamander Books Ltd. 1986


Glossary of Abbreviations

ADF- Arab Defence Force.

AAM- Anti Aircraft Missile.

AH- Active Homing.



AMRAAM- Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile.



AN- Antonov. (A Ukrainian aircraft manufacturer)



AWACS- Airborne Warning and Control System (US Air Force).



CIA- The Central Intelligence Agency.



DDS- Decoy Dispensers System.



ECM- Electronic Counter Measures.



EEC- European Economic Community.



HUD- Heads Up Display.



IFF- Identify Friend or Foe.



IR- Infra-red.



IRA- Irish Republican Army.



KGB- Komitet Gasudarstviney Bezapasnosti (The Committee for
State Security, Russia's equivalent of the CIA).



MOAS- Manned Orbital Armed Shuttle.



NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement.



NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization.



PLO- Palestine Liberation Organization.



RH- Radar Homing.



RWR- Radar Warning Receiver.



SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty.



SAM- Surface-to-Air Missile.



SU- Sukhoi. (Russian aircraft manufacturer)



TU- Tupolev. (Russian aircraft manufacturer)



UN- United Nations.

US- United States.



USAF- United States Air Force.



USSR- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.





HINT:



Finer adjustments may be made by using the [ (left) or ]
(right) keys for rudder control. This will cause your plane to
turn without banking.

p.

p.

p.

p.

p.

p.

p.

p.

HINT:



The INSTRUCTOR TRAINING Mission is a quick way to pick up basic
flight controls. demonstrate all the basic flight controls.

HINT:



The RECEIVE and SEND fields only appear if you have defined a
network type in the SETUP program.  You can send messages to
other players by clicking in the SEND field and typing - Press ш
to finish.

HINT:



As well as reducing THRUST

( - key) you can also deploy your AIR BREAKS (B key).

HINT:



If you have configured Fighter Wing for network play, you will
first see a screen asking whether you want to play in a team.
Simply click on NO or press N if you do not want to right now.

HINT:



You can press  Q to lock select the nearest target in REGULAR
mode, pressing the TAB key will cycle through the enemies.
Shift-TAB will go through the list in reverse order.

HINT:



To escape a missile attack, it's best to be in 5 KM range, so
you can have a good look at where the missile is coming from,
and possibly evade it!

Chaff  - consists of strips of tinfoil, carried on the aircraft
in a special pod. The foil is released after a missile has
established a "lock" on the escaping aircraft. When the
approaching missile's radar hits the chaff, the signal bounces
and masks the escaping aircraft or overwhelms the missile's
tracking system.



Flares - Flares are carried in the same fashion and are released
when a IR missile has been "locked" and launched. The flares
generate enough heat to distract the missile, breaking the
"lock."



HINT:



Firing a few short bursts will help you orient your cannon - and
it saves ammo too!

HINT:



Don't forget that you can extend you flight times by adding
external fuel tanks to your aircraft.  Unfortunately, space
taken up by Fuel Tanks is usually space taken away from missiles.

HINT:



Missiles appear as red dots on radar.

HINT:



When dogfighting it is often helpful to switch quickly into F3
(To Enemy) view as it helps you orient properly.  If you are
looking at your own thrusters, you are flying towards your
opponent!



HINT:



Another place where you can get good information about your
playing is the summary screen after a Network game.  If you
click on a player's name, you will see detailed statistics about
that player's performance in the last game.

F1   Full Screen View    This gives you a front view from the nose
of plane. You cannot see the cockpit controls in this mode.

F2   Cockpit View   This is the most important viewpoint. It
allows you the maximum control over your aircraft. Your aircraft
will respond to the controls while in other modes, but you will
not be able to monitor such things as the radar, weapons and
thrust if you are not in the cockpit mode.

F3   To Enemy   This view allows you to see your plane from a
vantage point which is looking towards the enemy. If you see
your aircraft's tail, the enemy is in front of you. If you see
the nose, the enemy is behind you.

F4   From Enemy     This allows you to see who the aircraft you're
locked onto is. It is especially useful during dogfighting.
Your line of sight is from the target to you.

F5   To Friendly    This shows your aircraft. If you are close to
your wingmen, you can see them in formation with you.  The
camera is on a line of sight between you and your selected
wingman.  By tracing the line, you know where your wingman is
relative to you.  (Just like To Enemy mode).  You can use TAB
and Shift-TAB to cycle through friendly aircraft.

F6   From Friendly  This shows your the selected friendly
aircraft and the camera is on a line of sight from it to your
aircraft.

F7   Rear View      This allows you to see from directly behind your
aircraft.

F8   Front View     Using this vantage point allows you to see a
front view of your craft.

F10  Action View    This view is like a chase plane that is trying
to keep up with any manoeuvres you pull

F11  Missile View   Missile view positions the camera directly
behind the missile you fired last.  You can stay with the
missile all the way to its impact point.

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