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Чит-файл для Gary Grigsby's Pacific War

Gary Grigsby's Pacific War

 За игрой пока никто не наблюдает. Первым будете?

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчик:Strategic Simulations, Inc.
Издатель:Strategic Simulations, Inc.
Модель распространения:розничная продажа
Жанры:Strategy (Turn-based / Wargame) / Top-down

Даты выхода игры

вышла в 1992 г.

Hint [ENG]

Информация актуальна для
(The following update is due to the excellent BBS clarifications
and comments from T.Holsinger and M. Ballwin)

(All HOTKEYS are listed on the HELP MENU (press / or ?)).

NOTE:  The rule book and the game do not always agree.  The rules
were sent to the printers 4-6 weeks before the game was
published. There have been hundreds of changes in that time and
many of those are undocumented.  There are also many undocumented
changes AFTER the game was published.

A.  REPORTS SUBPHASE

1.  Review battles (ALT/B).
2.  Use SIGINT (F5).
3.  Check losses/score (F9).
4.  Check sunken ships (F8).
5.  Check ship pools (F4).

B.  REINFORCEMENT SUBPHASE

1.  Check for reinforcements.
2.  Check replacement pools (F7).
3.  Cycle through factories & upgrade planes (F6).

C.  HQ SUBPHASE

1.  Examine HQ's (ALT/F).
2.  List HQ units (ALT/D).
3.  Relocate HQ's (ALT/E).
4.  Move HQ's to TF in the same square (ALT/S).
5.  Assign new leader to HQ's (ALT/L).
6.  Set HQ control (ALT/K).
7.  Change base HQ (ALT/C).
8.  Set HQ target (ALT/G).
9.  List HQ aircraft (ALT/X).
10. Assign HQ air leader (ALT/P).
11. Reinforce HQ (ALT/R).

D.  LAND SUBPHASE

1.  Examine LCU's in sequence (S/W).
2.  Divide LCU's (D on Unit Data Display).
3.  Activate LCU's (A on Unit Data Display).
4.  Assign leaders (F1 on Unit Data Display).
5.  March LCU's overland (ALT/W).
6.  Call for immediate sealift forces (ALT/T).

E.  AIR SUBPHASE

1.  Check enemy AZOC's (ALT/Z).
2.  Check friendly AZOC's (SHFT/Z).
3.  Examine airfields in sequence (Z OR A).
4.  Set priority target base (B).
5.  Set missions.
6.  Transfer air units (ALT/A).
7.  Upgrade old planes (C on Air Unit Display).
8.  Transfer aircraft factory control (ALT/N).

F.  TASK FORCE SUBPHASE

1.  Examine ports in sequence (O OR P).
2.  Examine existing TF's (N/G).
3.  Unload TF's (U).
4.  Replenish TF's (Y).
5.  Transfer ships to new TF's (T).
6.  Scuttle ships (S ON SHIP DISPLAY).
7.  Disband TF's (R).
8.  Check for isolated bases (ALT/O).
9.  Create TF's to resupply isolated bases (C).
10. Create cargo TF's to resupply bases in rear areas (C).
11. Create replenishment TF's (C).
12. Create combat TF's at friendly ports (C).
13. Assign leaders to TF's (F1 on TF display).
14. Load TF's with troops, supplies, aircraft or fuel (L).
15. Set TF's destinations (D).
16. Set TF's functions/move options (F).
17. Reset TF's home bases as necessary (H).
18. Reset sub control (Computer/Human) as necessary (E).
19. Adjust submarine patrol locations (ALT/M).
20. Rebase all subs as necessary (ALT/M, R).
21. Remove TF's that complete their missions (ALT/Y).

A.  REPORTS SUBPHASE

1.  REVIEW LAST TURN'S BATTLE REPORTS (ALT/B).

a.  Although all movement/action appears to be consecutive in the
game during execution, it is actually concurrent for that week.
Task Forces that appear to be in the same hex at the same time
may NOT actually be in the same place, they may only be passing
through that hex at different times during the week.
Understanding this concept is critical for reducing frustration
and increasing appreciation of the game.

b.  To move a little faster do not follow the screen combat, but
rather wait until completion and use  to check out what
happened.

c.  When a base is captured all of the supply is lost but half of
the fuel is captured.  When a base is captured many of the ships
in the port will escape into a Task Force (TF) and head for the
nearest friendly base.  The remaining ships will be destroyed in
port.

d.  Moderate damage to a supply depot should destroy about 20% of
the fuel and 20% of the supplies at the base.

e.  LCU's with HIGH ENTRENCHMENT levels will take few losses from
air bombardment.  Air strikes against entrenched LCU's can only
hope for DISRUPTION (reduced readiness).  Disruption is not
indicated on the after action Combat Report.  The rules on base
disruption should read:  Base Disruption is reduced to ZERO
before the start of each Execution Phase.  Bases that receive TWO
levels of disruption may not be supplied by routine convoys (they
will show up on the ISOLATED BASE display).  A base will never
exceed level 2 disruption.  This is how to isolate an enemy base
and make it more vulnerable to attack on the ground.

f.  The combat reports will usually have inflated claims of enemy
units destroyed.  Combat reports relate to the number of
personnel killed.  1 squad = 10 men, 1 tank = 3 men and one gun =
5 men.

g.  The asterisks after a ship means additional penetration
damage has been done to the ship.   Each "*" means 20% damage has
been done, so a "*****" means the ship is doomed.  The periods
seem to indicate the end of combat from that ship for that round.

h.  Land combat is rather strange sometimes.  Look at the
experience and readiness ratings of the Land Combat Units
(LCU's).  If both of those are low, not many squads will attack
OR defend.

2.  USE SIGINT TO REVIEW ENEMY TASK FORCES (TF'S), BASES, AND
LAND COMBAT UNITS (LCU'S) THAT HAVE BEEN SPOTTED (F5).

a.  The information you receive by clicking an enemy TF is FREE
SIGINT.  However, not all enemy TF's will be displayed because
only those TF's (randomly) detected by radio traffic will show
up.  TF's are also SPOTTED in the execution segment (if you watch
on higher detail levels you will see which TF's are spotted).

b.  To use SIGINT put the cursor on an enemy port, TF or LCU and
hit F5.  Then hit the key corresponding to what you want to know
about (P--Port, A--Airfield, R--Army, H--HQ, T--TF).

1)  The best selections have been to ask about enemy HQ's,
because sometimes you get a message that the HQ is planning an
operation and what the target is (no dates).  Use SIGINT to
locate the important HQ's, then check on them each turn to see
where they are targeting.  Once you know an HQ's plans, you can
count on it sticking to the plan for awhile and spend some
SIGINT watching TF's that support that HQ.

2)  Use SIGINT to check ports for task forces and troops.  You
can click on a TF and select SIGINT.  Hit the 'T' and SIGINT may
tell you where an enemy TF is heading, what it is carrying and
the names of specific ships in the TF.

c.  The only way for the Japanese player to get intelligence on
enemy bases is to attack them.  Only the Allies can get info from
SIGINT.

d.  The Japanese usually keep their CV's in support of their main
effort.

3.  CHECK LOSSES/SCORE (F9).

4.  CHECK SUNKEN SHIPS (F8).

5.  CHECK SHIP POOLS (F4).

a.  Page 24 of the rulebook states that excess ships will be
returned to the pool after a unit is loaded.  In this case the
rulebook is wrong, the game was never programmed to do this.  The
game allows multiple ship units the OPTION of sending ships back
to the pool or taking ships from the pool.  The NUMBER of ships
in a unit may be adjusted by moving ships into or out of the ship
pool.  The ship units may only alter their size while in a
non-isolated port.  The Ship Display will have (G)et Pool and
(T)o Pool functions.  (G)et Pool allows a ship unit to draw ships
from the pool.  The (T)o Pool function allows a ship unit to send
ships back to the pool.  CVE type ships may not use these
functions.  The normal limits for maximum ships in a unit will
still apply.

b.  Ships in the pool are automatically allocated during the
Routine Convoy Phase.  Japanese Routine Convoys (RC's) originate
in NAGOYA.  Allied RC's originate in LOS ANGELES (LA) and from
the map edge south of INDIA.  All ships that participate in RC's
will end their turn in Nagoya, Los Angeles or Calcutta.  For
ESCORTS to participate in RC's they must START their turn in
Nagoya, LA or Calcutta.  Ships that are used in RC's may not be
used by the player that turn.  BEWARE:  escorts that are sent to
one of the above cities will become unavailable to the player as
long as they see RC action.  The game allows escorts to be
available for removal from RC duty during the first week of each
month.

c.  The Commonwealth ships are colored differently than the U.S.
ships in the ship pools.

d.  If ALL your MCS units are assigned to TF's then there will be
no routine convoys.  To keep MCS from being utilized for routine
convoys, put them in a TF and park it.  However, it's hard to
find a way to use all your MCS in TF's.  There is not much YOU
can do with ships in the pool.  These ships automatically flow
into and out of MCS, AP, LST, (etc.) units as required.

e.  The routine convoy system should be sending supplies and fuel
to bases with airgroups, HQ's, LCU's and ships (assuming that
there no supply or ship shortage and that the bases are not
isolated/disrupted).  Bases with HQ's which are close to their
target bases will generally acquire a lot more supplies,
especially if multiple HQ's have the same target.  Example:
Johnston Island southwest of the Hawaiian Islands is the base HQ
for the Japanese 17th Army.  The 17th Army, Combined Fleet and
South Seas Fleet all have a target base of one of the Hawaiian
Islands.  Johnston Island may receive as much as 6000 points of
supplies in one convoy phase if it was low on supplies at the
beginning of the turn.

B.  REINFORCEMENT SUBPHASE

1.  CHECK FOR REINFORCEMENTS (IN SYDNEY, CALCUTTA, COLUMBO,
KWEIYANG, KUNMING, SOERABAJA, AUCKLAND, AND MANILA IF ALLIED; IN
TOKYO, SHANGHAI, AND PORT ARTHUR IF JAPANESE).

a.  Reinforcement ships are automatically activated if there are
enough shipyard points.  Ship production is affected by how many
damaged ships you are repairing in port.  More damaged ships in a
port means less ship construction points to be used for new
ships, so they may appear later or not at all.

b.  If under 'computer control', the artificial intelligence (AI)
may 'temporarily disband' badly depleted air groups.  These
groups will show up as reinforcements on the next turn at San
Francisco/Tokyo/Calcutta.  If you have no use for these groups
you can disband them.  Their aircraft will go into the pool and
the group will return as a reinforcement in six months.

c.  Ship and armor/artillery production is handled by the
computer and cannot be changed.  Armor/artillery can be affected
by bombing or oil and resource shortage.

d.  British capital ships (carriers, battleships and cruisers)
are periodically withdrawn from the Eastern Fleet.  This may
happen at any time before 1944.

e.  US CV's that are sunk return as Essex class, CVL's return as
Independence class, CA's as Baltimore class, CL's as Cleveland
class and DD's as Fletcher class roughly one year later as
replacements.  If the ships are not sunk they will not be
replaced.

f.  If an HQ is destroyed, it's subordinate units should be
assigned to another HQ.  Most destroyed HQ's will return within a
month at the player's home country.  ABDA and Malaya AG will
never return if they are destroyed.  At least one of them is
withdrawn automatically even if they aren't destroyed.  Whether
the Allied Player wants to preserve them depends on what the game
date is and how he wants to have his new HQ PP (Preparation
Points) distributed.

g.  Air groups that are at the base where reinforcements show up
(Calcutta, San Francisco, etc.) may not build up very quickly.
It may have something to do about the number of PP available, but
move the land-based air (LBA) units to forward bases as soon as
possible.  They fill out nicely when moved to another base.  Same
principle with respect to LCU's.  They fill out (get to their
maximum size) very slowly at the reinforcement base, but grow
rapidly at another base.

h.  British ground reinforcements get rerouted to Auckland if all
other Commonwealth bases (such as Columbo) are captured.

i.  Ver 1.1x12 allows allied LCU's to come back 6 months after
destruction and also eliminates delay of task force
reorganization.

2.  CHECK REPLACEMENT POOLS (F7).

a.  Replacement pool planes can be used to replace air groups
with different planes.   After clicking on an air group, use the
CHANGE option to access the possible replacements from the pool.
If the air group remains at a base with ample supply and the
aircraft pool has the type of aircraft available for a particular
group, it will gradually fill out (replacements).  (As an
example, you can always replace Hudsons and Sunderlands with
Catalinas, but you cannot add new patrol squadrons until they
show up at one of the reinforcement bases.  Check Calcutta, San
Francisco and Sydney to see if there are any reinforcements
there.)  Page 51 says land based air groups (LBA) can receive a
maximum of 10 aircraft per group per turn as replacements.  It is
usually less.  It can take a long time to build an air unit up to
full strength.  A table also shows the supply cost for each type
of replacement.  Air groups on remote islands will continue to
take on replacement aircraft as long there are supply points to
spend.

b.  The highlights on the planes don't mean anything, it was just
used to make for easier reading.  On the aircraft replacement
display, every fifth line is highlighted to make it easier to
read.  The data space set aside for aircraft names did not allow
completely spelling out of P-38F Lightning and SB2U Vindicator.

c.  Air groups in San Francisco and other reinforcement areas can
be air transferred or shipped to different bases by ship.  New
air groups that enter at San Francisco or elsewhere often only
start with 4 aircraft.  Small groups of planes that show up may
be reinforcments or the return of destroyed/disbanded air groups.
New groups show up with 3-4 planes.  What your factories are
producing has nothing to do with what shows up.  You may have a
group of P-40s that show up in '43 when you do not have a single
P-40 on the map or in production.  They are now waiting for the
P-47 to go into production so they can switch (meanwhile they are
training). Put these groups on Training missions as soon as they
arrive.  Move the air groups to San Diego, Seattle, or Los
Angeles if San Francisco gets above nine air groups.  Be sure to
put those units on training missions as they fill out.  When they
grow to 50 for Army fighters, 40 for Army bombers, and 30 for
Navy/Marine air groups, load those groups on cargo ships and ship
them to the bases you want them to operate from. Leave the new
Allied air groups at the West Coast ports until they fill out.
Use similar tactics in India and Australia also.

d.  Historically, the Marines converted most of their VMSB
squadrons into VMTB squadrons during 1944.  This happens in the
game and may be reconsidered later versions.  At this stage of
the war, ground support was more important than bombing ships and
Avengers were better in that role.  Also, by 1944 American
torpedo performance had improved dramatically.

e.  The Japanese Oil Reserve is displayed when you view the
Aircraft Replacement Pools.   To find out the OIL & RESOURCE
levels press the F7 key - they are displayed at the bottom of the
screen.  Unless OIL & RESOURCE centers are isolated, the routine
convoy system will automatically ship the entire production of
those centers back to Japan every week.  Supply and Fuel points
are moved around on land automatically and slowly from hexes that
have high levels to hexes that have low levels.  Players have no
control over this.  As an example, the transportation links
between India and Burma are almost non-existent.  The supply
movement through heavy jungle is very slow.  Historically the
Burma Campaign turned into a stalemate because neither the
Japanese or British could keep a large force supplied in that
area.

1)  When oil production areas are reduced by bombing, they
rebuild up to a maximum of 5.  This creates a wildly unrealistic
way for the Allied player to win the game; bomb Palembang early
on and reduce its oil production from 45 to 5 for the rest of the
game.  This game feature is a major flaw which should be
eliminated as soon as possible.  Players should voluntarily
refrain from exploiting it.  Japanese players facing an Allied AI
opponent should keep lots of fighters guarding Palembang.

2)  Fuel IS transported directly from base to base during the
Routine Convoy Phase but this is only done when the Oil Reserve
falls below 3000.  The way the rules are supposed to work (but
might not) is:  Heavy Industry consumes oil each week at a rate
of 25 oil per heavy industry point.  Oil reserves are converted
into fuel (1 oil converts to 4 fuel).  The fuel is used to stock
the depots in Japan.  Fuel is used whenever aircraft fly or ships
move.  If a city in Japan has fuel fall below 10,000 then 1000
will be subtracted from the oil reserve and 4000 will be added to
the city's fuel depot.  Forming TF's to do transport oil or
resources is a waste of PP.  Historically, the Japanese
experienced an oil shortage AFTER they captured the oilfields and
BEFORE the Allied subs started taking their toll.  Keeping IJN
TF's in port will NOT conserve fuel.  It is a preset system for
the most part.

3.  CYCLE THROUGH FACTORY CITIES TO SEE WHICH PLANES ARE BEING
PRODUCED AND UPGRADE TO NEWER MODELS WHEN APPLICABLE (F6).

a.  A NEW FEATURE, ALT/N CAN BE USED TO TOGGLE HUMAN/COMPUTER
FACTORY CONTROL.  IF YOU DO NOT WANT THE COMPUTER TO
AUTOMATICALLY UPDATE YOUR AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION, SET IT TO HUMAN
FACTORY CONTROL.

b.  New planes usually appear in San Francisco prior to the
factory availability.  When the F2M, B-29, and P-47 aircraft
appear for the first time in San Francisco as air groups, with 4
aircraft in each group, they appear a month or so before they can
be selected for production.  If they show up you should be able
to convert a factory in a month or so to produce them.

c.  If there are adequate supplies at a base and adequate numbers
in the aircraft pool then your air groups should receive
replacements.

d.  Air groups located in HUMAN CONTROLLED bases or ships will
NOT automatically change their type.   If under COMPUTER CONTROL,
the computer automatically upgrades your air groups with new
types of aircraft.  The computer will follow a historical pattern
in its upgrade decisions.  The advanced models you see showing up
in limited numbers are the prototypes of the new planes.  When
they show up, the factories will be able to produce them soon
afterward.

e.  Even if your factories are under HUMAN CONTROL, the computer
will still change aircraft at bases or TF's that are under a
COMPUTER CONTROLLED HQ.

f.  The computer changes aircraft during the game in the most
historical manner possible.  The Wellington is the only British
bomber that changes to Liberators.  As for other British Tactical
Bombers, the Blenheims will change into Beauforts.  The Beauforts
and Beaufighters will not be changed.

g.  The rules are wrong about the appearance date of the OHKAs.
They become available in MARCH 1945.

C.  HQ SUBPHASE

1.  EXAMINE HQ'S (ALT/F).

a.  Various Japanese Army HQ's are associated with a particular
Naval HQ.  When a combat TF is formed in a port controlled by a
Japanese Army HQ it will ALWAYS be attached to the Combined
Fleet.  Japanese Combined Fleet HQ commands all surface combat,
bombardment & air combat TF's.  When a non-combat TF is formed,
it will be attached to the Army HQ's associated Navy HQ.  The
14th, 15th, 16th, and 25th Armies are associated with the
Combined Fleet.  The 17th Army is associated with South Seas
Fleet.

2.  LIST HQ UNITS (ALT/D).

a.  When an HQ is destroyed (such as ABDA or Malaya AG) the units
subordinate to that HQ will automatically be transferred to
another HQ.

3.  RELOCATE HQ's (ALT/E).

a.  To relocate a land HQ (such as SWPAC), place the cursor on
the NEW location.  (The initial HQ location CANNOT be isolated.)
Place the cursor on a target base (that is under SWPAC control),
pull down the HQ menu, choose CHANGE BASE and then pick SWPAC.
Next reselect the target base and pull down the HQ menu again and
select RELOCATE HQ.  The HQ will immediately move to its new
destination.  You can only move an HQ to a base it controls.  If
the HQ IS ISOLATED you can move the leader to a SWPAC base by
putting him in charge of that base directly.  (This is how
historically MacArthur moved his SWPAC and the Asian Fleet HQ
back to Australia from the Philippines.)

b.  You cannot move an ARMY HQ onto a TF because it cannot be
located on ships.

c.  Japanese players should not try to shift an army HQ's
geographic area of authority away from what it was historically.
The game's AI routines will try to shift things back when on
partial or full computer control.  That wastes time and
PPs.  Do it only temporarily for the bases containing land units
whose control you want to shift to a different HQ.

d.  The Japanese Combined Fleet HQ controls most major combat
task forces (TF's) regardless of where they are formed.  This
means that placement of the Combined Fleet HQ is important.

e.  It is possible for a base to belong to more than one HQ, even
if there are more than one HQ on the base.  This can only occur
if the HQ's are related to each other (such as the Japanese South
Seas Fleet and the Japanese 17th Army).  Only the AI seems able
to do this.

4.  MOVE HQ'S TO TF IN THE SAME SQUARE (ALT/S).

5.  ASSIGN NEW LEADER TO HQ'S (ALT/L).

a.  There was a problem in early versions in that it was not
possible to examine the leader of an HQ without losing the one
you started with.  This has been corrected.

b.  An HQ's leaders may gain experience.  They gain it FASTER if
they are NEARER to the action.  Leader ratings will go up if they
are involved in a lot of combat actions.  There is a very small
chance that a leader will be promoted (usually the losing
commander gets the promotion).

c.  There are significant errors and possible bugs in the leader
database.  Some leaders are never available.  Others are
available only as base commanders and leave the game entirely if
removed from control of that base (Admiral Matsunaga at Saigon in
the 1941 campaign and Rising Sun scenario is an example - he was
historically only a rear admiral then).  Other leaders are listed
incorrectly in the rules as being available 12/41 when in fact
they are not due until much later.  Also Dutch leaders are only
available in ABDA bases and TF's with Dutch flagships.  Another
major problem is that in the beginning the Allied Central Pacific
and South Pacific HQ's seem limited in the land leaders available
to them; only Marine leaders and the historic and the US Army
General Short.

d.  Press the space bar or click the right mouse button to
display the 2nd page of leaders.

6.  SET HQ CONTROL (ALT/K).

a.  When you run the HISTORIC first turn, all Allied HQ's are
computer controlled and the human Allied player has NO control
over what his HQ's or units will do on the first turn.  The
Japanese have surprise in almost every land and sea battle during
the first turn even when not using the historic attacks.

b.  Carrier TF's ordered to attack ships in port will almost
always ignore enemy TF's in the same hex.  Carrier TF's ordered
to attack enemy TF's will almost always enemy ignore ships in
port in the same hex.  It is not possible to order carriers to
attack any ships at sea OR in port in a given spot.  They will
almost always only do one or the other.  Sometimes they will do
both but this is rare.  Players seem to have little control over
this.  The best chance of hitting both seems to be to give a
carrier TF a destination of the target hex, with a different home
port, a target of ships in port and set its return orders to
leader discretion.  It might then remain on station and make
reaction moves (maximum of one per turn) to nail an enemy TF that
comes within its reaction range.

c.  The key to learning the game is to pick one HQ to run and set
the others to full computer control.  Gradually move the HQ's to
operational control and set their objectives, etc.  You may never
want FULL player control for all HQ's.

d.  If an HQ is under 'Full Computer' or 'Computer Operational'
control then the AI routines will automatically send
reinforcement ships, planes and troops to the base where the HQ
is located.  Problems sometimes originate in changing HQ's from
full human control to one of the two varieties of computer
control.  As an example, the US AI sometimes gets real excited
about Wake Island if the Japanese does not capture it early.  You
may have to run Central Pacific Command (CenPac) on full human
control in order to keep from making Wake the base HQ for CenPac,
which can result in it transferring most of the Pacific Fleet and
several LCU divisions to Wake.  One solution may be to transfer
control of Wake Island to ANZAC or SEAC.  These HQ's do not care
what happens to Wake.  The Japanese Combined Fleet HQ has a
similar fixation about Truk; it will continually attempt to
protect it, or retake it, long after Allied forces pose greater
threats closer to the Japanese Home Islands.  And the US AI
somehow absolutely refuses to defend Johnston Island.  It seems
to consistently disband any surface combat TF's sent there to
protect the place, and remove airgroups based there.  The only
solution to this is to set whichever Allied HQ controls Johnston
Island to full human control.  Hopefully these significant AI
problems will be corrected in later versions.

e.  If the HQ is under 'Computer Operational' control you can set
the 'target' and the AI will automatically try to capture (or
defend) the target.

7.  CHANGE BASE HQ (ALT/C).

a.  One way to get more control of forces is to Change Base HQ
from an undesirable HQ to a more desirable HQ, and only then
begin creating TF's and activating LCU's under the control of
that desired HQ.  It may be necessary to change a Base HQ before
changing that Base's control.

8.  SET HQ TARGET (ALT/G).

9.  LIST HQ AIRCRAFT (ALT/X).

10.  ASSIGN HQ AIR LEADER (ALT/P).

a.  The HQ air leader should only be selected if their air rating
is greater that the HQ commander.  Air HQ leaders handle air
missions for that HQ's bases.  If your main HQ commander's air
rating is as good or better than the air rating of the proposed
air leader, do not utilize him.  Generally an air rating seems to
run back up the ladder to the HQ's commander level, so a local
base leader's air rating are not REAL important.  When in doubt,
assign base leaders that have good air ratings in the hot air
combat spots.

11.  REINFORCE HQ (ALT/R).

a.  Only the HQ that is commanding your MAIN EFFORT should use
REINFORCE HQ.

b.  The REINFORCE HQ routine will send ships and reinforcements
to ANY non-isolated friendly base.

D.  LAND SUBPHASE

1.  EXAMINE LAND UNITS IN SEQUENCE (S/W).

a.  LCU's automatically gain 1 experience point each turn until
they reach 50.  Units of PHIL, DUT and IND nationality and all
engineer units only gain experience up to 25.  CHIN units never
gain experience in this manner.  Anything under 50 experience is
a BIG risk for LCU's attacking atolls.  If the LCU's miss a
leadership check (or even two) they are history if there are any
decent Japanese on the island.

b.  The routine convoy system should provide enough supply to
keep army units at 99 readiness.  This assumes that the base is
not ISOLATED.  If Adelaide comes up as a isolated base it is a
bug and should be ignored.

c.  There are no shore batteries in the game, though there may be
in a future version.

d.  U.S. LCU's:  Grey LCU's are Marines while white units are
U.S. Army.

e.  When invading Japanese home islands watch out for 'militia'.
ALL the Japanese home island bases will create new 'militia'
units in their hex after the Allies take one.  The only way to
stop this from happening is to have enough LCU's in the port over
a certain strength so the militia units do not form.  As an
example, the unexpected arrival of the Japanese LCU's at Sasebo
indicates the presence of 'militia'.  You must garrison bases in
Japan to prevent the militia from retaking them.  The militia can
show up whether the base is garrisoned or not.  The population of
Japan never becomes passive.  This is an undocumented feature.

f.  Shifting control of land units from one HQ to another is a
cumbersome process.  You can change the HQ commanding LCU's by
changing the base HQ to the desired HQ with the ALT/C command,
then activate the LCU's you want to be attached to the desired
HQ.  The land unit first has to be inactive.  If the LCU is
already activated, deactivate it with the activate command, then
reactivate it with the same activate command.  Always FIRST
transfer control of the base the LCU is on to the desired HQ and
THEN activate the unit, at which point it should show up as being
attached to that HQ.  Reinforcements must also FIRST be removed
from the base where they arrived to do this, as they generally
arrive at a RESTRICTED home area base HQ where base control
cannot be changed.  Failure to follow these guidelines will
result in an HQ having units all over the Pacific and
significantly reduce LCU's effectiveness in battle.

2.  DIVIDE UNITS AS NEEDED (D ON UNIT DATA DISPLAY).

a.  Dividing an LCU will decrease its combat effectiveness.
Prior to separating an LCU division, increase it to an oversized
division.

b.  Fractional LCU's that are stacked with their parent LCU may
recombine with them automatically during the supply phase.
Another method to reassemble divided divisions is to load both
pieces onto the same TF, then unload them somewhere or just leave
them at the same base for awhile.  They will recombine
eventually.

c.  The NEW unit you create when dividing an LCU should only
receive replacements when it fall below 30 squads while the
parent unit (original cadre) builds back to full strength.

d.  Dividing Allied engineer units is especially effective.   The
replacements bring both old and new subunits up to workable size
quickly.

3.  ACTIVATE ALL LCU's THAT WILL BE LOADED, MOVED, OR THAT WILL
ATTACK (A ON UNIT DATA DISPLAY).

a.  If there is a '$' sign next to the unit then it is NOT
ACTIVATED.   LCU's are automatically deactivated at the end of
the execution phase.  For them to attack enemy LCU's between the
time you activated them and the end of the phase, several
conditions must be met:  there has to be enemy LCU's/bases in the
same area, sufficiently high odds or have an aggressive leader
assigned.  To achieve numerical advantage, you need men, good
troop quality and good readiness.  If a LCU is under 50 readiness
it probably will not attack.

b.  The Chinese LCU's are a good example of poor leadership and
readiness.  There is only one leader in China.  You cannot change
leaders there.  Chinese HQ's are examples of the restricted HQ's.
It costs 120PP to activate a division or army attached to that
HQ.  If your troop experience is less than 50, and you do not
have a really good leader, your LCU's may be virtually useless
(read p. 35 of the manual).

c.  Activated LCU's may still not attack if the odds are bad.
However, if the LEADER passes an aggressiveness roll they will
attack at any odds.  If your leader is not aggressive AND has
fails experience checks, then you may not have a sufficient
advantage to initiate an attack.  There are 3 leader rolls
involved in each land combat.  The failure to pass a leader roll
when low quality LCU's are involved may result in the units
'failing to fight'.  This would explain why a 52 squad LCU
failed to fight in one battle and while only a 2 squad LCU fought
in the next battle.

d.  If you activate LCU's while your HQ's are low in PP, your
readiness will be halved, further curtailing your offensive
firepower.  You may activate LCU's without the necessary PP but
you will lose half of the LCU's readiness in the process.  This
really hurts the Japanese ability to attack in China and is quite
realistic.

e.  An attack by LCU's uses a number of PPs equal to the land
leader's land rating.  If there are not enough PPs, there may be
no attack.  This also hurts the Japanese ability to attack in
China.  If the "on the spot" commander fails an aggressiveness
roll (random (10) less than aggressiveness), then he will be
bypassed as commander and the commander of the controlling HQ
will take charge of the hostilities.  This means the leadership
duties will shift up the chain of command.  (See page 33,
paragraph 4).

f.  To get the Japanese to retreat you need 125:1 odds.  They are
tenacious units, and this IS historical.  They don't surrender.
It is tough to get heavy damage in jungle when the effects are
divided by NINE.

g.  Sometimes you may see only 2 squads attack or defend.  Look
closely at the 1st paragraph in column 2 on page 35.  If the LCU
fails both its experience check and its leader check then its
readiness may be reduced to 1.  This happens when poor LCU's are
lead by poor commanders.

h.  Check the rules on page 41:  Special Headquarters Movement
Restrictions.  LCU's subordinate to restricted HQ's (ANZAC, West
Coast, China AG, Kwantung and Imperial GHQ) pay 10 times the
normal activation cost.  When activated, these units do not
change their HQ.  SOME LCU's may NOT be loaded onto ships.  You
can move the LCU's in their home country but they take x10 PP to
activate.  These rules are necessary in order to keep the
Japanese from pulling all their forces out of China and
Manchuria, and the Allies from pulling their "Home Defense"
forces out of Australia and the U.S.

i.  At various times during the game, ANZAC LCU's will be
transferred to the SWPAC HQ.  To determine when ANZAC units have
switched to SWPAC, click on the LCU as if you were going to
activate it and look at the HQ's they are attached to.  If it is
ANZAC, the LCU is tied up in home defense duties.  If it is
SWPAC, the LCU is released to go fight outside their home
country.  To ensure the ANZAC LCU's transfer occurs, you may need
to put the Southwest Pacific HQ under computer control for one
turn (either operational or total control).  You will need to do
this each time an ANZAC LCU is scheduled to be transferred to
SWPAC.  (Until ANZAC releases LCU's, take a division from Central
Pacific Command, break it into smaller units, and use them to
garrison the Solomons and New Guinea.)  When an ANZAC LCU
activates it will switch to SWPAC control and may arrive as a
reinforcement in Sydney.  Listed below is the ANZAC transfer
schedule:

1)  Apr 42 1st AUS Engr.

2)  May 42 7th AUS Inf Div.

3)  Sep 42 6th AUS Inf Div.

4)  Nov 42 9th AUS Inf Div.

5)  Jul 43 3rd NZ Inf Div.

6)  Aug 43 8th NZ Inf Bde.

j.  In the last year of the war the Japanese started transferring
divisions out of China and Manchuria for use in the Western
Pacific.  The divisions transferred out of China will show up in
Shanghai (probably attached to 14th or 35th Army).  The divisions
transferred out of Manchuria will show up in Port Arthur.

k.  When an LCU is ACTIVATED it will become attached to the same
HQ that controls the base.  This is not true for LCU's that are
attached to RESTRICTED HQ's (such as ANZAC).

l.  Inactive LCU's will always DEFEND in land combat.  Activating
in LCU does not help its performance while defending.

m.  A computer controlled HQ may activate some of your LCU's.

n.  Engineers DO NOT need to be activated in order to build
airfields and ports.

o.  The gung-ho 1st Marine Division is influenced by a 'minor'
bug which keeps the LCU active.

p.  LCU's can receive a maximum of 20 squads per turn as
replacements if not isolated.  Thus if a division takes 50%
losses in combat it will take 6 weeks to rebuild it to full
strength.

q.  Look at the type of terrain enemy LCU's are in.  Heavy jungle
and jungle terrain reduce bombardment effects drastically, so
does entrenchment level.  Japanese jungle defense is really hard
to beat.  Weekly air strikes also do not impact much on jungle
defenders.  To destroy Japanese LCU's you need lots of
experienced LCU's, air strikes and shore bombardments.  If the
enemy units drop to a readiness of 9-15% they are being affected.
Do this turn after turn and you will see the odds climb until the
magic 125:1 odds shows up and the defender will be gone.  Another
secret to getting Japanese troops out of the jungle is to cut
their line of supply.  This usually requires a surface combat TF
on station in the hex.  It does not have to be a good TF, use
PT's or DD's or CA's when enemy air is around.  Once their supply
is cut, 3 or 4 divisions under a good leader can usually get
125:1 odds in 3 or 4 turns.

r.  If your LCU's have gotten into a battle with enemy units, you
CANNOT change their controlling HQ's UNTIL they have captured the
enemy base.  When you capture the base, an HQ is selected by the
computer.  The HQ that is selected by the computer for the base
is the same as the one the lowest numbered LCU (in the game's
database) is attached to.  The captured base gets assigned to
that HQ at the end of combat phase.  Next turn, if you check your
units, they will still have DIFFERENT controlling HQ's.  What you
can do is look at the captured base, decide which HQ's the base
should belong to, change BASE HQ if necessary, and then activate
the LCU's to get them all assigned to that HQ.

s.  After combat or movement, you can activate a unit again to
return it to an inactive status.  You can use that technique just
after capturing a base.  This makes LCU's have the same
appropriate HQ's.  If the enemy is still in a base hex, after you
capture the base, you can activate your LCU's to turn these units
back to inactive status so they can dig in and wait for the
supplies to roll in and restore their readiness.

t.  It appears that only the experience rating of the land unit
on the top of the stack in a hex is used for the experience check
at the beginning of a land combat phase.  If a unit with a low
experience rating is on top of the stack, its experience
rating will be used no matter how good the other units in the
stack are.   As an example, the British player should always
arrange his forces so that a unit with an experience rating over
50 is on the top of any stack that is going to fight the
Japanese.  It also means that divisions will always be higher in
stacks than non-divisional units, because their database ID #'s
are lower.

4.  ASSIGN LEADERS TO LAND UNITS (F1 ON UNIT DATA DISPLAY).

a.  If there are LCU's belonging to various HQ's at a location
and there is no onsite leader then the leader will be chosen
randomly from among the represented HQ's.

b.  Allied land leaders cannot command an amphibious assault -
only the naval leaders of transport TF carrying the attacking
troops can affect the initial landings.  If enemy resistance
continues then an Army/Marine commander can be assigned to the
base on the following turn.  Japanese HQ commanders command the
troops making amphibious assaults (the aggressiveness of the
Japanese naval leader commanding the transport TF is vital in
determining whether the TF turns back under air attack though).

c.  Both Japanese and Allied leaders have an equal chance of
becoming casualties.  Leaders that are wounded in action will be
unavailable for 6-12 months while recuperating.  The game system
seems to inflict unusually high losses on friendly leaders from
friendly air attack on enemy LCU's in the same hex, so be
careful.

d.  To see the available leaders, check the land units under the
control of each Allied HQ by pressing W on a ground unit under
the control of each HQ and then press F1.  Press the space bar to
see more leaders if the screen is full.

e.  Your HQ leaders should have the highest land ratings
available.  This also includes naval HQs.  Your TF and base
commanders should have high aggressiveness ratings so they will
contribute more often to the conduct of a particular battle.
This is especially true for carrier TF commanders;  Halsey with
an aggressiveness of 9 is far more useful as a carrier TF
commander because he will contribute his 7 air rating to carrier
battles 90% of the time, as opposed to 60% of the time for the
next best Allied carrier leaders, Mitscher and Spruance.  As an
example, almost always appoint Kinkaid as commander of the South
Pacific (SoPac), with Fitch or McCain as his air leader, in lieu
of Halsey.  Kinkaid has a land rating of 4 to Halsey's 3.  If you
keep Halsey as SoPac commander, you should not have a SoPac air
leader.  Halsey is the best air leader the US has.

5.  MARCH LCU's OVERLAND (ALT/W).

a.  Marching (or retreating) to another base requires the LCU to
start with at least a 50 readiness.

b.  LCU's may not move from a hex containing enemy units to
another hex or base controlled by the enemy (whether or not the
latter contains any LCU's) unless they have 125-1 superiority in
the hex they are leaving.

c.  You also cannot march an LCU from an enemy
occupied/controlled base to an enemy controlled/empty base and
capture it.  CURRENTLY LCU's can ONLY march to a connected
location IF either the starting OR ending location is FREE OF
ENEMY LCU's.

d.  The game system fosters holding attacks.  Moving a LCU into a
hex containing enemy units pins them down there.  An AI group"of
enemy LCU's dug in on a large island with march paths, like
Rabaul or the Philippines, can resort to sneaky tactics to force
base hopping.  After you obtain a toehold base with 7-8 friendly
LCU's, the AI opposition may retreat one turn to another base,
then advance back 1 or more units effectively preventing your
advance.  To prevent this, invade behind the AI forces to pin
them down and prevent retreats and/or end-of-turn advances.

e.  The marching paths in New Guinea are not exactly correct.
Some parts of the island must have amphibious assaults to get to
bases.  Many New Guinea bases can be reached by marching from one
to another.  You cannot march to an enemy occupied base if there
are enemy units in the base where you are trying to march from.

6.  CALL FOR IMMEDIATE SEALIFT FORCES (ALT/T).

E.  AIR SUBPHASE

1.  CHECK WHICH ENEMY BASES ARE EXERTING AIR ZONES OF CONTROL
(AZOC) (ALT/Z).

a.  Each time an undetected TF enters an enemy AZOC it will
trigger searches and attacks by all enemy air groups in range.
This point is very important because of the way TF Preparation
Points (PP) work.  The best way to drive off an amphibious
invasion is to hit the transport TF carrying the LCU's with as
many separate airstrikes as possible, because each airstrike
reduces the TF's PPs by 9.  A transport TF reduced to few or no
PP will likely retire or fail to unload.  The airstrikes need not
be strong; what counts is making them numerous.  This means that
you should spread your airgroups around on multiple bases within
a small area, preferably each with a bomber and a fighter
squadron (tactical, dive or torpedo bombers preferred), and with
a Patrol squadron covering them all.  If the HQ for that area
does not have an air leader, assign local leaders with air
ratings of 3+ to each such base.  You'd be surprised how
effective Allied airpower can be in defending Malaya, Java and
Sumatra from Japanese invasions in this fashion in 1941 and early
1942.  The counter to this is to reduce or eliminate the AZOC's
with massive airstrikes (6+ bomber and fighter squadrons in a
single raid) or naval bombardments by surface combat or
bombardment TF's with 4+ heavy cruisers or better.  It may be
necessary to pound defending airbases in this fashion for several
turns before a transport TF can get through.  The weakness of
this air defense tactic is that you need really strong airstrikes
from a single base to hurt enemy combat TF's.  Those rarely turn
back under air attack.  It is difficult to hurt enemy combat TF's
if you spread your airpower around on multiple bases to maximize
the number of strikes to reduce amphibious transport TF PPs.

b.  Air Combat TF's will only cancel enemy AZOC if THEY ENTER
THEM.  The AZOC will be cancelled AFTER the Air Combat TF
triggers any reaction combat or movement.  As an example, in
order to perform an effective amphibious assault in an enemy
AZOC, you may need to send a Combat Air TF to the enemy base and
set the STANDOFF RANGE to ZERO.  This may (but might not) CANCEL
the enemy AZOC.  Your transport TF's might then follow and may be
immune to reaction air strikes.  Of course, your carriers will
have to withstand the full brunt of enemy airpower.

c.  After an enemy naval force retires they can no longer be
targeted by aircraft in the normal combat phase - they may only
be subjected to reaction attacks as they move towards their home
port.

2.  CHECK WHICH FRIENDLY BASES ARE EXERTING AZOC (SHFT/Z).

a.  If you have good air cover in an area, any enemy TF's
entering your air zones of control (AZOC) will have a good chance
of running into any reaction forces you have sitting in port.
Repeated bombing of a base will reduce the effectiveness of it's
AZOC.  A group of aircraft may not be enough to generate a AZOC
at a disrupted base.  Try moving more bombers to the base and see
if a AZOC appears.  AZOC exerted by TF's are not shown (either
friendly or enemy).  Only LBA AZOC are displayed.

b.  All TF's are much more vulnerable to enemy aircraft, both
from carriers and land bases, when they are not covered by
friendly Patrol squadrons' AZOC.

c.  The most important aircraft in the game are the patrol
(reconnaissance) bombers.  Patrol planes do not do anything but
patrol.  Just move them to a supplied base and they will start to
patrol.  They locate enemy TF's, reduce the effectiveness of
enemy submarines and greatly enhance the effectiveness of combat
aircraft on bases containing the Patrol units (apparently
including air defense).  You should IMMEDIATELY move a Patrol air
unit onto any newly conquered base.  It will then exert AZOC as
well as providing targeting information concerning enemy TF's.

d.  Fighters DO NOT exert an AZOC but fighter-bombers DO.
However, friendly fighter AZOCs DO cancel enemy bomber AZOCs.

e.  There is a fresh reaction roll everytime an enemy TF enters a
new AZOC. Keep in mind that bases exert more than one AZOC,
depending on the type of aircraft.  A base with patrol, tactical
bomber and fighter aircraft exerts three, not one, AZOC, though
only the patrol AZOC will appear on the screen.   This means that
it helps to have more but weaker airbases exerting different
types of AZOC around a carrier TF that you want to have make a
reaction move.

f.  Enemy fighter AZOC, both from land bases and carrier TF's,
can negate friendly AZOC.

3.  EXAMINE AIRFIELDS IN SEQUENCE (Z OR A).

a.  The most important step in improving air bases is to get it
from size 1 to size 2 (using an engineer unit).  This changes a
base which can only handle one patrol squadron to a base which
can handle two fighter, fighter-bomber, dive or torpedo bomber
squadrons plus a patrol squadron.  The next is from a size 3 to
size 4, because that lets tactical and heavy bombers operate
there.  Building bases up to an airfield level of 4 allows you to
stage bombers from the U.S. to Australia, and points in between,
by successive air transfers from base to base.  Also, the bigger
the base the more aircraft that are active in your squadrons.

b.  The larger the airfield rating of a base, the harder it will
be to destroy aircraft at that base.  The high airfield rating
implies MORE air strips and a better ability to disperse the air
groups.

c.  The engineer construction rate of airfields is unpredictable.
Some airfield levels may increase from two to six in eight weeks
while other bases with more engineers, supply, and better terrain
may take up to three to four months.  The key is to have 1000
supply points available for construction.

d.  The maximum size for a land based fighter group is fifty
aircraft.

e.  The big-wigs in the Pentagon plan to send all B-17s to Europe
starting late 1942.

4.  SET PRIORITY TARGET BASE (B).

a.  To set a priority air target, hit 'B' while on a friendly
airbase.  The screen should then show up that asks to click on an
air target, or hit 'C' to cancel a previous air target.  That
should remove old air targets.

5.  SET MISSIONS (D, N, NI, SA, OA, AB, T, D ON AIR UNIT
DISPLAY).

a.  When viewing air groups, following the group name/number
there is a designation in parentheses such as (D-USA) or
(T-USMC).  The T designates a Training unit and only holds four
aircraft each.  The "D" stands for Day Combat, "NI" stands for
Naval Interdiction, and so on.  Each AIR MISSION has a letter
code.  When you see (D-USMC) at the top of the air group display
the 'D' stands for DAY mission (T=Training, N=Night, etc.).

b.  You are not required to set a group's air mission.  All
groups will start with a mission already set - usually Day
Combat.  If nothing is next to the air group data on the display
then the group has a Day Combat mission.  An air group will
remain active and perform it's assigned mission every turn
without spending PPs every turn.

c.  If you set tac-bombers or attack planes (not fighters) to
Naval Interdiction, they will intercept spotted TF's that are in
range IF they have enough supply and fuel to do so.  Air groups
with Naval Interdiction missions should only attack naval
targets.  EXAMPLE:  a carrier has F4Fs, SBD's and TBF's - if the
SBD's have an NI mission then only the F4F's and TBF's would be
allowed to attack an airfield.  The TF's target priorities would
not override this.  You can control this somewhat when CV's
launch planes.  Set the reaction range to 1 or 2 after giving
them a destination, and they won't attack until within that
range.  American and Japanese ARMY bombers will not attack ships
unless they have a Naval Interdiction mission.  Bombers with NI
missions should perform reaction attacks against enemy TF's that
enter nearby AZOC.

d.  When torpedo bombers and Bettys attack from MAXIMUM range
they will carry bombs instead of torpedoes.  This does not apply
to TBD's (Avengers).

e.  Air groups with Training missions will not perform any
combat.  They should be moved to the rear areas.

f.  There is no reason to put patrol aircraft, such as seaplanes,
on Night missions.

g.  With the exception of HEAVY BOMBERS, land based bombers are
reluctant to fly daylight missions against targets defended by
CAP unless they have a fighter escort or very good.  The mission
may get scrubbed.  On LBA attacking TF's:  the airbases need
several things to detect, locate and attack a TF.  First, they
need to be well supplied with supplies AND fuel.  When the gas is
gone, they don't fly!  Second, the airbases need to be protected
from enemy airstrikes.  (Those 2 **'s behind the name of a base
means severe air disruption, reducing all flights from that
base.)  Third, a patrol group is critical.  The more patrol
groups that can see an enemy TF, the greater chance there is that
LBA will attack them.  Fourth, of course, you need planes that
will attack TF's.  Tac-bombers will do it, but naval airgroups
(dive and torpedo bombers) do the best job.  Fighters will
perform sweeps over enemy TF's and will strafe non-combat units,
and tac-bombers will occasionally attack, but dive bombers have
the best accuracy rating.  A good HQ leader is useful to keep the
reinforcements coming, too.

h.  At close range (2-3 hexes) the air bases put up a few
fighters (4-8) over any TF.  If you do not want fighters to move
away from their airfield, put them on naval interception (NI)
missions.  Fighters may provide CAP over the base.   Fighters
will not strafe/attack COMBAT TF's.   The only mission they will
perform, other than CAP, is strafe/attack are NON-COMBAT TF's.

i.  Transport aircraft, at a well supplied base, can airdrop
supplies to ALL undersupplied units.  They can supply up to two
times their normal aircraft travel distance.  Transport aircraft
can airdrop supplies up to their maximum allowable distance to
LCU's (to increase their readiness up to 49%) located with an
enemy unit.  This is handy as long as you can neutralize the
AZOC.  Transport aircraft will not drop supplies into an area
covered by an enemy fighter AZOC.  Transport aircraft supply
function is controlled by the computer. The combat system in
Pacific War required that aircraft ordnance be automatically
selected by the computer according to range/type of target.
Japanese NAVAL bombers are better off attacking ships with
torpedoes so the computer ALWAYS selects this weapon.  Japanese
transport aircraft that may show up on the Allied side may be the
result of the 'data contamination' bug.  Version x12 in the
Library is intended to fix that bug.

j.  Changing an air group's mission requires PPs.  If you do not
have enough PPs, the mission can be changed but all the aircraft
in the group become damaged.

k.  Fighters over their own bases perform almost 3 times as
effectively in kill rates.

l.  Night mission bombing allows one to attack strategic targets
without encountering swarms of daylight interceptors.  The flak
is halved and CAP is limited to those fighters assigned Night
missions.  You can reduce supply capability to Rabaul (neutralize
it) by the use of night bombing with B-17s.  Night raids by large
numbers of B-29s can cause terrific damage to the Japanese cities
late in the war.  The Japanese can also use well trained Betty
groups (experience 80+) to attack Allied TF's at night and avoid
CAP.

m.  Army Air Groups will not attack LCU's if they have an NI
mission.  Set your airfield target priority to Ground Attack to
guarantee that bombers will attack LCU's.  Aircraft do not have
their range multiplied x1.5 when attacking LCU's.  See the data
card comments for page 21.

n.  The higher the experience level of your air groups the better
they perform.  If your experience is below 70 you will not do
very well.  Try putting some of those groups on training missions
in your rear areas, or don't deploy the groups to the battle area
until they have a 75 - 80 experience rating.  Taking losses may
also keep your experience down as you receive replacements.

o.  Airgroups can attack supply depots and airfields within 150%
of their rated range but can attack LCU's and task forces only
within their normal rated range.  This means that a Lily with a
range of 4 can attack supply depots and airfields at ranges of 6
but LCU's only at a range of 4.  Note that it is almost
impossible to bombard the US supply depot on Bataan with aircraft
unless their bases are out of normal range.  There are usually so
many US LCU's in Bataan that the program will have all airgroups
attack the LCU's rather than the supply depot no matter what the
base target is.  This means that 4-hex range Lilys must be based
on Formosa (Takao or Chilung) if you want them to attack the
Bataan supply depot, with Sallys being based on Okinawa.
Hopefully this problem will be corrected in a future version.

p.  Zero fighters have a range of 6 while most Japanese tactical
bombers (naval Bettys & Nells, Army Sallys & Helens) have ranges
of 5-9.  The most effective anti-shipping weapons are land-based
air (LBA) units - the US SBD Dauntless dive-bomber and the
Japanese G4M Betty tactical bomber.  Dive-bombers are the most
accurate anti-shipping planes (accuracy 9) and SBDs can deliver
the devastating 1000 lb. bomb at 2 hexes range or a 500 lb. bomb
at 3 hexes range.  Bettys have a range of 9 hexes, an accuracy of
7, and can sometimes carry torpedoes.  American SBD dive-bombers
using 1000 lb. bombs can really hurt Japanese battleships.
Battleship TF's seem excessively powerful in this game so it is
essential for the Japanese to sink most of the old US ones at
Pearl Harbor on the first turn.  Large battleship TF's have high
anti-aircraft ratings which greatly reduces the effectiveness of
air raids.   US battleships are almost invulnerable to Japanese
250 kg. (550 lb.) bombs.  Torpedoes are more effective but
torpedo bombers are  exceptionally vulnerable to AA fire.  Vals
and Kates can attack at 4 hexes range only with 250 kg. bombs.
Val divebombers always use 250 kg. bombs.  Kates use torpedoes at
ranges 0, 1 & 2 but 250 kg. bombs at range 3.  Japanese planes do
have a longer range than the US planes and will keep this
advantage throughout the war.  All TAC-BOMBERS in the game that
attack with BOMBS are assumed to be skip-bombing. The aircraft
accuracy of all TAC-BOMBERS is the same. Thus a B-25 and a Betty
both have a ship attack accuracy of 7. The Type 99 No.80 Mk.3 HC
bomb was the Japanese Navy's heavy "General Purpose" bomb.   This
bomb was used throughout the Pacific.  The Type 99 No.80 Mk.5 AP
bomb was used only at Pearl Harbor and was replaced with the
redesigned Type 2 No.80 800kg AP bomb in 1942.  800kg bombs also
added in version X14 and X15, making contact with the IJN more
risky.  The IJN planes will use torpedoes if they can carry them
and if the range is advantageous to use them, but at very close
ranges (1-5 hexes) they will carry 800 kg bombs (if possible)
about 50% of the time.

q.  Air squadrons from your base fight in the order that they are
listed at the base:  first squadron A fights the enemy, than B,
then C, etc.  As an example, Allied squadrons are ordered in the
following manner:

USMC Ftr, USMC Bomber, USAAF Ftr, USAAF Bomber, Commonwealth Ftr,
Commonwealth Bomber

What does this mean?  If you put USMC bombers with Commonwealth
fighters, for example, the fighters will not protect the bombers:
the enemy does not have to fight through your Commonwealth
fighters to get to the USMC bombers because they see them
straight away.

q.  Set fragile Bettys to NI (naval interdiction) missions to
keep them from hitting defended enemy bases and taking horrible
losses.

r.  After the poor performance of level bombers vs ships early in
the war the Japanese lost confidence in this form of weapons
delivery.  Late in the war, big WARHEADS are factored into twin
engined kamikaze aircraft.

s.  ARMY pilots have their experience modified when attacking
ships. Their experience rating is squared and then divided by
100. Thus the LOWER an ARMY-AIR GROUP'S experience the greater
the loss of effectiveness in attacking naval targets. IJN, RN,
USN and USMC air groups do not have their experience modified for
attacking ships.

6.  TRANSFER AIR UNITS (ALT/A).

a.  Adding a patrol air group to an airfield should not count
toward the maximum allowable number of units.   As an example, a
level four airfield can have four air groups, not counting
transport or patrol planes, and each air group can have up to
forty undamaged active aircraft.  But if there are already four
air groups at the airfield, you cannot add another
non-patrol/transport airgroup (even if all four of the others are
patrol/transport).  In order to add a non-patrol/transport air
group, move out one group to reduce the number to three, transfer
the non-patrol/transport group to the airfield and then bring
back the patrol/transport unit.  This appears to apply with all
sizes of airfields.

b.  The only aircraft that can be based at a size 1 airfield are
Patrol types.

c.   Air groups may be moved around within China (those bases
attached to China Exp. Force).  However, air group may not
transfer OUT OF or INTO China or Manchuria.  Any airgroups sent
to China or the Kwantung Army can't come out unless you move them
with PW Reports. Also, air groups in China and Manchuria will not
be allowed to disband.  Keep your air groups out of the China and
Kwantung areas or you will lose control of them.  This is not
really a bug, but a necessary side effect of the restricted HQ
functions.

d.   Only heavy bombers and patrol bombers can fly directly to
Oahu from San Francisco (SF), so if you have maxed out Oahu
already, only the patrol planes will be allowed to go there.
Move some planes from Oahu to the other islands, then try again.
If the heavy bombers are not transferring, look at the size of
the airport they are going to.  A size of 4 or greater is needed
to put the heavies there.  The shorter ranged planes (Dauntless,
P-40, etc.) must be loaded on a MCS or CS type ship to move
across the big ocean gaps.  They will show up as damaged at their
new port when the TF gets there, but repair quickly.  CS type
ships will unload the planes and have them ready to go
immediately.

e.  You can only get the nuclear mission as the Allies, and only
starting in August 1945.

f.  You cannot split squadrons or remove air groups from CVs.

7.  UPGRADE OLDER PLANE TYPES (C ON AIR UNIT DISPLAY).

a.  It is not possible to disband all the air units in China and
have them reappear in Tokyo 6 months later for reassignment, nor
is it possible to reequip them with biplanes to free up more
modern types for the force pool.

b.  You may not want to convert all of your Japanese carrier
fighter aircraft A6M2 Zeros to A6M5 Zeros when they become
available in 1943.  The A6M5 Zeros are fighter-bombers.  When
they bomb airfields or TF's, the A6M5 may suffer horrendous
losses due to flak.  The A6M5 may be only an adequate bomber when
attacking units with minimal flack protection.  A6M2s are also
fragile, are more prudent vs. ground targets.  They are fine for
defensive purposes if you are not doing well.  You should keep
one AC TF equipped with A6M2 for offensive purposes.  You should
also keep some ground based squadrons of A6M2s.  Otherwise,
Bettys and Peggys will attack TF's without escorts during
reaction air strikes.

8.  TRANSFER AIRCRAFT FACTORY CONTROL FROM COMPUTER TO HUMAN OR
VICE-VERSA (ALT/N).

a.  Alt/N can be used to toggle HUMAN/COMPUTER factory control.
If you do not want the computer to automatically update your
aircraft production, set it to HUMAN FACTORY CONTROL.

b.  Players should shift the production numbers of each type on
an as needed basis while keeping at least one factory producing
some of each type.  There will be times when a given type is
taking exceptionally heavy losses and its replacement pool
shrinks dangerously so it is important to keep one of each type
in production.

c.  Do not transfer all Japanese fighter production to Zeroes (a
Navy fighter), even though the Japanese Army fighter designs are
inferior until late 1942.  The Japanese Army fighter squadrons
will not re-equip with Zeroes and will gradually vanish due to
attrition.

d.  Do not terminate production of the Japanese twin-engine Ki-45
Nick fighter-bomber in favor of the Ki-34-I Oscar fighter either.
This is because of the game's use of air bases.  Fighters,
fighter-bombers, torpedo bombers and dive bombers are the only
combat aircraft which may be based on size 2 and 3 airfields.
The Japanese have only one land-based torpedo bomber squadron
from December 1941 through about May 1942, and no land-based dive
bombers (the US has lots of land-based Marine Corps dive-bomber
squadrons).  The only way the Japanese can attack ships and
ground units from size 2 and 3 airfields from December 1941
through May 1942 is with the Ki-45 Nick fighter-bomber.  This
makes a difference for Japanese AZOC.  Fighters DO NOT exert an
AZOC but fighter-bombers do.  This is the ONLY redeeming virtue
of the US P-39 Aircobra, and then only early in the war before
many USMC SBD dive-bomber squadrons become available.

F.  TASK FORCE SUBPHASE

1.  EXAMINE PORTS IN SEQUENCE (O OR P).

a.  In Campaign 41 or the Rising Sun Campaign, when you decide
not to use the historical first move, there is a chance that some
of the US Fleet at Oahu will put to sea.

b.  Look at the port of Los Angeles (LA) or Nagoya to see the
ships used in routine convoys.  If you access the port display,
and see a # sign next to a transport ID, this means that
transport is being used for routine convoy duty that turn and
will be unavailable for any missions.  If you want to verify
this, access target base (B), you will see a one turn delay next
to it.  A delay flag is set to prevent it from being added to a
TF.  When a port is expanded it may receive more supplies during
routine convoy supply and TF's based at large ports will receive
more PP.  Ports with HQ's present also receive additional
supplies during the routine convoy phase.  The maximum
fuel/supply level at a base is 50,000.  The routine supply
situation is dependent on who the HQ leader is.  If your HQ's is
not receiving routine supply, consider changing leaders.  Routine
supply seems to take into account the HQ, the level of supply
currently at the base and the MCS units in routine convoys.
Obviously all bases can not receive routine supply each turn.
Make sure to have lots of MCS in LA and you may receive routine
convoys with supply.

c.  The Preparation Point Allocation System is very complicated.
It is vital to be aware that HQ Preparation Points (PPs) are not
the same as TF PPs.  They are considerably different.  Read page
32 of the manual VERY carefully.  Unused HQ PPs are accumulated
from one turn to the next, subject to an upper limit for each
side (and each HQ) which seems to vary according to game date.
Unused TF PPs are NOT, repeat, NOT, accumulated from one turn to
the next.  While HQ PPs are sometimes transferred to TF's, this
is rarely (if ever) done on a one HQ PPs to one TF PPs basis.
PPs are allocated to TF's at the start of each EXECUTION PHASE.
TF's will always have ZERO PP during the ORDERS PHASE.  ALL task
forces, including Cargo TF's, use PPs.  You CANNOT see how many
PPs the TF has been allocated.  Disbanding TF's will save PPs for
the HQ's that is listed on the TF's display.  Disbanding a TF
will PREVENT the TF's HQ's from spending PPs on the TF at the
start of the EXECUTION PHASE.  The PPs number seen when clicking
on a port is the PPs for HQ's commanding the port.  The first and
last TF PPs assignment rules are key, especially the last.  A
shortage of PPs indicates exhausted resources or unpreparedness
(at the start of the war).  Only NAVY HQ's will provide TF's with
PPs.  All PPs allocation is done by the computer.  The players
have no control over PPs allocation.  The Japanese maximum HQ PPs
is generally 125 compared to the Allied 200.  The TF PPs
assignment rules are designed to ensure that any given HQ
concentrates on only one or two major operations each week in
order to be historically accurate.

1)  The first rule states that if a TF starts the execution phase
with their destination the SAME as their home base (which is
under friendly control), the TF will receive 25 TF PPs.  The TF
will gain additional PPs based on 2x the size of the port if the
TF starts at its home port.  The TF's HQ's will subsequently
spend 1 HQ PP.

2)  If the TF destination is DIFFERENT than its home base, then
the TF will start with a MINIMUM of 5 TF PPs, with the following
procedures used to assign ADDITIONAL PPs:

a)  If a TF has a DESTINATION that is the SAME as its HQ's TARGET
it will receive an additional 20 PPs.

b)  If a TF starts a move in its Home Port then it will receive
PP bonus based on the 2x the size of the port.

c)  A TF will receive 5 additional PPs if it has moved less than
60 hexes since it was last in port.

c)  A TF will receive 10 additional PPs if it has moved less than
30 hexes since it was last in port.

((a), (b) and (c) are the only ways written in the rules which
explain the known PP weakness of TF's which remain at sea at the
end of a turn instead of returning to port.  TF's which remain at
sea are known to be much weaker than TF's which return to port so
there may be some other factors at work here which are not yet
known to the players.)

d)  If the TF has a leader, add the Naval Leader's appropriate
rating as additional PPs (air rating for AC TF, land rating for
transport TF or naval rating for any other type of TF).

e)  If a TF's HQ has more than 9 PPs, the TF will receive 5
additional PPs plus the Naval Leader's rating.  However, 10 PPs
will subsequently be subtracted from the HQ's PPs.  Losing 10
PPs/TF can greatly reduce an HQ's PPs fast.  This is especially
critical if you are the Japanese player with all of your TF's
attached to Combined Fleet.  Assuming you have done nothing else
with Combined Fleet's HQ's PPs, the first 12 TF's created may
reduce the HQ's PPs to only 5 (125 HQ's PP - 12 TF's x 10 HQ's
PP/TF).

5)  TF's are NOT suppose to retain unused PPs from one turn to
next.  The manual states that when TF's are away from home port
for multiple turns, they will receive a reduced number of PPs.
However, the manual also states forming a TF and leaving it in
its home port for a few turns will increase PP allocation.  PP
are NOT suppose to be carried over from week to week, but game
play seems to indicate this may not be completely accurate.

6)  If a HQ's is low on PPs then the TF will also have reduced
PPs.  However, a minimum of 5 PPs is ALWAYS allocated to TF's.

7)  The number of PPs a TF receives at the beginning of the
execution phase may greatly affect its movement and speed.  Once
reduced to below 10 PPs a TF seems to "abort" its mission.  A TF
that starts the execution phase with fewer that 10 PPs may not
move!  TF PPs are also deducted throughout the execution phase
based on what happens to the TF.  PPs seem to be deducted when a
TF undergoes ANY sort of air attack, engages in surface combat,
or simply completes its mission (e.g., a transport TF may drop to
9 PPs as soon as it unloads at its destination).  This would
explain why an large invasion TF can be turned back by a couple
of otherwise ineffectual strafings by fighters.  It might also
explain the problems with getting some transport TF's to a
destination to carry out its mission.  For example, a reduced PPs
transport TF may not move through an enemy AZOC and may not carry
out its mission to unload.  A large AC TF containing CV's may act
as a meek, leaderless cargo group once it gets low on PPs.  The
ability of ANY TF to carry out its mission is affected by its
PPs.  When low on PPs, even a SC TF, with the most aggressive
leader, will seek to hide from the enemy rather than attack.

8)  To maximize your IJN CV TFs PPs, look at how many PPs
Combined Fleet has available.  Try to limit the number of
Combined Fleet TFs to maximize the available PPs for your carrier
TFs.  Make sure carrier TFs are numbered TF1 and TF2.  Try to put
leaders with higher aggressiveness ratings in charge of TFs.  Try
to create one big carrier TF, of four CVs (Shokaku, Zuikaku,
Hiyo, Junyo) and two CVL (Ryujo, Zuiho) instead of having two
TFs, to increase the TF's PPs.  This is especially effective if
this is the only Combined Fleet TF on that turn.  Keep in mind
that it is the controlling HQ which determines whether a TF will
drag PPs away from Combined Fleet.  A cargo TF under Combined
Fleet control will drag 10 PPs away from Combined Fleet.  A cargo
TF under South Seas Fleet will not, though the South Seas Fleet
HQ can grab PP's from Combined Fleet HQ provided the latter has
more than 100.

9)  A bug in the program will create new Japanese TF's even when
all HQ's are on full human control.  This can trash planned
Japanese TF PP allocation.  A solution is to load all Japanese
ships not in Nagoya or under repair in Japan into existing
non-combat TF's to keep the AI from forming them into new TF's.
The trick to saving PPs is to put all warships not in the
Combined Fleet combat TFs created for that turn, into cargo TFs
of subordinate fleets (Northern, Southern & 8th), to keep the AI
from creating Combined Fleet combat TFs.  This will prevent the
AI from draining PPs away from your combat TFs.

2.  EXAMINE EXISTING TF'S FOR DAMAGE, FUEL, AND THREAT LEVELS
(N/G).

a.  You can determine the vital statistics of any ship by
examining the ship display.  Find the ship in question on the
TF/PORT display.  Point the arrow at the ship and click the left
mouse button.  Dimmed or different color ships are actually
British, Australian or Dutch ships.

b.  The number of asterisk(s) displayed after a bomb, torpedo, or
gun hit reflects additional or critical damage has been
inflicted.  Each asterisk represents about 20% damage to the
ship.

c.  You do not need a shipyard to repair.  However, the ports
with shipyards get more repair points.  Some ports with shipyard
ratings include Sydney, Calcutta, the West Coast ports, and Pearl
Harbor.  These are good places to leave damaged ships.  One
disadvantage in repairing ships in shipyard facilities is that it
may cause a delay in receiving 'new construction' reinforcements.
If a non-shipyard port has enough repair points then there is no
problem EXCEPT that a shipyard port has a higher chance of
accelerated repairs (since it has more repair points).  Ships
should be placed in port or they will only perform at sea repairs
(possible 1 point per turn).  The higher the port rating, the
quicker the ship is repaired.  Ports with a lot of repair points
will NOT expend their repair points over and over again on the
same ship until all their points are gone.  If a port has
sufficient repair points, it will automatically repair one damage
point per turn for each damaged ship in port.  Subsequently each
damaged ship in port will undergo two random checks with the
possibility of removing two additional points.  As an example,
the maximum a battleship can repair in 1 turn is THREE damage
points.  Even though a port may have a number of excess repair
points remaining after performing repairs on the battleship, it
will not USE these points even if there are no other damaged
ships in port.  The maximum number of damage points that will be
removed in this example is 3 but the odds are only 1 or 2 will be
repaired.

d.  It is possible to obtain a critical hit on battleships.  This
will affect the outcome of the Pearl Harbor attack on the first
turn.  It will also hinder attempts to send BB's charging through
heavily defended areas.

e.  Computer-controlled TF's disband when they complete their
missions.  Human-controlled TF's do not disband.

3.  UNLOAD TF's AT DESTINATION BASES (U).

a.  Transport TF's will only unload if their standoff range is
zero.  Both Transport and Cargo TF's should unload automatically.
The Unload TF feature is useful if you load a ship and then
change your mind.  Be wary of unloading LCU's though, as that
will reduce their effectiveness.

b.  Oil cargo has one purpose in the game - to feed Japan's Oil
Reserves.  Therefore the only place Oil can be unloaded is in
Japan.

c.  Unloading a TF containing an air group which overloads an
airfield will increase the number of damaged aircraft.  Until the
situation is corrected, you will not have the FULL USE of any of
the air groups at that airfield.

d.  When ships unload supplies in support of an amphibious
assault, the supplies may be used in two different ways:  If the
assault units capture the base then the supplies are unloaded at
the port.  These supplies go into the base supply depot and may
be used normally by LCU's, air groups and ships at the base.  If
the assaulting units failed to capture the base then the supplies
are unloaded 'over the beach'.  These supplies must be used
immediately to raise LCU readiness (to a maximum of 49) or
replace losses in the LCU's.  Those supplies that are left over
are lost.

4.  REPLENISH TF's IF POSSIBLE (Y).

a.  CV's will always attempt to replenish their air groups while
in port.  You can get replacement A/C for CV's by returning to a
well supplied friendly port, or via a replenishment CVE group
with ac:r as their load.  The port will require enough supplies
for the normal replacement costs for the a/c types involved
(generally 2-3 supply points per replacement aircraft) plus a
buffer so the port isn't unsupplied.  Air units will not fly from
their land bases to carriers to replenish them.  The replacements
for CV's come from the aircraft pool for that particular needed
plane type and not from active air groups.  The carriers also
have to be in a non-isolated port in order to take on replacement
aircraft.

b.  CVE's may replenish carrier air groups while AT SEA.  If the
carrier has depleted air groups and the Replenish TF has CVE's
loaded with replacement aircraft ([ar:r]) are within range
(usually about 10 hexes) the transfer should occur.  When you go
to replenish, select the AC TF to be replenished, then pick
"Replenish" from the menu.  The CVE TF should automatically move
to the AC TF.  Now select "Replenish" a SECOND time.  There is no
special message to inform you that replacement aircraft are being
transferred.  Oilers and tankers can also refuel TF's in this
manner.  A CVE will NOT replenish a CV TF unless the
replenishment TF also contains a TK/AO.  Fuel must be transferred
for the aircraft transfer to take place.  Strange but true (at
least for the Japanese).

c.  To refuel long-distance missions, create replenishment TF's
at islands along the way, assign them a Destination of the island
where you want them to be and a Home Base someplace else, and a
Stand-0ff range of 1-2 hexes with a Remain On Station command.
They can refuel any TF's passing by that need it if you order
them to.

d.  Replenishment TF's should periodically disband and then
reform at a well supplied base.  It takes a lot of supply points
to load up those CVE's with replacement aircraft (20x200).  If
supplies are not adequate then the CVE's will reactivate their
own air groups.

e.  The larger ships in a TF can refuel the smaller ships in it
by pressing Y (provided they have more than 40 fuel points).
Carriers, battleships and cruisers can refuel destroyers in their
TF this way.  Tankers, oilers and merchant vessels may also be
able to refuel other ships in their TF in this manner.  Ships
that are moved around with the Reinforce Base command are
sometimes short of fuel.  Disbanding a TF does not always refuel
them.  You must ensure the TF includes a ship with enough fuel
points to replenish the rest of the ships.  Check the fuel status
of the ships in a TF.  If some of them are low, press the Y key
and check them out again.  If they are still low, disband the TF
and then create a new TF.  If there is a replenishment TF within
a number of hexes equal to about half the speed of the slowest
ship in the replenishment TF, it will move to the TF you had the
cursor on when you pressed Y.  In some instances the
replenishment TF will not transfer fuel to the target TF.  In
that instance, use the Transfer Ship command (T) to transfer a
loaded oiler or tanker (AO/TK) from the replenishment TF to the
low-fuel TF, then click on the low-fuel TF and press Y again.
That will refuel all the ships in the low-fuel TF.  Do not forget
to transfer (T) the AO/TK unit back into the replenishment TF.

f.  The Replenish command can also be used as a 'scenario' editor
to transfer ships and any cargo (airgroups, fuel, LCU's and
supplies) from one base to another.  Create any kind of TF
and load the ships you want to move into it, but be certain to
have an AO, TK, CVE, DD, DE or PC be the flagship.  If you want
to transfer airgroups fuel, LCU's or supplies in this manner, the
TF must be a cargo or transport one.  Then load the AP's and/or
MCS units with airgroups, troops, fuel and/or supplies.  Then
create a replenishment TF at the same base, but be sure to answer
No when the program asks if you want it to create the TF
automatically.  Then press Escape to not, repeat, not, load any
ships from port into the replenishment TF.  Press Escape again if
necessary to get out of the TF creation menu.  Press the space
bar to get the empty replenishment TF number at the bottom of the
screen.  Then press T to invoke the transfer ships menu, and
press the space bar.  Move the mouse cursor to the TF you want to
transfer ships from and click on it.  Then click on the ships you
want to transfer into the replenishment TF.  Then create a TF
(even an empty one) at the destination base (which must be no
further away than half the movement value in hexes of the slowest
ship in the replenishment TF) and press Y.  That will drag the
replenishment TF over.  As an example, use the Replenish command
to move ships short distances to where you want them to be.  If
you have some DD at Efate that you want to join with a TF at
Espiritu Santo, form the DD into a replenishment TF, create an
empty cargo TF at Espiritu Santo, and then press the Y key when
the cursor is on the empty cargo TF.  The DD-only replenishment
TF at Efate will move to Espiritu Santo.  Then remove both TFs
and form the combat TF you want including the new DD.

5.  TRANSFER DAMAGED (OR UNDAMAGED) SHIPS TO NEW TF'S (T).

a.  You cannot change the leaders of TF's which have had ships
transferred into them from another TF.  The TF must be disbanded
and then reformed.

6.  SCUTTLE BADLY DISABLED SHIPS (S ON SHIP DISPLAY).

7.  DISBAND TF'S AT DESTINATION PORTS (R).

8.  CHECK FOR ISOLATED BASES THAT MAY REQUIRE SPECIAL CONVOYS IN
ORDER TO RECEIVE ADEQUATE SUPPLIES (ALT/O).

9.  CREATE TRANSPORT TF'S (AND/OR TOKYO EXPRESSES, IF JAPANESE)
TO RESUPPLY (ISOLATED) BASES IN RANGE OF ENEMY AIR OR SEA ZONES
OF CONTROL (C).

a.  Create supply TF's when building an amphibious assault force
(include MCS ships in TF) and to supply ISOLATED bases.  Also
create TF's to move some supply to a base that has engineers
doing construction work, but only if the base has a supply level
less than 1000.  If a base is not isolated, supply will get there
fine, either by routine supply convoys or overland.  Locations
where your HQ's are located receive large amounts of routine
supply.

b.  The GET TRANSPORT function will automatically send ships and
reinforcements to ANY NON-isolated friendly port.  The GET
TRANSPORT function will NOT work at a base that is isolated.
When GET TRANSPORT is used, the ship units come from the nearest
eligible base.  If you want transports (AP) to show up, be sure
that an LCU is activated at the base in question.

1)  Activate a LCU before you AUTO-SELECT the Transport TF.  It
should form a TF with an AP or LST unit of exactly the correct
size to load the LARGEST ACTIVE LCU at the base.  If you select
GET TRANSPORT and the PP level DOES NOT decrease by 10, no AP or
LST units showed up.  If it DOES decrease by 10, enough units
showed up to move all your activated LCU's.  REMEMBER:  activate
the LCU's before asking for transports, or nothing will show up.

2)  GET TRANSPORT should only take units from areas subordinate
to the requesting HQ or areas subordinate to computer controlled
HQ's.

3)  GET TRANSPORT moves AP, APD and/or MCS units directly into
the desired port.  These ships should be immediately formed into
TF's to prevent them from being moved the next time you use the
GET TRANSPORT function.  You should receive extra MCS units each
time GET TRANSPORT is used.  In order to increase the number of
AP's or LST's in a TF, you need a few initially in port.  Disband
some AP's or LST's out of a TF into port and then Get Transport.
The ships in port will move to your base, where you can increase
their number from the pool.  You then can reinforce the unit from
the ship pool if there are equivalent units (small AP, medium AP,
large AP, LST, APD) in the pool.

4)  If a British HQ uses the GET TRANSPORT command it will try to
find a BRITISH AP unit.  If all British AP's have been sunk or
assigned to TF's then you will not receive any AP's.  The same
applies to APD's.

b.  For Transport TF's, the number of PPs will effect the
READINESS level of combat troops that are unloaded.  This is very
important for Amphibious Assaults.

c.  You cannot change the mission of a TF.  You must disband it
in port and reform it with a new mission.

10.  CREATE CARGO TF's TO RESUPPLY BASES IN REAR AREAS (C).

a.  Cargo TF's behave exactly like Transport TF's with one
exception:  Cargo TF's will never enter an enemy AZOC unless
there is no other way to return to base.  Cargo TF's will always
try to avoid enemy AZOC's.  Unless you are PLANNING to penetrate
into enemy areas you should send your troops and cargo in Cargo
TF's to minimize PPs use.

b.  To get ships from Columbo to SF, create a Cargo TF, give them
a Destination of Perth and a Home Base of Suva.  When they get to
Suva they can be routed anywhere on the east side of the map.
                                        
11.  CREATE REPLENISHMENT TF's (C).

a.  Seaplane carriers in PW are at best fast aircraft transports
with a minor special ability to deliver fighters, dive bombers
and torpedo bombers in an undamaged, ready to fight condition.
Only CVE type ships may carry reserve aircraft to replenish
carriers at sea.  In order to get reserve aircraft on a CVE, you
can manually assign the ship from a port (it must start the turn
manually attached to a port with an adequate supply level) and
add the CVE to a Replenish TF.  You can also AUTO-SELECT a
Replenish TF and get CVE's in the TF pre-loaded with replacement
aircraft (ac:r).  Oilers and tankers also come loaded with fuel
when selected in this fashion.  After a replenish mission, you
have to go back to a port, disband the TF and create a new
replenish TF.  Aircraft replenish missions seem to be a one time
deal.  If a CVE is in a TF or shows aircraft squadrons, it's in
escort mode, and you can't load replenishment aircraft.  Whenever
CVE's are NOT carrying reserve aircraft they will be able to
operate with their normal complement of 2 squadrons.   CVE's may
carry replacement aircraft equal to DOUBLE their capacity.

b.  CS ships do NOT perform replenishment missions.   CS ships do
NOT have the ability to LAUNCH fighters, dive-bombers and torpedo
bombers from their decks.  CS ships can only launch float planes.
CS ships may TRANSPORT land based air groups.   Japanese fast
seaplane tenders are best used as 28-knot troop transports.

12.  CREATE COMBAT TF's AT FRIENDLY PORTS (C).

a.  For Air Combat TF's the number of PPs will determine the
number of FULL airstrikes the TF can launch and chances of
achieving surprise.

b.  For Surface Combat TF's the number of PPs will effect the
chances of achieving surprise and which TF fires first.

c.  For Bombardment TF's the number of PPs will effect the TF's
chances of firing three bombardments instead of two.

d.  When forming a Japanese combat TF in a port controlled by
South Seas Fleet or North Seas Fleet, the TF will be attached to
Combined Fleet.  ALL Air Combat, Surface Combat and Bombardment
TF's will ALWAYS be attached to Combined Fleet, no matter what HQ
controlled the base where the TF was formed.   All other types of
TF's (Transport, Cargo, etc.) will be attached to the Naval HQ
that controlled the base.  The problem with Combined Fleet is
that it is the only HQ that can control Combat TF's for the
Japanese.  The main battle fleet was never entrusted to the
backwater North Seas, South Seas or 8th Fleets.  Combined Fleet
also transfers some of it's PPs to the subordinate fleets.  In
order to build up the PPs for Combined Fleet you need to restrict
the number of TF's.  These TF's cost 10 PPs each and Combined
Fleet pays for all of them, directly or indirectly.  This feature
was included to reflect the real-life logistical bottleneck that
the Japanese Navy experienced in 1942.

e.  If you use the AUTO-SELECT TF feature when building any type
of task force the computer AUTOMATICALLY selects, as the
destination for that TF, the Target base of the originating HQ.
For example, if you created a Air Combat TF at Oahu, with Oahu
being under CENTPAC HQ, and CENTPAC has Wake Island as the HQ
target, using the auto-select feature builds the AC TF, assigns a
leader, and sets TF the destination to Wake Island and assigns
your home port as Oahu.

f.  There is a limit to the number of AP UNITS and LST UNITS
available.  The USN get a total of 5 Large, 7 Medium, and 8 Small
AP Units and 6 LST Units; the Brit get 2 Large, 3 Medium and 2
Small AP Units and 1 LST Units during the entire war.  Look in
the Appendices of the manual where it lists ship production
times.  Any ship marked by an "x" and not a name is a single unit
and ones marked by "(#x)" is that # of units.  This is why a few
the USN only gets 6 PT boat units and each is limited to 10 ships
and the ship pool soon rises into the hundreds of PT's available.
You cannot move them out of the pool since you cannot create new
ship units.

13.  ASSIGN LEADERS TO TF's (F1 on TF display).

a.  If you are having trouble getting a particular leader, you
might try changing the flagship to various ships in a TF to see
if you can get a specific TF leader to come aboard.

b.  Any TF that might see combat should have a TF leader.  Do not
assume that if you leave the TF leaderless then the leader of the
TF's HQ will conduct operations unhindered.  This assumption is
incorrect because in surface combat, an HQ leader is NEVER used.
Only a TF leader can effect the outcome of surface combat.  TF's
without leaders are VERY quick to withdraw and/or abort.  This
includes Amphibious Transport TF's.  There are BIG combat
penalties for not having a leader in a TF.  Leaderless TF's will
frequently abort their missions if attacked by a handful of
bombers.  Leaderless TF's can be badly outclassed in surface
combat (being surprised or the opponent will get the first shot).
If no leader is present then a default rating of 2 is used.  In
deciding if a TF will retire after being attacked, only the TF
leader's aggressiveness rating can be used.  If the TF has no
leader then a default aggressiveness of 3 is used.  When
conducting amphibious assaults, 1 is added to a TF leader's
rating.  If an HQ leader is used then 1 is subtracted from his
rating if the HQ is located more than 10 hexes from the site of
the assault.  For carrier air operations add 1 for a TF leader,
subtract one for an HQ or HQ AIR leader that is more than 10
hexes away from the battle.

c.  You can include an American ship in a TF in a ANZAC TF and
make it the flag giving you access to the American commanders for
that TF or vice versa for other nations by picking it as the
first ship in the TF, or by changing the flagship to a ship of
the desired nationality after creation of the TF.  It helps to
toss in a few American merchant ships in ANZAC TF's so that you
can use some aggressive invasion commanders.

d.  Routinely cycle through all TF's at ports at the beginning of
each turn and disband them to free up their leaders.  Then create
new TF's in order of priority to make certain they get the
appropriate leader.

e.  The leaders of Japanese Amphibious TF's do not influence land
battles.

14.  LOAD TF's WITH TROOPS, SUPPLIES, AIRCRAFT OR FUEL (L).

a.  When LCU's are loaded onto ships a percentage number will
appear for each ship unit.  This represents the percentage of the
combat unit that can be loaded onto that ship unit.  The LCU's
lift capacity of a CS is 5 times its printed (aircraft) capacity.

b.  British transports can only carry British troops.  Japanese
CL's and CS's can only load troops.  Any nationality ship can
carry supplies.

c.  To load an air group onto ships select a CARGO TF and load
the group onto MCS, CVE or CS type ships.  AP type ships may not
transport air groups.

1)  When an air group is loaded onto MCS type ships they must be
taken apart and CRATED for the journey.  Thus when they arrive
they are NOT READY to fly (they are damaged).

2)  Single engine aircraft that are loaded onto CVE or CS type
ships are not crated.  The advantage of using CVE and CS ships is
that single engine aircraft are not crated (damaged or
disassembled) on loading, and are immediately operational once
unloaded at their destination.  This is very useful as a quick
reinforcement strategy for airfields.

3)  CS ships may only be used to transport LAND based air groups.
When transporting air groups, the capacity of a CS type ship is
equal to the capacity shown on the display x20.  You may need at
least three CS ships to carry an air group.  Examples of
transport capacity include:  a CS with a capacity of 12 could
carry 12 fighters (uncrated) or 8 tac-bombers (crated) or 6 heavy
bombers (crated).  CS ships are also a bit more survivable than
typical MCS units, though not enough to send them into harm's way
without escort.

4)  As an example of adding air groups on ships in a CARGO TF:  A
fighter takes up 20 cargo points, so a 30 fighter air group
totals 600 cargo points.  A 8000 ton freighter has a load
capacity of 100 (100 cargo points).  It takes six 8000 ton ships
to carry those 600 points.  Create a CARGO or TRANSPORT TF, don't
use AUTOSELECT, rather select the ships from PORT.  Select a ship
unit of 8000 ton cargo ships that has at least six ships in it
and exit.  That TF you just created should be listed in the
bottom right hand of the display.  Now select the LOAD TF Ships
(L key or from unit menu), choose Air Group from Load choice
menu, and then the air groups at that base are listed.  Select an
air group and it gets loaded on the ships.  Note that crating the
a/c for shipment damages them, but don't worry, they will be
repaired/reassembled quickly at your TF's destination.  In your
case select Oahu as TF destination.  Aircraft will be unloaded
automatically at TF's destination.  You can adjust the number of
Cargo ships in groups when viewing them IN PORT (if port isn't
isolated), so you can size those ship groups PRIOR to assigning
them to a TF.

5)  The number of MCS in a group will NOT change when planes are
added as cargo.  This was a mistake in the documentation that got
through in the manual.

6)  Excess planes sent to a CS or MCS unit will go back to the
pool for that type of plane.

7)  Here is a list of transport costs for all types of aircraft:

a)  20 for fighter, fighter-bomber, dive-bomber and torpedo
bomber.

b)  30 for tactical bomber.

c)  40 heavy bomber, transport and patrol.

8)  It is wise to have AP/MCS groups carrying a particular LCU or
airgroup have more capacity than the minimum required to reduce
losses to the LCU/airgroup cargo if the ship group takes losses
to enemy action.  This is especially true if the TF is expected
to see action.

15.  SET TF's' DESTINATIONS (D).

a.  The DEFAULT  feature is intended to make it easier to give
multiple TF groups the same destination, home port or target.  It
remembers the last destination picked.  As an example, if you
assign 5 TF's to hit Guadalcanal, you target the first TF
normally.  With the second TF, you hit estination and the
screen shows "...or efault:  Guadalcanal." It eliminates a lot
of mouse-work (especially if your destination is a long way from
your starting point), as well as making it easier to switch the
home port of a TF to the next target destination.  You can target
the TF, then  to change home Port and then  to set home
port at the default destination.

b.  When steering your ships around enemy bases it is best to
retain as much control as possible.  Set the Destination and Home
Base so that your TF's dogleg around enemy bases.

c.  Clark Field cannot be set as a TF destination because it is
not a coastal area.  You must land units in one of the connected
bases and march them to Clark Field.

d.  If you are having trouble with task forces aborting their
missions due to low PP in the face of air attacks you can make
the TF's home port the same as the destination.  The ships will
not run away from their destination, even in the face of huge air
attacks.

16.  SET TF FUNCTIONS/MOVE OPTIONS (F).

a.  There is a limit of 15 different ship UNITS in a TF.  That is
one full screen.  Each UNIT can have multiple ships, depending on
what the ship unit is.  One UNIT can range from 1 to 50 ships
(i.e., 1 BB to 50 MCS).  If you had a number of large AP groups,
that one fleet could have many landing field units (1 Marine Div,
37th Inf Div, 2nd Raider Btn, etc.).

b.  Bombardment TF's will only bombard if their standoff range is
zero.  Bombardment TF's will never initiate surface combat.
Surface Combat TF's will both initiate surface combat AND
bombard.  A Surface Combat TF may only fire one (but usually two)
bombardments during a turn.  If you want to keep your options
open, you should assign Surface Combat missions even to those
TF's you expect to bombard.

c.  Setting a Surface Combat TF standoff range to GREATER than
ZERO will greatly REDUCE the chances of having surface combat
with an enemy TF.  The best way to get a surface combat is to
send your Surface TF's to friendly bases that you expect will be
invaded or use SIGINT to see where an enemy fleet is headed, and
set your destination there.  As long as enemy carriers or AZOC
are around, going straight for a major enemy port with a Surface
TF could be problem.  Surface Combat TF's are fairly immune to
air attacks (compared to carriers and merchants) since the enemy
aircraft tend to go for carriers and transports as a priority.
On the other hand, one critical hit can kill a battleship.
Surface combat opportunities are increased after one or both
sides have their carrier forces exhausted.  Unless you achieve
SURPRISE, an enemy Transport TF will always abort and withdraw
BEFORE your Surface Combat TF can attack them.  It is possible to
catch an Air Combat TF in surface combat.  However, this should
be a VERY RARE occurrence.  It is hard to force a surface combat
with carriers.  In all of WW2 it only happened twice (Norway 1940
and Leyte 1944).

d.  STANDOFF RANGE relates to how many hexes you want a TF to
remain away from a target or destination.  Its useful to use in
order to stay out of the range of some land based bombers.  It
can also be used to keep transports offshore until you wish them
to move in.  You can set the STANDOFF RANGE (how far from the
target hex you want to be) when a TF's destination is different
from it's home port (set base).  If you set the MOVE OPTIONS for
a TF whose destination is different from the home port, then you
will set a STANDOFF RANGE and give RETURN/REMAIN ON STATION
orders.  A TF, whose destination is their home port, will have a
REACTION RANGE.  A TF that is eligible to react does NOT have a
STANDOFF RANGE.

e.  TFs are able to REACT if they have a destination and home
port which are the same.  If you are on the same spot as your set
base - you can REACT.  If a TF has a destination which is the
same as the home base it is eligible to REACT.  If you set MOVE
OPTIONS for this TF you will only set the REACTION RANGE.  A TF
will not perform a reaction move to a distance greater than it's
reaction range (the MAXIMUM reaction range is 15).  Reaction
MOVES are NOT automatic when enemy TF's enter a AZOC within
reaction range of a Combat TF.  The enemy TF must be spotted
before there is even a chance of a reaction move and the chance
decreases with range.  For a reaction to be triggered, it is
usually necessary for the enemy TF to plow through friendly AZOC
(be detected) or move very close to the reaction TF.  No reaction
combat or movement will ever be triggered by an undetected TF.
If a TF is eligible to react, but never gets the chance, then it
will never leave it's home port
hex.

f.  TF's are able to react while ON STATION, even with a
destination different from their home port.  A TF REACTION should
happen if the RETURN OPTION is set to LEADER'S DISCRETION.  The
TF's REACTION RANGE will be equal to their STANDOFF RANGE.  Since
reaction moves ONLY happen in friendly AZOC there should not be
too many situations where reaction moves are suicidal.   REACTING
AC TFs have a better chance of gaining the surprise advantage and
reaction move if put on Commander Discretion for the return to
base orders.  Reactions then are almost always surprise,
regardless of the detected status of the reacting TF. Regarding
achieving surprise in a normal combat: It may be that the
defending TF has to detect the attacker.  Another possibility is
that when a TF moves, it has to be detected in each hex of
movement. I've noticed several attacks where the attacking TF was
detected & attacked by LBA while moving, but launched an attack
from a blank hex (i.e. undetected) later in the move.  This is
all speculation. In order to get a AC TF to react, you need the
target TF to be spotted by patrol planes. The more patrols that
spot it, the increased chance of a reaction.  Consider that the
reacting TF commander is gettng up-to-the minute location reports
of the enemy TF and should be able to set up his attack for an
optimum time.  This leads to an the increased chance for a
surprise attack.  Reaction moves only occur due to an enemy TF
being spotted (usually repeatedly) by friendly (usually
land-based) air which sets up a hunter versus hunted scenario.
The AC TF receiving sighting reports from friendly air forces can
focus its searches much more efficiently and stealthfully, while
the "hunted" TF has to continue normal search operations.  Given
such a situation, the TF being stalked hardly ever achieves
surprise, although they MAY be able to avoid being surprised,
whereas the stalking TF would have a good chance of jumping its
prey.  Whether a reacting TF gets a surprise attack on another TF
is also dependant on its leader rating.  Better leaders have
better chances to react AND launch surprise attacks.

g.  Any TF, including AC and SC missions, seem to behave as Cargo
TF's when they are reduced to less than 10 PPs.  They may use
Cargo TF paths, avoiding enemy AZOCs and any combat like the
plague.  We have all been frustrated watching an enemy SC or
Bombardment TF waltz in and hit a base right under the very nose
of a friendly SC TF put on station to prevent this from
happening.  Once the enemy bombards and loses its PPs, it begins
moving like a Cargo TF and uses the 100 mile hex space to easily
avoid interception.  Check your Air Zones key to see how your
patrol coverage is.  You need to do several things in order for
your SC TF to successfully intercept enemy TF's utilizing a
REACTION MOVE:

1)  Your intercepting SC TF must have a home port the same as its
destination and have sufficient TF PPs, fuel and supplies to
initiate combat.

2)  You should have as a many patrol units spotting for TF's by
creating AZOCs covering the hexes into which the enemy TF may
move into.

3)  Your SC TF should have a reaction range set to cover at least
the hex the enemy moves TO when spotted by air patrols.

4)  Your SC TF should have an AGGRESSIVE leader (naval rating
does not count until he is in battle).

h.  Air Combat TF's ON STATION will perform REACTION AIR STRIKES
against TF's that enter nearby AZOC.  It is possible for more
than one air combat TF to do a reaction strike against an enemy
TF.  They would do so one at a time.  The first TF would react
and resolve combat and then the second TF would react, etc.

i.  If an Air Combat TF is supporting an invasion, set the
standoff range to 0 or 1.  If raiding an enemy base set the
standoff range to 2 or 3.  Make sure that the standoff range does
not exceed the range of any of the aircraft on the carriers.

j.  If an Air Combat TF has a priority target set to attack a
port, has more than 45 PPs and the enemy airfield at the target
poses a threat, then the carriers will send their FIRST STRIKE to
hit the enemy airfield.

k.  If there are TOO MANY carriers in a TF, then there is a
problem of coordinating effective airstrikes.  What happens is
that some or all of the carriers in the TF will launch HALF or
QUARTER strength strikes or the AC TF's may not attack.  There is
a similar problem with coordinating large numbers of CAP.  The US
should only have two CV's and one CVL maximum in a carrier TF to
get a good chance to launch full airstrikes, though really good
naval air leaders such as Halsey, Sherman and Mitscher have a
good chance with 3 CV's to launch all their planes, either on
attack or defense.  As an example, Halsey has a 75% chance of
using all his fighters for CAP and launching all his planes
against targets when he has three CV's in a TF.  The best US
naval air technique EARLY in the war is to put three US carriers
in a single AC TF, give it an escort of at least a half dozen
cruisers and a dozen destroyers (preferably more), assign Admiral
Halsey as its Leader, and send him where the enemy is most
threatening.  There is also NO cooperation between two TF's with
carriers in the same hex.  They might fly some CAP over the
other, but usually they do not.   So US carrier TFs should have
either 2 or 3 carriers.  If you have three carriers, have one TF
with Halsey in command.  If you have 4 carriers, have two x 2-CV
TF's.  If you have 5 carriers, have a 3 CV TF with Halsey in
charge and a 2 CV TF with someone else in charge.

l.  In getting CV's to initiate strikes against other CV groups,
it is better to put them at a nearby base with a maximum reaction
range, instead of sending them to the target hex (where you
anticipate the enemy TF will be).  Of course, if you KNOW the
carriers are somewhere, go after them.  Another important factor
is the number of PPs the TF has.  In order for an AC TF (or any
TF for that matter) to initiate combat it must have sufficient
PPs, and it is by having significantly more PPs than the target
TF so that surprise can be achieved.  The rule is this:  Maximize
the number of PPs available to your most important TF's.  The
longer AC TF's are on station, the less chance the CV's attack.
Plus NEVER put the airgroups on CV's on Naval Interdiction.
Bases, yes, but not CV's!  AC TF's ALWAYS attack enemy TF's that
get close.

m.  For long-distance deep strike missions (Doolittle Raid,
raiding Tokyo with SBD's on carriers instead of B-25's, which
will drive the AI running the Japanese berserk), include some
oilers (AO) with the strike force and then, when the DD's are
about to run out of fuel and you want to make a fast run into the
target, create two new TF's, one replenishment and one Air Combat
or Bombardment (depending on the mission) TF.  Then transfer (T)
ships out of the old TF into the two new ones and then refuel the
combat TF (Y).  You can also send the replenishment TF ahead and
then send the combat TF the next turn to catch up to it, refuel
the latter, etc.

n.  A Transport TF's decision to 'Retire' and not unload is based
on the TF leader's aggressiveness rating compared to the number
of bombers that attack the TF.  If the TF has more than 9 PPs
then the aggressiveness rating is squared.  You should allow
retiring TF's to return to port before redirecting them back to
an enemy base because these TF's are very low on PPs.

o.  Do not ignore your Patrol Crafts (PC's) when playing the
Allied side.  Put the PC's on "reaction" status in small non-
priority friendly ports that you do not want to lose too quickly.
Unless the enemy arrives with firepower, the transports will
abort their mission.  The Japanese tend to keep trying with the
same force until some larger capital ships are in the area or air
power.  PC's are also great for soaking up land-based air attacks
such as damaging or shooting down a bunch of Bettys.  One method
to prevent enemy supplies from getting through is to send a PC TF
(PTs or PCs) to a base with orders to remain on station.  PCs
take lots of hits to sink from aircraft using the MGs instead of
bombs, so are nearly guaranteed to stay in the target area.
While there and greater than 4 ships, transport missions will
abort.  However, a enemy surface action force arriving with
thwart most PC forces. If you use this method, your forces will
reasonably be able to mount patrols to counter enemy convoys.  To
put a surface action force of CAs, CLs, etc. on station means
they will have to return for refueling and only be able to do
this every other turn.

p.  The best way to soften up a beachhead for an amphibious
assault is in two turns.  On the first turn, put the enemy base
under a friendly AZOC and bombard it with Air Combat TF's and
Surface TF's.  The carrier AZOC keeps the enemy troops from
receiving supplies to boost their readiness.  Air and surface
bombardment tends to help wipe out enemy supplies.  During the
second turn, bring in the troops ships.   Land combat occurs at
BOTH the beginning AND at the END of the execution phase.
Activated LCU's will not attack during the first phase unless
they can get good odds or make a leader aggressiveness check.
Since all damage during the phase is cumulative, most tough
battles happen at the end of the execution phase.  It is usually
not a good idea to have more than one amphibious assault force TF
due to a lack of simultaneous attacks.  One LCU can be mauled
terribly before the other LCU's land and clear the area.  It is
much better to carry all the LCU's in one TF so that way they all
land at the same time, and live longer.  When forming invasion
TFs, keep in mind that they should have as many ships as possible
to give them a better chance of proceeding under air attack.
Fill them up with empty 50-ship groups of MCS if necessary.  Also
include Manley APD units and CS units to provide AA firepower.
You have lots more transports than you need, so there is no
excuse for keeping LCUs in rear areas.  Move them to the South
Pacific/South-West Pacific combat areas ASAP.  Get them to Port
Moresby and Espiritu Santo.   Another possible method to get
invasion TF's to their destination:

1)  Make sure they are within ONE turn's movement to their
target.  There is no advantage to having the TF formed for
several turns before sending it to its target.  Send the TF as
soon as it is ready and loaded.

2)  Form a BB Surface Combat or Bombardment TF and send it at the
target also.  One BB is enough, but the more the better.  Make
the TF BB's and CA's with some DD's and/or DE's for AA and ASW
protection.  Other ship types don't add much to the bombardment
rating.

3)  Form as many CV TF's and send them at the target with a
standoff rating of 1, set to enemy airbases for a target.

4)  Make sure all the offensive TF's have the best leaders
available.

5)  Form a resupply TF with extra MCS units, load them with
supplies only, and send them after the target port also.  They
need a leader too.  For several turns before the invasion, send
CV TF's and SC TF's at the target.  They will damage the airbase,
LCU's, supply dumps, and shoot down any attacking planes from
adjacent bases before the vulnerable invasion force gets there.

q.  Move MCS to San Francisco (SF) instead of moving them to Los
Angeles (LA).  LA tends to accumulate many more MCS than it could
ever use, and every so often run a large convoy up the coast so
the ships will be at SF where they are needed to load supply and
aircraft.  Also scour out the rear area islands every month or
two, sending the extra MCS back to SF.  Get Transport works, but
it tends to give you 40-odd ship units, which is a waste for
carrying a small squadron of F4Fs to Oahu or Tonga.  Sending the
ships to SF by hand uses your merchant ships more efficiently.

r.  The computer will build lots of PT's, but you only can have
so many PT groups, perhaps six or seven and those groups will
only hold six to ten boats.  Use Allied PT boats in MTB TF's on
the most advanced bases.  Set the TF with a reaction range of 3
and this may deter enemy transport TF's.  PT boats also seem to
draw enemy air strikes.

s.  The SPEED at which a TF travels depends upon the PPs, number
of ships and combination of ship sizes present in the group.  In
general TF's with a large number of ships tend to travel more
slowly than those with few ships.  TF's with a combination of
large and small ships seem to move more slowly that those with
just large or just small ships.  For example, a group of 20 knot
transports will go 20 knots if left to themselves, but combine
them with 35 knot destroyers and they'll be lucky to make 18
knots.  This may be intended to simulate the difficulties of
coordinating formation movement in larger TF's.  The map is
deceiving for computing ship movements; a heavily modified
Mercali scale was used.  Straight line distances are not
necessarily the shortest.  Run some sample execution phases when
in preparing a turn to make certain that your TF's can actually
make it to their intended destinations (this also helps in
finding TF's whose destinations you forgot to set).

t.  Your carrier TFs should have at least 3 potent AA ships each
(CLAA, fast BB or Cleveland/Baltimore class cruisers) plus as
many 3-4 DD groups as you can stuff into them.  Get the AA rating
of each over 3000 any way you can.  US surface combat TFs should
have lots of old BB and CA (preferably New Orleans/Minneapolis
class) plus enough DD to keep the TF AA rating over 2000.

17.  RESET TF's HOME BASES AS NECESSARY (H).

a.  Changing the home base of a TF from an HQ computer
operational control to an HQ under full human control does NOT
give the latter control of the ship.  The artificial intelligence
(AI) will sometimes ignore any orders given to such ships.  The
AI sometimes changes an HQ's objective all by itself when it is
under computer operational control (a bug which will hopefully be
fixed in a future version).  To change the "control" of a TF, you
have to create it in a port under the control of the HQ you want
controlling it.  This means sailing to the port, disbanding the
TF, then reforming the TF.  This will keep the TF under full
human control (assuming the port they are reformed in belongs to
a full human controlled HQ).

18.  ADJUST SUBMARINE PATROL LOCATIONS (alt/M).

a.  Shipping lanes are in a constant state of flux.  Watch the
opponent's merchant convoy routes during the turn execution
phase, look for long delays, and place subs accordingly as
reasonably close to the action.  Move the subs approximately
every five turns at least one hex.  Moving subs too often means
they're off patrol too much and too little means they will get
destroyed.   You can also figure out where the busy areas are by
moving subs to an area and checking the number of 'attacks' they
make.

b.  Watch the resolution of enemy sub battles (since these don't
show up on the battle reports) and pick out the main zones where
they are patrolling.  Shift engineers, bombers and maybe even
some hunter-killer groups to the area.  The engineers will expand
airfields and planes will extend AZOC over the area.  Each side
should be careful to cover all their convoy routes with friendly
AZOC to suppress enemy submarines.  This means keeping a lot of
Patrol aircraft squadrons in rear areas and positioning them
carefully.  Having more aircraft covering a given area helps, but
wider geographic coverage should have a higher priority.

c.  Hunter-killers groups will make the subs move off your convoy
route.  Hunter-killer groups refer to AC TF's.  Use a stand-off
range to settle an AC TF (and their zone of control) right on the
subs if a group is getting too many transports.  This is tactic
is probably only viable for the Allies later in the war when
ample AC TF's are available.

d.  Shift escorts to the routine convoy ports as mentioned in the
manual (Los Angeles, Nagoya, etc.).  Make sure to move DD's to
L.A. until the DE's start showing up.  If you have PT boats
sitting in LA they will not get used on routine convoy escort
duty.  Only the Japanese PC's (not Allied) can be used in
convoys.  American and British torpedo boats are strictly
offensive, so the computer will never them in routine convoys.
You can manually assign PT's boats to TF supply type convoys you
create yourself.  Since PT boats did not carry much in the way of
depth charges or ASW electronics, they really were not suited for
convoy duty.  The Japanese player should send his subchasers,
possibly most of his torpedo boats and 5-10 destroyers to Nagoya
in the first few turns to serve as ASW escorts for routine
convoys.

e.  Be careful to include ASW escorts for most Japanese cargo and
transport convoys.  This is less of a problem for the Allied
player unless the Japanese player has his subs on human control
or the AI running the Japanese in a solitaire game adopts a
mercantile warfare strategy (which it does sometimes).  Also a
group of Destroyers with a surface combat mission can be used as
ASW decoys if sent from port-to-port in areas of high sub
activity.  Be sure carriers have plenty of ASW support.  ASW is
factored into the number of DD's in port and the amount of air
cover in the area.

f.  Japanese subs were extremely effective during 1942 directing
their efforts against American capital ships.  Japanese subs are
maddeningly successful in picking off crippled Allied warships
enroute to dockyards for repairs.  Give injured aircraft carriers
a large ASW escort on their way home.  Allied submarines are less
capable at this initially.  Allied ASW technology improved as the
war went on and by 1943 Japanese sub successes were rare.

g.  Control of your subs is not determined by HQ control.  Press
the 'E' key to toggle SUB CONTROL (Computer/Human).  This will
determine who controls ALL of your subs.

h.  The game allows the players to deploy subs at an extreme
distance from their home base.  As the distance increases, the
subs lose effectiveness.  Coastal submarines (RO,'S',K.XIV
classes) have their patrol range doubled for the purpose of
determining effectiveness.  Coastal subs have their patrol range
multiplied x8.  Thus they will be unable to attack at all when
patrolling greater than 19 hexes from their home base.  As
examples: Subs based at Broome typically have a patrol radius
(PR) of 40-45 when patroling around Borneo and the Philippines.
Subs based at Darwin have PR of 9-12 in the same areas.  Subs
from India are not usually as bad if you keep them on your own
side of Singapore, but are still always too short.  The only
solution for this problem I have found is to base subs in the
Central and South Pacific, not ideal for interdicting oil
supplies.

i.  Japanese submarines may also carry supplies.

19.  REBASE ALL SUBS AS NECESSARY (alt/M, R).

a.  The (G) for Get command on submarines at sea will show their
home port.  Historically, the subs would go out, patrol, then go
back to another port when changing locations.

b.  In order to change the Home Port of a sub you must first move
the sub into it's new port.  First select the sub group.  Then
move the sub onto the new port's hex.  Then enter SUB MODE
(Alt/M) and press R or click the REMV button.  (Place the cursor
on the new base and pressing "R" for remove.)  On the next turn
the sub should be available to return to patrol at the new home
port.

20.  REMOVE TF's THAT COMPLETE THEIR MISSIONS (Alt/Y).

a.   Alt/Y routine will move the cursor to each TF that is in
port and ask if you want to disband it.  It will put the TF icon
display on the screen to give you an idea what you are
disbanding.  You should use this routine BEFORE you start forming
new TF's.  A ship is sitting in port (NOT in a TF) may still be
damaged by bombers that are attacking the port.

b.  Do not release troopships to rear areas.  Try placing cargo
task forces into rear area HQ's so that they do not soak up
carrier and combat forces PP.  This appears to be more of an
issue with the Japanese than the Allies as they are more
restricted on PPs in the long run.

c.  If carriers are released to a port controlled by another HQ
and that HQ is computer controlled, watch out!  That HQ leader
will grab your CV and use it for his own nefarious schemes.  The
best thing to do is change the base to a non-computer controlled
HQ so that will not happen again.

21.  PACIFIC WAR REPORTS

There is a prototype scenario editor in the SSI section of the
Games RT library titled PWReports.zip, uploaded by R.Baldwin15
(Mitch Baldwin).  It can only modify saved game files.  Its use
is recommended to repair mistakes (such as reducing the number of
aircraft in an airgroup to zero by first changing aircraft types,
thereby damaging all the aircraft, and then transferring it
(ALT/A) to another base) or game bugs.  An example of the latter
is the way sunken Japanese seaplane tenders (CS) will rise from
their watery graves and appear in response to Get Transport (T)
commands.  You can resink them by assigning them a location of 0
(zero) in PW Reports.  Another possible use of PW Reports is to
relocate all unused Japanese ships to Nagoya to keep the program
from spontaneously forming them into TF's during the Execution
Phase, which it will sometimes do even if all Japanese naval HQ's
are on full human control.  The latter will utterly ruin planned
TF PP allocation and might seriously screw up a Japanese move.

NOTE:  Any terrain level of 10 (such as at Rangoon) at bases is a
BUG!!!. If you are playing a game where this occurs use
PW-Reports to fix the data file.

E-Mail Play

1.  To play an E-Mail game, zip up the three save files (SAVEA,
SAVEA.MD, SAVEA.CD for example) and e-mail them to your opponent.
The most appropriate way is to send as an attached Xmodem file
utilizing the E-Mail option on page 200 in Genie.  The Aladdin
support program is available on page 110 in Genie.  It
may save big bucks on reading and posting.

2.  The honor system for E-Mail games is desirable.   When
playing E-mail games the players should alternate watching the
Execution Phase.

GENERAL STRATEGY

The general strategic objective of the Allied player in 1942-43
should be to get US forces into a battle of attrition with the
Japanese, especially one in which USMC dive-bomber squadrons can
hit Japanese shipping.  The general strategic objective of the
Japanese player in 1942-43 should be to rest and rebuild oil
reserves, and keep enough accumulated PP in Combined Fleet to
allow one good counterattack in 1944 when Allied casualties
increase 50% in victory points.  Don't use up fuel and PP, and
risk key ships, defending the periphery.  Move fast early on and
then do as little as possible to conserve fuel.


(The following is the courtesy of T.Holsinger)

                AIRCRAFT TABLES FOR PACIFIC WAR

Here are the transport (MCS loading) costs for aircraft:

        fighter         20
        fighter-bomber  20
        dive-bomber     20
        torp-bomber     20
        tac-bomber      30
        heavy bomber    40
        transport       40
        patrol          20


The number and types of aircraft assigned to carriers varied
wildly during the war.  The number of aircraft aboard a carrier
seldom matched it's capacity.  (Carrier plane loads may run
approximately 12 planes below capacity.)  The capacity of the
carriers is used, somewhat indirectly, to determine the size of
the air groups on board. Here are some of the AC complements you
can expect at various times during the war:


FOR YORKTOWN/ESSEX CARRIERS
 early 42:  27 VF, 36 VB, 12 VT
 late 42:   36 VF, 37 VB, 15 VT
 1943:      36 VF, 37 VB, 18 VT
 1944:      43 VF, 27 VB, 18 VT
 1945:      53 VF, 18 VB, 18 VT

FOR SHOKAKU CLASS CARRIERS
 early 42:  24 VF, 24 VB, 24 VT
 late 42:   27 VF, 27 VB, 18 VT
 1943-44:   27 VF, 27 VB, 18 VT
 1945:      27 VF, 18 VB, 18 VT

The historical airgroups carried by the British fleet carriers
(courtesy of Al Nofi from the Military RT)

March 1945

Illustrious     36 Corsair, 16 Avenger
Indefatigable   40 Seafire, 9 Firefly, 20 Avenger
Indomitable     29 Hellcat, 15 Avenger
Victorious      37 Hellcat, 14 Avenger

July 1945

Formidable      6 Hellcat, 35 Corsair, 12 Avenger
Implacable      48 Seafire, 12 Firefly, 18 Avenger
Indefatigable   40 Seafire, 12 Firefly, 18 Avenger
Victorious      37 Corsair, 14 Avenger



MAXIMUM AIRFIELD SIZE TABLE         MINIMUM AIRFIELD SIZE
                                    REQUIREMENT TABLE
  Terrain   Max Size
#  Type     Airfield           Plane Type   Minimum Size Field 1
1   Atoll     4                   Fighter              2
2   Island    6                   Fighter Bomber       2
3   Island    8                   Dive Bomber          2
4   Mixed     9                   Torpedo Bomber       2
5   Mixed     9                   Tactical Bomber      4
6   Mixed     9                   Heavy Bomber         4
7   Mixed     8                   Transport            2
8   Jungle    6                   Patrol               1
9   Heavy     4
    Jungle

(For more detailed plane list see version 1.07 in file section)

DB = Dive Bomber     HB = Heavy Bomber     TB = Tactical Bomber
 F = Fighter         P  = Patrol           TR = Transport
FB = Fighter-Bomber  T  = Torpedo          DUT = Dutch
JA = Japanese Army           IJN = Imperial Japanese Navy
BC = British Commonwealth    USMC = United States Marine Corps
USN = United States Navy     USAAF = United States Army Air Force

JAPANESE PLANES

Model Name  Type Avail Cost Rang Mnvr Cann Dura Load Carr Service
Ki27 Nate   F   12/41  2    2    19     2     7     1    N  JA
Ki34IOscar  F   12/41  3    2    21     4     7     1    N  JA
Ki45 Nick   FB  12/41  4    4    17     7    36    11    N  JA
Ki51 Sonia  TB  12/41  3    2    12     4    24     4    N  JA
Ki32 Mary   TB  12/41  3    3    11     4    19    10    N  JA
Ki48 Lily   TB  12/41  4    4    10     2    20     9    N  JA
Ki21 Sally  TB  12/41  6    5     9     6    38    22    N  JA
Ki49 Helen  TB  12/41  6    5    10     7    40    22    N  JA
Ki46 Dinah   P  12/41  4    5    17     1    15     0    N  JA
Ki54 HickoryTR  12/41  5    3     9     0    18    12    N  both
G3M  Nell   TB  12/41  5    6     7     6    12    17    N  IJN
G4M  Betty  TB  12/41  6    9     7     7    13    18    N  IJN
H6K  Mavis   P  12/41  9   13     1     6    44    22    N  IJN
A5M  Claude  F  12/41  2    2    19     2     7     1    Y  IJN
A6M2 Zero    F  12/41  3    6    22     8     7     1    Y  IJN
B5N  Kate    T  12/41  4    3    11     3    11    16    Y  IJN
D3A  Val    DB  12/41  4    3    11     2    10     8    Y  IJN
Ki57IITopsy TR   5/42  6    6    10     0    20    15    N  both
J1N1 Irving  F  10/42  5    4    18    16    38     5    N  JA
Ki43 OscarIIFB  10/42  3    3    22     4    14    10    N  JA
H8K  Emily   P  12/42  9   16     1    16    66    44    N  IJN
Ki44 Tojo   FB   1/43  4    3    23     8    19     4    N  JA
D4Y  Judy   DB   2/43  5    3    13     3    12    11    N  IJN
Ki61 Tony    F   3/43  4    2    20     8    20     5    N  JA
A6M5 Zero   FB   8/43  3    4    23    11    18     3    Y  IJN
J2M  Jack    F   9/43  4    3    20    16    22     1    N  IJN
B6N  Jil     T   9/43  5    4    12     1    13    16    Y  IJN
Ki67 Peggy  TB   1/44  6    6    14    10    43    18    N  JA
N1K2 George FB   4/44  4    3    23    16    23    11    Y  IJN
Ki102Randy   F   5/44  5    3    21    16    34     6    N  JA
Ki84 Frank  FB   5/44  4    3    22    12    21    11    N  JA
P1Y  FrancesTB  11/44  6    8    10     4    39    22    N  JA
B7A  Grace   T   1/45  5    5    17     4    25    18    *  JN
A6M8 Zeke   FB   5/45  3    4    24    11    15     3    Y  IJN

ALLIED PLANES

Model Name Type Avail Cost Rang Mnvr Cann Dura Load Carr Service
Hurricane II  F 12/41  3    2    19   8    20    5    N   BC
P-36A Mohawk  F 12/41  3    2    18   3     9    1    N US,DUT,BC
P-39 Aircobra F 12/41  3    2    17  13    25    1    N   USAAF
P-40 Warhawk  F 12/41  3    3    19   8    24    3    N  USAAF,BC
CA3 Wirraway FB 12/41  2    2    12   6    20    5    N   BC
Martin 139   TB 12/41  3    3     2   2    10   22    N   DUT
Blenheim IF  FB 12/41  6    4    10   5    34    8    N   BC
B-18A Bolo   TB 12/41  4    3     2   2    30   65    N   USAAF
A-20 Havoc   TB 12/41  5    4    10  12    36   20    N  USAAF,BC
B-26 MarauderTB 12/41  5    4     9   8    45   48    N   USAAF
Blenheim     TB 12/41  5    4     7   1    34   10    N   BC
B-17Fly Fort HB 12/41  7    8     1  11    80   60    N   USAAF
Hudson        P 12/41  5    5    10   2    32    7    N   all
PBY Catalina  P 12/41  7    9     2   1    45   40    N   all
C-47 Dakota  TR 12/41  5    4    11   0    20   40    N   all
Gladiator     F 12/41  2    2    17   4    17    0    Y   BC
Fulmar        F 12/41  3    2    18   8    20    0    Y   BC
Swordfish     T 12/41  2    2     6   1    18    16   Y   BC
F2A Buffalo   F 12/41  3    2    17   8    19     1   Y US,DUT,BC
F4F Wildcat   F 12/41  3    2    19  12    20     2   Y  USN,USMC
Vildebeast    T 12/41  2    2     3   2     9    22   Y  USN,USMC
TBD DevastatorT 12/41  4    2     8   2    18    10   Y   USN
SB2UVindicatorDB12/41  2    3     8   2    16    12   Y  USN,USMC
SBD Dauntless DB12/41  4    3    13   4    22    12   Y  USN,USMC
Beaufort      TB 1/42  5    4     7   3    26    20   N   BC
B-25 Mitchell TB 1/42  5    4     4   6    43    52   N   USAAF
Wellington    TB 2/42  6    6     6   2    45    45   N   BC
Albacore       T 5/42  4    3     6   2    20    16   Y   BC
Spitfire VIII  F 6/42  3    2    24  12    27     2   N   BC
B-24 LiberatorHB 6/42  7    9     1   9    60    90   N   USAAF
TBF Avenger    T 6/42  4    3    11   4    23    20   Y   USN
Sunderland     P 6/42  9   10     1   4    62    49   N   BC
Beaufighter   TB 7/42  5    4    13  16    39    21   N   BC
Vengeance     TB10/42  4    3    10   4    20    20   N   BC
P-38FLightning F10/42  4    4    20  12    37    10   N   USAAF
Seafire        F 2/43  3    2    23  12    24     2   Y   BC
F4U Corsair   FB 4/43  3    3    22  12    26    20   Y   USMC
FM2 Wildcat   FB 4/43  2    2    20  12    24     3   Y  USN,USMC
Barracuda      T 4/43  4    2     1   2    30    17   Y   BC
F6F Hellcat   FB 6/43  3    3    23  12    27    20   Y   USN
P-47Thunderbo FB 8/43  3    4    23  16    39    25   N   USAAF
P-38JLightningFB 9/43  4    6    22  12    37    25   N   USAAF
B-29Superfor  HB 9/43  9   10     1  16    75   150   N   USAAF
SB2CHell-DiverDB 9/43  4    3    10   6    22    13   Y   USN
TBM Avenger    T 9/43  4    3    11   4    26    20   Y   USN
CA12Boomerang FB11/43  3    3    21   16   30     5   N   BC
Firefly       FB12/43  4    3    19   16   25     4   Y   BC
Mosquito VI   FB12/43  4    4    18   20   37    20   N   BC
P-61Black Wid FB 5/44  7    7    20   16   44    64   N   USAAF
P-51 Mustang   F 6/44  3    8    24   12   33    10   N   USAAF
A-26 Invader  TB11/44  6    4    13   16   64    60   N   USAAF

Kamikaze aircraft have different accuracy and 'additional'
warhead capability that varies with the type of aircraft as
listed below:

                ACCURACY        WARHEAD

fighter            80             +10
fighter-bmr        90             +10
dive-bomber        90             +20
torp-bomber        80             +20
tac-bomber         70             +40

An additional warhead is added to the warhead rating of the
anti-ship weapon the aircraft is also carrying. (250 kg bomb,
Type 91 Torpedo).

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