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Читы для Grand Prix 2

Чит-файл для Grand Prix 2

Grand Prix 2

 За игрой пока никто не наблюдает. Первым будете?

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчики:Geoff Crammond и MicroProse
Издатель:MicroProse
Жанры:Racing / Simulator / Sport / 3D
Multiplayer:(2) модем, нуль-модем

Даты выхода игры

вышла в 1995 г.

Cheat-code [ENG]

Информация актуальна для
                        The fine art of racecar setup

How many people recall watching Formula One back in the early 80s, those
halcyon days of wide tyres, turbo's and power levels almost unimaginable now?
One of my enduring memories of those days is not of Piquet, Pironi or
Villeneuve, but of Niki Lauda. Although lacking the glamour and excitement of
the younger drivers, Niki's talents came not from passion but from knowledge
and experience. Friday and Saturday qualifying would unfold as a dogfight
between all of the young guys, but come race day a different picture would
emerge. Niki Lauda, starting from 12th on the grid and having been off the
pace and out of my thoughts all weekend, would almost mesmerically work his
way, apparently effortlessly, past the entire field to win. Watching this
display (for there's no other word for it), you somehow had the feeling that
he was in possesion of information the others didn't have.

There's no doubt that Lauda's driving skills were from the absolute top drawer
of motorsport, but so was the driving of many other drivers on the grid
alongside him. Whilst driving style and experience play a large part in a
driver's overall performance, a further component of that speed is simply
confidence. Confidence of this type comes at least in part from having a very
good setup. Not only will a good setup be smoother (=faster) around the
circuit, but the very predictability of the car when using that setup will
further inspire confidence to force the car toward the edge of its capability,
and to drive it there for lap after lap. Naturally this can only be good for
your lap times.

So why am I telling you all this stuff about the real world of Formula One?
Well, whatever else GP2 may have achieved, one thing which is irrefutable is
that it has taken sim-racing giant strides closer to the real world as far as
setup is concerned. In writing this article Sim Racing News has gratefully
accepted the assistance and expertise of Doug Arnao, not only one of the
fastest guys on CompuServe in ICR2, GP2, NASCAR and on Hawaii, but also
someone whose day job involves developing, setting up and testing race cars
(do I hear "lucky sod" from anyone?!). Doug's experience in this field not
only helps his job, but it also helps greatly in GP2 since GP2's setup affects
the car in exactly the way it affects a real car. So next time you're watching
F1 on TV, see if you can get Schumacher's setup captured on video!!

When compared to F1GP, in GP2 no longer is car "balance" determined simply by
the ratio of front:rear wing compared to driving style, but springs, fast bump
and rebound, slow bump and rebound, anti-roll bars, ride height and packers
all play a part. Not only that, but they all affect each other! Ahhhhhhh!!!
Everything you do is a compromise, balancing the gains from one part against
the losses from another. Softening the rear may mean more grip and traction,
but it also means less steering response and more understeer - which is best
in each case?

That is the purpose of this article, and we'll try to explain at least one
method of determining a setup from scratch from first arriving at a circuit
until turning those hotlaps. There are many ways to create a setup, and this
is not the bible of all that is true - it is simply one way that works, and a
starting point from which to make your own setups and discuss with people to
develop more and better adjustments. So, your plane has landed, the car has
been unpacked and loaded onto the transporter, and you're driving through the
gates of the circuit - what now?

Use your head
The first thing you need to do is to use your head. That doesn't only mean get
the mechanics unpacking and cleaning everything while you sit around, it also
means think your way around the track. If you can see the track is obviously a
particular type, it saves a lot of time spent testing different settings. Wing
settings are the most basic adjusrment of all, as they determine straight line
speed and to some extent the cornering speeds. Looking at Monza and at
Hockenheim, there is no doubt that they are extremely low downforce circuits.
There is no point in testing a variety of wing settings, it simply isn't worth
it. On the contrary, TI-Aida (Pacific) and Monaco are where you need high
downforce, and running with a rear wing of "1" would be time better spent in
the pub. The tricky ones are Silverstone, Estoril, even Suzuka, where low
downforce will lose you as much through the turns as it gains on the
straights, and conversely high downforce will lose on the straight and gain in
the turns. Only testing can split the second or even tenth of a second to
determine which is best, and which is best for you. Opinions vary on exactly
how to setup a car, some people advocate setting the wings first out of all
the adjustments, and this is recommended by none other than "The Professor",
Alain Prost. I personally favour adjusting the car mechanically first of all,
tuning it for the slow corners on the track where the aerodynamics aren't
playing much of a role, then working on aerodynamics, adjusting the fast
corners, and finally retuning the mechanical aspects based upon the changes to
the aerodynamics. This was an approach from Senna's excellent book "Principles
of Race Driving", and one which has worked very well for me. How you proceed
is up to you of course. What is sure is that there is no "right" way, only
what is most efficient and effective for you.

Your first time...
As with many "first times", it is likely to be an experience to remember, so
try and take it easy or it will all be over too soon . Put the wing settings
onto your car which you feel will work best (from "using your head"), and set
your dampers as below until you can begin "fine-tuning" - many thanks to Doug
Arnao for these initial settings. These will give a "quick" feel to the
chassis but without inducing car-wrecking oversteer on entry.

                              Slow     Fast
                Front Bump         10        00
                Front Rebound      15        02
                Rear Bump          07        00
                Rear Rebound       12        02


Now, load up 20 laps of fuel and head out onto the track. Take it easy here,
learning the circuit, learning the braking points, where you can push and
where you can't. DO NOT try to push hard and constantly spin off, that way
will only mean this phase will take longer and you will most likely get
frustrated. You are not going to do a hotlap in your first laps, so forget the
times you've seen on the WWW, and even if you're several seconds off that pace
you shouldn't be concerned. The time will come, but only if you work at it
correctly. I personally try to slowly build up speed and then to concentrate
on two corners only during the lap, learning what I can do at them. Once I
have those right, choose another two. Eventually the whole lap will be
reasonably quick and you can start chipping away the tenths.
                                        
On these laps you should be first of all learning the track, and once you are
reasonably proficient with the tracks cornering and braking points, start
gently pushing the car toward the limits, and very carefully watching what it
does. Especially by gentle application or reduction of the throttle in
mid-corner, you can begin to feel what the car wants to do. Below we will
describe each element of the setup, so mentally (or on paper) record those
problems, and search for solutions in the adjustments below. Pay particular
attention to :-
  * Car response when entering a corner (tend to spin, go where you want, or
    push wide?)
  * Car response during a corner?
  * Car response exiting a corner?
  * Car response under braking, want to spin or doesn't want to turn?
  * Is the plank constantly dragging on the ground?
  * Is there excessive wheelspin exiting a corner?
  * Is sixth gear reached, and does it redline (final rev light on) for long
    periods?
During these laps, we also encounter one of the perennial problems of setting
up a racecar, "cause and effect". When you encounter some difficulty, it is
extremely important to think about if the car is causing the problem, or if
maybe it is your driving that is causing the problem. If you brake early for a
corner (through not knowing the track) and turn-in too early, it's natural
that the car will understeer because you will get back on the power too soon
and push the front out toward the exit kerb. In this case you may go into the
garage and dial in more oversteer, but that would be the WRONG thing to do,
and would take your setup down a wrong path. Similarly braking too late can
lead you to turn-in sharply with a high steering angle, and getting on the
power again will cause you to oversteer, slide or spin. The car may well have
a problem with oversteer, but you can't decide based upon this. When you
encounter a problem lap-after-lap, think carefully about whether you are
causing it by imprecise driving, or if it really is a symptom of something
wrong with the car.

Okay, let's return to the garage and look in detail at the setup.



                          In the garage - the basics

The wings
The wings are the most fundamental part of the car, and are used firstly to
set the top speed and maximum cornering speed (rear wing), and secondly to
adjust the "balance" of the car, oversteer or understeer (front wing). It is
however possible to setup the wings for oversteer, but use the dampers and
springs to turn it into understeer. However, not only will this increase tyre
wear (as the tyres must work harder to keep the rear end in place against the
push of the aerodynamics), but it will make for a very unpredictable car, one
which will not retain a balance all the way from low speed to high speed. A
setup is something you gradually hone over time, and once you take your setup
down that road and find problems, it's very difficult to backtrack and recover
it.

The orthodox method of wing adjustments is to firstly select your rear wing
setting, and then set your front wing to balance the car as you like it. I
personally prefer a front wing set at least three or four notches higher than
the rear (and often more), but others prefer the front set LOWER than the rear
to induce understeer (although this is not to be recommended. If understeer is
your aim then find a neutral balance with the wings, springs and roll bars,
and dial-in a little understeer with the dampers). Choose a setting, go out
and test and then make adjustments to the front wing until it's balanced.
Don't worry that your rear wing may not be correct, you will try a variety of
settings until you find the best one! Another method of of setting the wing is
to choose the front wing setting which will get you around the corners, and
then to progressively lower the rear wing until you can just retain control of
the car. This method is primarily of benefit in hotlapping, where many drivers
slide the car through a corner on severe understeer (thus the rear doesn't
spin as easily as it would with a normal entry style). A hotlap setup is just
what it says, designed to run one lap at the maximum possible speed, and
generally they are not very stable and therefore not so useful for race
driving (and you wondered why those setups fron the internet felt difficult to
drive?!). In a future article we will cover hotlap setups, but for now we will
concentrate on creating a stable, drivable car, and teaching you HOW the
changes work, then you can begin experimenting for yourself.

Finding the right gear
Apparently straightforward, but actually gearing is a very fine art. Many
people simply set the gears between first and sixth in equal spaces, around
5-8 steps from gear to gear. However, as ever, THINK what your engine is
doing. In first gear the revs rise incredibly quickly, whereas in fifth and
sixth the revs rise slowly. By using a large gap between first and second, and
a small gap between fifth and sixth, you can keep the engine more tightly in
the "power band" in the higher gears, which don't have so much capability for
acceleration. Not only that, but you will have more time between gear changes
in the lower gears which means the engine is powering the wheels for a greater
time (assuming the greater time available leads to better timed and smoother
gearchanges), and you can more accurately remain in the "power band", the area
where your engine produces the most power. Whenever you change gear your speed
will drop by 3-4km/h due to the loss of drive to the wheels, and it's
important that your gearshift drops you back in the power band so that you may
regain the impetus as soon as possible. This is most apparent at Hockenheim
and Monza, where a gap between first and second of TEN, and a gap between
fifth and sixth of only FOUR would not be unusual. As ever, test and see what
works best, as this is dependent upon your style.

Sixth gear should be set, as described, to redline just a second or so before
your braking point at the fastest part of the circuit, and your first gear
should be a compromise between good acceleration from the slowest corner, the
amount of wheelspin from the lowest corner, and the need to get away from the
grid at the start. Lower means better acceleration (especially off the grid),
but means "longer" gears throughout the rest of the gearbox, more chance of
wheelspin, and more chance of spinning the car. Higher means slower away from
the grid and the slowest corner, but improved acceleration through the other
gears, and less wheelspin. Wheelspin can also be controlled by softening the
rear shocks, and/or low & high speed dampers. As ever, compromise, test and
decide. Another approach proposed by Achim Trensz (top hotlapper, author of
several of our track guides and all round nice guy!) is to set first gear
quite high, in the range of 37-39. Whereas this would murder the clutch in a
real car, in the sim it's perfectly possible and means it is easier to avoid
unwanted wheelspin when driving, also allowing higher gears to be grouped more
closely together. Again this is somewhat of a hotlapping approach since first
gear need only get you away from the slowest corner - in a race first gear
will also have to get you off the grid, and while such a high first gear will
make it easy to avoid wheelspin, it will probably not give you the
acceleration necessary to make a good start. Try it and see what works for
you.

For the gears in between, there are two approaches. In the old days of F1 they
were chosen partly to give the best acceleration, but partly so that you never
needed to change gear in mid-corner. Not only was it risky taking one hand
from the wheel, but the action of double-declutching and disconnecting the
wheels from the engine would lose power and grip to the rear wheels. As you
can imagine this upsets the car balance more than a little - very risky.
Nowadays with semi-automatic gearboxes this is not an issue, but if you are
using a T1 or similar controller where you need to remove your hands from the
wheel, consider adjusting your gears so that you don't need to shift in
mid-corner. The theory is that if you enter a corner in third and need to
shift to fourth mid way through, try lowering your third and fourth gear. Then
you will be already IN fourth gear when reaching the corner, and it will be
"long" enough that you will only need to change to fifth after you have
already exited that corner, and hopefully on the next straight. You could also
make third gear "longer" (higher ratio) and hope that you could remain in
third all the way through. If this isn't a problem for you, choose the ratios
that give the best acceleration, wider gaps for the low gears, becoming closer
as you go higher through the gearbox.

Balancing the brakes
The next setup "fundamental" is regarding the brake balance. In a Formula One
car at top speed, the downforce is literally crushing, so much so that at top
speed you can press the brake pedal completely to the floor knowing it is
impossible to lock the wheels. However, this phenomenal grip comes primarily
from aerodynamic downforce and this in turn comes from speed. As your speed
reduces under braking, so the car is pressed on the track less and less
heavily, and consequently grip reduces rapidly. At a certain point the
downforce will become so low that the braking force will exceed the grip of
the tyres, and at this point your wheels will lockup, leading to loss of
control, added tyre wear etc. To avoid this you need to do exactly as the real
Formula One guys have to do - punch the brakes hard at first, and then easing
off as downforce decreases. The closer you can keep your wheels to almost
locking, the more effective your braking will be. A perfect example is Michael
Schumacher - next time you are watching an F1 race, watch how often you will
see just the suspicion of a puff of smoke from his inside front wheel when
entering a corner. That is because he is allllllllmost locking up, but not
quite (this is different from the Jean Alesi "it looks like my wheels are on
fire" routine - that IS a lockup!). This demonstrates once more (if any
demonstration were needed!) Schumacher's supreme driving talent. If you can
glance in your mirrors as you come off the brakes and see just the briefest
whiff ot tyre smoke, you're doing pretty well!

This is all well and good, but what does it have to do with brake balance?
Well, generally the front and back of your car will have vastly different
levels of grip since there will be different levels of wing front and rear,
the wings are of different sizes, size of the tyres are different, wear level
of the tyres are different etc etc. This generally means that your wheels will
lock at different times. Not only that, but under braking the weight of the
car will be pitched violently forward, so that the front wheels are supporting
much more of the car's weight than the rear. This makes the rear of the car
"light", consequently less downforce and more likely for the wheels to lock
up. What YOU need to achieve is the front and rear wheels locking
simultaneously. Why you may ask? Well, the reason are, from least to most
important...
  * Tyre wear. Consistently locking up one set of tyres before the other
    will give increased wear levels on those tyres, and will affect cornering
    balance later in the race (you will have less grip on the worn set than on
    the "fresher" set).

  * Braking distance. If one set is locking, they are unable to accept the
    braking forces applied to them. This means too much on one set, and not
    enough on the other. A more even balance will spread the braking force
    evenly, and shorten your braking distance.

  * Loss of control. The two other reasons are a nuisance, this one is a
    REAL problem. As long as you're travelling in a straight line braking is
    fairly easy, with poor balance simply meaning a longer braking distance.
    However, let's try a little experiment. Set your brake balance as far back
    as it will go (rear bias) and then try braking for Suzuka's Casino Chicane
    - this is very heavy braking but not in a straight line, the braking is
    done on a mild curve and it is vital that you can steer. As soon as you
    hit the brakes, all of the braking force goes to the rear wheels, whereas
    the weight of the car goes forward - the rear of the car is light, and
    with little wing the rear wheels instantly lock. Since you're on a corner
    and the rear has no grip to turn it, it will travel straight on, and AT
    THE ORIGINAL SPEED. The front HASN'T locked up, and is slowing down and
    turning away from the rear. The result? The rear overtakes the front and
    you spin straight off the track (oversteer). The opposite is if the front
    wheels lock up. In this case you can no longer steer, and although the car
    may be slowing due to the effect of the rear tyres, most of the braking
    force is going to the locked front tyres and is therefore wasted. The
    front pulls the car straight off the circuit, since the front tyres have
    no grip to turn you into the corner (understeer).
You can feel this happening when testing, and in the practice sessions you
must find the ideal balance for the race. Remember that not only does the
TOTAL downforce change when you go from high-speed to low-speed, the RATIO of
the downforce will change as you slowdown too. At high speed the rear will
generally have more downforce (and therefore grip better and brake more
easily), but it could be that at low speed you have more mechanical grip at
the front. Due to this, your brake balance setting may work well at high speed
but lock up the rears at low speed. In this case you must be guided generally
by the clock and by your own driving preference. It is usually A BAD THING to
have the rear wheels lock, and A GOOD THING to have the most efficient braking
from high speed (rather than low speed), since this will help you complete
overtaking opportunities. With these is mind make your adjustments, preferably
using the section of track where you have to brake the heaviest (Hockenheim's
OstKurve chicane, or Aida's Hairpin Corner). If the car wants to spin under
braking, move the brake balance toward the front, and if it refuses to turn
under braking try moving the balance to the rear. Remember this can also
happen if you've locked ALL FOUR wheels. Review the telemetry traces and check
the "wheelspin" graphs. If you see a sharp downward spike that denotes wheel
locking. If front is first, brake balance should go slightly to the rear
(remember, don't lock the rears first!), and if the rear is first brake
balance should go to the front. if ALL FOUR are locked you are not easing off
the brakes correctly. You can use full brakes for a fraction only before
easing off, so practice to improve this area of driving.


                           In the garage - Advanced

Now things are getting a little worrying. We've clicked on the "Advanced"
button, chosen Level 2, andlo and behold, a veritable feast of options awaits
us. Within this screen you have the potential to create an ill-handling
monster of a car or the sweetest, smoothest drive imaginable. This is the
nerve centre of a setup.

Springs
These are one of the more difficult items to set, and depend very much upon
driving style and personal preference. For most adjustable items such as
wings, ride height etc there are "right" settings, and whatever settings you
choose will probably be fairly close to what most other people are running
(provided they understand what they're doing with the setup!!). The springs on
the other hand offer different advantages and disadvantages depending upon how
they are set, and depending upon how you like your car to feel, you will
prefer a different spring rate to someone else. The things to understand are
:-

Softer springs                           Harder springs
Higher level of grip                     Quicker, more responsive handling
Less tyre wear                           Possible to run lower car (more grip)

Higher ride height required              Lower grip from the tyres
Less responsive handling                 Greater tyre wear


Now let's take an example - Monaco. Around the tight streets of Monaco you
need a car which reacts very quickly to steering inputs and will go exactly
where you point it - that means hard springs. On the other hand, you need LOTS
of grip, especially at low speed where the wings won't help so much - that
means SOFT springs!! Which is faster for you? The tendency in GP2 is to set
the front reasonably stiff (1,200lbs or more) and the back reasonably soft
(800lbs or so). However, at some circuits an all stiff setup works best. If
you are going to use the kerbs a lot you may need springs which are stiffer,
especially if the kerbs are not "designed" to be used (some kerbs in GP2 have
little or no influence on the car (Jerez T2), others have minimal effect
(Ostkurve inner chicane) and yet others launch you into the air (you know
which ones!)). For the kerbs designed to be used you don't need to worry about
spring settings, but if you want to clatter through Casino Chicane as fast as
possible, you'll need to stiffen up the car.

When considering the springs, remember also that the springs work in
conjunction with almost every other item on the car, and changing the springs
affects ride height (hence also packers), anti-roll bars, brake balance,
damper settings - almost every aspect of car setup. For example, softening the
front springs will cause the car to "dive" more under braking (the front
springs compress, thus lowering the nose), and therefore ride height may need
to be increased at the front. Also the weight grip will increase at the front
(since the softer springs will increase grip, especially under braking) so the
brake balance may need adjusted. Adjusting the springs can affect many other
items on your setup, so think your way carefully through any adjustments you
want to make.

Anti-Roll Bars
Anti-roll bars (ARBs) are like "sideways springs". They transfer weight from
one side of the car to the other, absorbing some of this and adjusting the
speed of the weight transfer depending upon how stiffly they are set. In
common with springs, softer ARBs means less responsive handling, less tyre
wear and increased grip at that end of the car, and stiffer ARBs will give the
opposite, more precise handling, more tyre wear and less grip. Since the ARBs
do not have such an effect on other areas of the car setup as the springs,
they are the main way to control the MECHANICAL balance of the car. If you
find the car has a tendency to under or oversteer around a long corner, play
firstly with the ARBs to try to cure it. In most race cars the ARBs can be
adjusted from within the cockpit (as can the brake balance) which is ideal for
adjusting the car balance during a race as the fuel load decreases, but GP2
doesn't offer this facility unfortunately.

To set your anti-roll bars, you need to pick a long constant speed corner at
the circuit you are working on, and use that corner to make adjustments. The
reason for choosing such a corner is that the dampers also have an influence
on corner balance, but they only work while you are steering (during steering
transients or weight transfer). Similarly the springs will have their main
effects while accelerating or braking. By working on a shorter corner or while
accelerating or braking, the dampers and springs will be dominant, and they
will mask the effects of the ARBs to some extent. A corner like Magny-Cour's
"Estoril" or part of the Beckets complex would be ideal. If you are always
accelerating through the only suitable corner, simply maintain a constant
throttle rather than accelerating, just to test the spring settings.

Less understeer (more oversteer)    soften front or stiffen rear
Less oversteer (more understeer)    soften rear or stiffen front
more grip (less responsiveness)     soften front and rear
more responsiveness (less grip)     stiffen front and/or rear


Ride height & Packers
The easiest thing to set here is the ride height, although this is closely
linked with packers and spring settings. In addition to the mechanical grip
created by the tires and the aerodynamic grip of the wings, a Formula One car
generates additional grip through the use of low pressure areas beneath the
car, and the creative use of exhaust gases (warmer gas = lower pressure =
pressed to the road from the high pressure cold air above). Generally "the
lower the better" in terms of grip, but you must be careful of plank wear
since the wooden plank which is below every car will ground if the ride height
is too low. The ride height plays a part in overall car balance too, since
lowering the car increases the downforce at that end of the car, and thus puts
more load onto those wheels. Lowering front ride height will slightly increase
front-end grip, creating oversteer in a balanced car or curing understeer, and
the opposite if you decrease rear ride height. Using the method described
below, adjust the car to the lowest possible ride height (maximising undercar
downforce) and then fine-tune by increasing either the front or the rear just
a little to maintain a neutral balance.

First of all bear in mind that the overall aerodynamics of the car are
designed to work with the rear of the car around 25mm higher than the front,
so that's a target to aim for in your adjustments. From this starting point
progressively lower the car, all the while maintaining around a 25mm
differential. For a hotlap, packers are generally less useful - as long as the
plank lasts for one hotlap it doesn't matter if it wears away. This may mean
that you need to run your outlap at low speed on longer tracks (Spa, Suzuka,
Hockenheim), but that's a small price to pay since using packers to save the
plank may compromise your ultimate speed setup. However, on other tracks
packers can help, especially the longer tracks where the plank could wear away
within only one lap (!), or where you are running a VERY low car.

Now, let's bring the packers into play. These are most useful at circuits with
very high top speeds, and are indispensable at places like Hockenheim. The
ride height and packers need to be set AFTER the springs, since how low you
can run the car will depend upon how much your springs are going to compress
under the downforce of high speed. Your aim is "To run the car as LOW as
possible (maximising undercar downforce), ensure the car is NEVER riding on
the packers through any corner (at least not a corner where you require grip
from that tyre), and have the settings so that the plank only occasionally
"flashes" when reaching the highest speed. To do this requires a balance
between packers and ride height.

First of all, set the ride height. Lower the ride height to 44mm rear, and
22mm front. Now increase by 1mm each time, and continue to raise until the
plank DOESN'T flash yellow when going through the fastest corner on the track
(make sure to test using the fuel load you are going to use in your race!).
Having set the ride height, now you can add packers. Since you have set the
plank so that it doesn't touch during the fastest corner, that means all the
corners will be run on the springs. This is important as if the car is sitting
on the packers when entering a corner it is the same as having all springs set
to fully stiff - try it and see how difficult it is! You don't want that to
happen. With the setting you got, the plank should only touch the ground on
straights where you are going faster than you were through the fastest corner
(by "corner" I mean something like Eau Rouge or Suzuka's "130R", not the long
gentle curves of Hockenheim). The front and rear are set separately - if the
rear is softly sprung (900 or less), set the packers to about 3mm less than
the ride height. If the rear springs are quite stiff (more than 900), try
setting the packers to 2 or even 1 less than the ride height. Now test again.
If you have handling problems, you know instantly that the car is sitting on
the packers through the corner - that will give you problems. Otherwise, look
at the performance data graphs, and study the suspension travel section along
with the track map. At the point you had the problem, see which springs were
riding on the bump rubbers (no suspension travel left - the line will be at
the ZERO level), and then lower the packers for that spring by 1mm. Test again
and repeat the adjustment until you have no problems.

Dampers
You now have a car with neutral balance achieved by the wings, springs and
roll bars, that brakes in a controlled and efficient manner, and that doesn't
scrape the ground and wear the plank. More importantly, it goes around corners
in a balanced, predictable manner. There is our final problem, the human
factor. Your car may go around a constant corner smoothly, but corners are
rarely constant, they are normally taken under braking or acceleration, or
while angling the steering by different amounts. Even more than that, YOU are
not constant. The way YOU drive a circuit is different from EVERYONE else. You
brake in a unique fashion, turn-in at a certain point, get back on the power
differently. The speed you turn the wheel and how roughly or gently you treat
the car, all these things make you unique. The dampers allow you to take the
car and adjust it not only for you, but adjust it for your style of entering a
corner, leaving a corner, switching direction in a chicane, and much more. Not
using the dampers correctly means you are mising out on a vital aspect of
setup. Frighteningly complicated for many, actually the dampers are not too
difficult to understand. What they are is enormously powerful in getting the
car to respond exactly as you want it. I say the dampers aren't too difficult,
well, actually they are VERY difficult - until explained by an expert that is.
I am no expert, but the aforementioned Doug Arnao is, and with our grateful
thanks to Doug, we now hand over to him to explain all about dampers. What
they are, what they do, and how to adjust them.

So you want to know about GP2's dampers, eh? Well hows about I just tell you
what affects they have on a real race car and some basics on what they do and
how they change the dynamics of a modern day formula car. As long as Geoff has
modelled everything as real as possible, then they should work as advertised.
Well, guess what?....they do :-)

Some "Absorbing" info:
  * The rebound should *always* be higher than the bump (1.5 - 3 times)
  * Low speed and fast speed refer to the speed of the damper shaft relative
    to the damper housing, NOT to car speed.

GENERAL
At all times cornering balance is affected by the weight distribution on the
four tires. Springs, sway bars and wings give constant resistance or affect
weight distribution through the ENTIRE length of a turn. Dampers however, and
their amount of resistance, can affect the balance at different _parts_ of a
turn. This occurs because at different parts (or what are called "phases") of
a corner, different dampers and their travel are dominant at that point. This
makes for a excellent way to adjust the corner entry and exit independent of
each other, or to take a corner that is unbalanced from entry to exit, to one
that is balanced (ie: understeer on the way in - oversteer on the way out).

FAST DAMPING
Fast damping is what the tires see and feel ie: reactions over bumps or kerbs.
It's job is to keep the rubber on the ground over the various surface
undulations. Travelling over a bump at speed causes a relatively large and
"fast" movement of the damper shaft, and hence it's name. If the front of your
car is "overdamped" in the fast bump direction, then you will experience
UNDERSTEER on the bumpy sections of turns. If the rear is overdamped you will
experience OVERSTEER.

For fast speed adjustments, pick a bumpy turn at the particular track you're
working on. Start with bump at 0 and rebound at 2 and work your way up until
the front UNDERSTEERS over the bumps, then back off 1 or 2 clicks. Then do the
same for the rear until it OVERSTEERS over bumps, again back off 1 or 2
clicks. Always keep the fast rebound higher than the bump - 1.5 to 3 times so.
The stiffer the spring the stiffer the rebound setting. It is the fast
rebound's job to resist spring pressure and unsprung weight (wheel, tire,
hubs, brakes etc) when the suspension droops. Usually a setting of 2 times the
fast bump works well in GP2. Make sure the car likes "usable" kerbs, too. This
may require softer settings than done in your bumpy turn test - everything is
a compromise.

SLOW DAMPING
Slow damping is what the driver feels ie: turn-in throttle-out, and mid-corner
transitions (chicanes). It controls the dynamic weight transfer and overall
motion of the main chassis relative to the track surface as the car is turned,
slowed, and accelerated. these motions cause "slow" and small movements of the
damper shaft, again the name. The slow rebound usually ends up being higher
than the bump, but can be at times 1:1.
Most fiddling will be done with the slow speed settings. First settle on a
spring and roll bar setting using a constant radius neutral throttle corner.
Next do the "fast" bump adjustments as described previously, then fine tune
with slow speed adjustments. First We'll need to understand the different
cornering "phases" before we can make a decision as to what slow speed
adjustments to make.

ENTRY type 1 : Increasing braking + increasing steering
This phase is the first part of a fast decreasing radius turn. This phase will
not occur at all if you get all your braking done *before* you turn-in. Since
weight is being transferred both forward and outboard, the outside front
damper moves in bump and the inside rear damper moves in rebound. these are
the dominant two dampers in this phase of turn-in. The other two have minimal
effects during this phase.

ENTRY type 2 : Decreasing braking + increasing steering
This is the turn-in phase of a slow corner. This phase may or may not occur
depending on the type of turn or driving technique. Weight is being
transferred outboard and to the rear, so the outboard rear damper moves in
bump and the inside front damper moves in rebound. The other two dampers are
considered stationary.

ENTRY type 3 : Increasing steering at constant throttle
This phase can be a chicane turn-in (GP2 has a lot of these!) or a turn entry
taken at *full* throttle. Weight is being transferred outboard only, so *both*
outside dampers are moving in bump and *both* inside dampers are moving in
rebound.

MID-CORNER TRANSITION : Decreasing steering back to zero at constant throttle
This is really the opposite of a type 3 entry. It's what happens in the middle
of a chicane, as you flick the steering back away from the current cornering
direction. As soon as the lateral acceleration passes back through zero, the
turn reverts to a type 3 entry again.

EXIT : Decreasing steering + increasing throttle (or decreasing braking)
This is the apex_to_exit phase. Weight is being transferred inboard and to the
rear. The outside front damper moves in rebound and the inside rear moves in
bump. The others are considered stationary.

Here's a chart to help understand low speed damper adjustments:

  ---------------------SLOW-SPEED DAMPER ADJUSTMENTS GP2----------------------

 CORNERING PHASE        MORE UNDERSTEER         MORE OVERSTEER

  Entry Type1            F bump +                 F bump -
                         R rebound -              R rebound +

  Entry Type2            F rebound +              F rebound -
                         R bump -                 R bump +

  Entry Type3            F bump +                 F bump -
                         F rebound +              F rebound -
                            or                       or
                         R bump -                 R bump +
                         R rebound -              R rebound +

  Mid-corner             F bump -                 F bump +
  Transition             F rebound -              F bump +
                            or                       or
                         R bump +                 R bump -
                         R rebound +              R rebound -

  Exit                   F rebound -              F rebound +
                         R bump +                 R bump -

                          + = increase adj.
                          - = decrease adj.
                          F = front
                          R = rear
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


These are the basics of how they work on real race cars and they seem to work
correctly in GP2. There are more complicated things they do in real life, like
control the aerodynamic platform and downforce consistency by reducing
excessive pitching and yawing. I doubt they've gone that far in the game, but
if they have it's something else to look at.

--Doug Arnao (Vehicle Craft Inc.)


---------------------------------------



                                   Summary

That's basically it for the setup, and as you can see it is not so difficult
to understand. It is certainly frustrating at times as it all gels together or
falls apart depending upon balance. Two setups can look utterly different and
yet be equally quick depending upon how well each component complements or
fights the other components and the driving style. It also shows you why you
cannot simply download a setup from the 'net and expect it to be quick. With
effort you cn learn to drive it, but ultimately you will be compromising your
own driving style and will be unable to express yourself with it (that's a
flowery way of saying "you'll be slower"!!). In closing this article we'll
leave you with a few thoughts to work through on your own....
  * There's a box in "Advanced setup level 2" called "Symmetrical Editing",
    and it doesn't have to be used. Remember that circuits are clockwise or
    anti-clockwise in nature and your car will rarely require the same forces
    on each side. Almost every setup I've seen on the 'net is symmetrical, and
    this misses the opportunity for much more tuning. Remember that for
    dampers usually only TWO corners are in use at any one time, and adjusting
    symmetrically means you will adjust all four corners. This may correct the
    problem you are working on but introduce another problem elsewhere on the
    circuit. Tune each corner separately if you can...

  * F7, SH and OL affect the setup. While I personally disapprove of driving
    aids, many people use them and it's important to realise that they will
    make a difference to the setup. Especially using "Steering Help" will
    allow you to run with a bigger differential between front and rear wing.
    Opposite lock help will allow a similar thing, the car will still
    breakaway and try to spin with high wing differential, but the program
    will help you catch the resulting spin. F7 will affect spring and gearing
    settings.
Return to the test phase. Very important this, after any change make sure
  you go back onto the track and see how it has improved/changed the car.
  Generally make one change at a time and then go and try it out. Then go and
  tune some more.

  * Sometimes you've tuned your chassis so much it sounds like an angelic
    choir, you're driving the wheels off the car and yet you can't make up any
    time. In these situations you can either switch the computer off and come
    back later, or you can make a radical change. Maybe you've reached your
    limit with that setup, so change the basics. If you're running high
    downforce, change to medium or low, if the car is setup very soft then
    change to stiff springs and see if you can run any faster with a more
    responsive car. Make the change, balance the car again and see how you do.

Well, that's it from this Sim Racing News guide, and we hope you'll find it
useful. There's an awful lot of work and testing gone into this, so we'd like
to extend our thanks again to Doug Arnao who helped out so much. We think this
is not only comprehensive but also accurate, but we're open to suggestions and
criticism. If anyone has any suggestions for improvements or simply needs
setup help, drop us a line and we'll try to help.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Copyright й 1996 Sim Racing News / Written by John Wallace, all rights
reserved

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