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Чит-файл для Harpoon

Harpoon

 За игрой пока никто не наблюдает. Первым будете?

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчик:Artech Studios
Издатель:Three-Sixty Pacific
Модель распространения:розничная продажа
Жанры:Strategy (Real-time / Wargame) / Simulator (Naval) / Top-down

Даты выхода игры

вышла в 1989 г.

FAQ [ENG]

Информация актуальна для
				FAQ v1.0
                       Last updated: 17 June 1994

                         COMPILED BY IAN COATES

                          COATES@VAX.LSE.AC.UK
                       EC875@CLEVELAND.FREENET.EDU

                         FOR THE CZ MAILING LIST




CONTENTS

     1. INTRODUCTION
     2. CURRENT HARPOON STATUS
     3. GENERAL HARPOON QUESTIONS
     4. HARPOON II (COMPUTER)
     5. HARPOON v1.X (COMPUTER)
          5.1 GAME FEATURE QUESTIONS
          5.2 SYSTEM SPECIFIC QUESTIONS
          5.3 OTHER QUESTIONS
     6. THE SCENARIO EDITOR (COMPUTER)
          6.1 GENERAL USE
          6.2 OTHER QUESTIONS
     7. MINIATURES GAME
     8. TACTICS
     9. QUESTIONS STILL LOOKING FOR ANSWERS


                             ***************
                             1. INTRODUCTION
                             ***************

I wrote this FAQ in response to the continual posting in the CZ mailing
list of beginners type questions. I know it's probably a bit late for this
to appear seeing as though Harpoon has been out for about 5 years now, but
hopefully with this in place it will be easier to keep track of questions
for Harpoon II. Three-Sixty were due to check the FAQ for accuracy, but
after holding it for three weeks this proved not possible as they are too
busy with Harpoon II - I apologise for the delay this has caused !

The FAQ has been produced by going through past issues of the CZ mailing
list and noting down questions and the answers they attracted. Therefore
I do not claim to have covered every single question, or every single
answer to be definitive - they are just the subjective opinions of
subscribers to CZ. It also means that I can not be 100% sure about the
information they give (although I can't find anything wrong with it !), so
be warned ! I also do not claim to be the world's greatest expert on
Harpoon - I'm just the guy who actually bothered to do something ;-) Please
note that any opinions expressed here are the opinions of the people
writing them only, and not any organisation (eg the US military) they
represent.

(BTW, if any one has any problems with anything I've attributed to them
then let me know. I apologise beforehand if this is the case.)

If there is anything else people wish to see in the FAQ then let me know.

I had planned to do a full list of known bugs/failings in both the computer
and miniatures versions, but no one has yet responded to my requests for
information. I only own the PC version of Harpoon, and thus can't cover
everything by myself !

As for Harpoon II - when this is released it is going to clash with my
finals and so a new FAQ is not likely to appear when it is most needed !!!
Also my computer is not powerful enough to run Harpoon II (I will be
upgrading soon) so anything I do produce will be a collection of other
peoples comments (similar to this). I would be willing to let someone else
take over the FAQ for Harpoon II. If you want to, then get in touch.

For further help in playing computer Harpoon, a good source is the Harpoon
Battlebook which provides answers to many other questions and provides data
the computer uses but is not in the manuals (although they are now in the
ASCII data files that came with v1.30). I have avoided simply copying out
questions and answers from the Battlebook due to copyright. The battlebook
is extremely useful (IMHO) for Harpoon beginners.

Extra copies of this FAQ can be obtained by E-mailing me at:
     o COATES@VAX.LSE.AC.UK (account will be deleted after 31/7/94 though)
     o EC875@CLEVELAND.FREENET.EDU (use after 31 July 1994)
Alternatively it can be downloaded via anonymous FTP:
     o from CZ's archive site, SUNBANE.ENGRG.UWO.CA (129.100.100.12), in
       the /PUB/HARPOON directory
     o BSP208.STAFFS.AC.UK in the directory /PUB/HARPOON.
It is also available on the MONOCHROME BBS for people with accounts there,
the keypath is [S][D][I][G][H] from the main menu.

This FAQ is freely distributable for individual use only (please leave this
introduction intact). Anyone wishing to use it commercially should get in
touch with me at the above E-mail address. If you wish to post it on a BBS
then let me know so I can send updates directly there. I plan to
continually update/correct this list as and when it is needed, and post it
in the various places described above.

Get in touch with me if you have any comments (or I might think this was
all a waste of time !) at the addresses below. Anyway, I hope you find this
FAQ useful.

Ian Coates     June 1994
London School of Economics, London, UK.

Internet:           COATES@VAX.LSE.AC.UK
                    EC875@CLEVELAND.FREENET.EDU

"If all economists were laid end to end, they would not reach a
 conclusion"   - George Bernard Shaw    (still my favourite quote (being
                                         an economist and all that) ;-)




=============================================================================



                        *************************
                        2. CURRENT HARPOON STATUS
                        *************************

Harpoon is modern naval warfare game, enabling virtually any possible naval
engagement (large or small) to be modelled. The original version appeared
as paper based game in 1981, written by Larry Bond. It is currently
published by Game Designers' Workshop (GDW).

The computer version was converted by Three-Sixty Pacific Inc to the PC
(1989), Mac and Amiga (1990) platforms. Version 1.1 was originally packaged
with the GIUK (Greenland-Iceland-UK gap) battleset. Over the years has
released various program upgrades and add-ons:

     o v1.2 released in 1990 (distributed direct from Three-Sixty)
     o v1.30 released in 1992 (distributed with HDS1)
     o v1.32a released in 1993 (distributed via Internet and from 360)
     o Scenario Editor (SE) (1989) - Allows the player to create their own
       scenarios for any battleset that they own, which can then be loaded
       in to the main Harpoon program to be played out as either side.
     o Battlesets NACV (1989), MEDC (1990), IOPG (1991): Extra sets of
       scenarios based in the North Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Indian
       Ocean/Persian Gulf respectively, including many new platforms in
       each.
     o Harpoon Designers' Series I (HDS1) (1992): Up to 4x12 new scenarios
       (12 for each of the four original battlesets owned), with an
       expanded platform database for user created scenarios. The upgrade
       to v1.30 was included.
     o Harpoon Designers' Series II (HDS2) (1993): The same format as HDS1,
       with about 48 completely new scenarios, using the same expanded
       database of platforms as HDS1. Note HDS2 does not need HDS1 to work.

IBM PC version:
     Current version: 1.32a
     Add-ons available: GIUK, NACV, MEDC, IOPG, SE, HDS1, HDS2
     Scenario editor current version: 1.01

Mac version:
     Current version: 1.21
     Add-ons available: GIUK, NACV, MEDC, IOPG, SE, HDS1, HDS2
     Scenario editor current version: 1.02

Amiga version:
     Current version: 1.1
     Add-ons available: GIUK, NACV, MEDC, IOPG, SE
     Scenario editor current version: 1.1

QU:  WHAT NEW FEATURES DOES THE LATEST VERSION OF HARPOON (v1.3x) HAVE OVER
     THE PREVIOUS VERSION (v1.2x) ?

ANS: o Bases and radars can repair themselves.
     o You can now order individual or Group ASW aircraft to drop sonobuoys
       wherever you want to, without interrupting their normal search
       pattern.
     o You can load user scenarios from the scenario selection screen.
     o Double-clicking is now supported on a lot of selection screens.
     o Anti-Radiation Missiles are just that: anti-radiation. Don't expect
       HARMs to destroy airbases any more, nor will they destroy ships
     o Torpedoes work much more realistically now. Torpedoes now have to
       acquire their targets independently of the launching platforms.
     o ARMs no longer kill bases. Neither do Harpoons. Also, land attack
       missiles (such as the Tomahawk TLAM-C) can't attack ships.
     o SAM missiles are modeled better, in that the guiding radar has to
       have a lock on the target before the missiles will fire, and if
       applicable, the missiles will only impact if there is still a lock
       on the target.
     o New missile modelling: Missiles (especially Phoenix) now use
       inertial guidance and after their radar turns-on can hit *any* plane
       in the area. Phoenix missile hit problem at Vlow is also fixed.
     o Realistic Rates of Fire have been implemented for missile and
       torpedo launches.
     o A new sonar model
     o You can have your aircraft jettison their ordnance to live to fight
       another day.
     o The Scenario Editor can make text files of orders for both sides,
       and these will be displayed in the program. In other words, when you
       select a user scenario, a box will come up containing the orders for
       your particular side.
                - Mark Lam (lam@mozart.cs.colostate.edu)

NOTE: In the list below references will be to PC versions. So v1.3x is
equivalent to v1.21 on the Mac (no corresponding upgrade was produced for
the Amiga).

Miniatures version:

     Current version: Unknown
     Add-ons available: Unknown

Useful addresses:

     Three-Sixty Pacific Inc:
        2105 S. Bascom Ave,
        Campbell, CA 95008, USA

        2402 Broadmoor, Building C, Suite 101,
        Bryan, TX 77802, USA
                                         Phone: (+1) 407-776-2187
                                        (Mon-Fri, 9am-6pm, Central Time)

                                        E-mail: 76711.240@COMPUSERVE.COM
                                    Compuserve: 76711,240
                                         GEnie: THREE-SIXTY
                               America On-Line: ThreeSixty
                                       Prodigy: KHFB18A
                                           BBS: (+1) 409 774 4246

     Electronic Arts:
        90 Heron Drive,
        Langley, Berkshire. SL3 8XP. UK
                                           Phone: (+44) (0)753 549442
                                          E-mail: EA@CIX.COMPULINK.CO.UK
        12 Rue du Chateau d'Eau
        96410 Champagne au Mont d'Or, Lyon. France.
                                                   Phone: (+33) 72170783
        Postfach 1553, 33245 Gutersloh,
        Deutschland/Germany
                                                  Phone: (+49) 524124307


                      ****************************
                      3. GENERAL HARPOON QUESTIONS
                      ****************************

QU:  WHERE ON THE INTERNET IS HARPOON REGULARLY DISCUSSED ?

     o The Convergence Zone electronic mailing list is dedicated to the
       discussion   of both computer and the miniatures versions of
       Harpoon. Details can be obtained by sending E-mail to the moderator
       of the list, Tom Comeau, at CZ-REQUEST@STSCI.EDU
     o The USENET group COMP.SYS.IBM.PC.GAMES.STRATEGY often discusses
       Computer Harpoon
     o The USENET group REC.GAMES.MINIATURES often discusses the miniatures
       version of Harpoon
     o The USENET group SCI.MILITARY may also be of interest, discussing
       anything military related. US Navy News and US Dept of Defence News
       regularly appear in this group
     o On CompuServe in the Gamers forum (GO GAMERS), Section 3 (War
       Games), and in GAMAPUB Section 15 (run by Three-Sixty Pacific)
     o On America OnLine, in the Three-Sixty Area, Harpoon folder

QU:  WHERE CAN I DOWNLOAD USER CREATED SCENARIOS AND OTHER HARPOON RELATED
     FILES ?

     INTERNET FTP SITES:

     o SUNBANE.ENGRG.UWO.CA (129.100.100.12)
        /PUB/HARPOON/PC/*.ZIP        IBM-PC scenarios
        /PUB/HARPOON/MAC/*.HQX       Mac scenarios
        /PUB/HARPOON/AMIGA/*.LZH     Amiga scenarios
        /PUB/HARPOON/PC/HARP132A.ZIP Harpoon upgrade to v1.32a
        /PUB/HARPOON/CZ/*.Z          Past issues of CZ plus a couple of
                                     data annexes for the miniatures
                                     version

     o FTP.CS.VU.NL (192.31.231.42)
        /HARPOON/PC/*.ZIP            IBM-PC scenarios
        /HARPOON/MAC/*.HQX           Mac scenarios
        /HARPOON/AMIGA/*.LZH         Amiga scenarios
        /HARPOON/PC/HARP132A.ZIP     Harpoon upgrade to v1.32a
        /HARPOON/CZ/*.Z              Past issues of CZ plus a couple of
                                     data annexes for the miniatures
                                     version
        /HARPOON/MAC/SCENARIO_CONVERTER.CPT.HQX
                                     PC to Mac scenario convertor
        /HARPOON/HARPOON.FMT         Description on how to edit Amiga
                                     data files

     o JUMI.LUT.FI (157.24.10.9)
        /PUB/HARPOON/PC/*.ZIP        IBM-PC scenarios
        /PUB/HARPOON/MAC/*.HQX       Mac scenarios
        /PUB/HARPOON/AMIGA/*.LZH     Amiga scenarios
        /PUB/HARPOON/PC/HARP132A.ZIP Harpoon upgrade to v1.32a
        /PUB/HARPOON/CZ/*.Z          Past issues of CZ plus a couple of
                                     data annexes for the miniatures
                                     version

     o NIC.FUNET.FI ()
       /PUB/MSDOS/GAMES/HARPOON/*.*  User created scenarios

     o WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU ()
        /PUB/MSDOS_UPLOADS/GAMES/PATCHES/HARP132A.ZIP
                                     Harpoon upgrade to v1.32a

     o IRZ.INF.TU-DRESDEN.DE ()
        /PUB/MS-DOS/GAMES/PATCHES/HARP132A.ZIP
                                     Harpoon upgrade to v1.32a

     OTHER SITES:

     o On CompuServe, in GAMERS forum library 3 (user created scenarios)
     o The Harpoon Scenario Warehouse BBS located near New York City.
       The BBS can be accessed via modem at 516-829-2557. Currently
       offline, but likely to reopen once Harpoon II ships.
     o The PC to MAC user scenario convertor is available on CompuServe,
       in library 15 of the GAMAPUB section
     o America On-Line: jayg10@aol.com says that due to the dispersed
       nature of user created scenarios on AOL it is best to use the file
       searcher with the string "HARPOON" while in the software section.
       Also try the PC GAMES menu and choose the INDUSTRY CONNECTION
       section to locate the sub-section maintained by Three-Sixty.

NOTE - To use the Harpoon v1.32a (HARP132A.ZIP) patch for Harpoon you need
       to already have a copy of v1.30 otherwise the patch will not work.

     If anyone has any more sites or has corrections for the above then get
     in touch !

QU:  WHAT BOOKS ARE AVAILABLE THAT ARE USEFUL FOR PLAYING HARPOON ?

ANS: This is a list of naval books that have been mentioned in CZ over the
     years. Most books are written for real life military combat, and thus
     may not be particularly useful for Harpoon tactics, but the principle
     is the same. [Ian]

   Recommended by Mark Lam (lam@mozart.cs.colostate.edu):
     o "Fighter Combat, Tactics and Manoeuvring" by Robert Shaw.
     o "Sub vs. Sub" I can't remember the subtitle, or the author's
        name.  (He was the captain who took HMS Grampus under the edge
        of the Arctic icepack.)

   Recommended by cellar!sailor@uunet.uu.net:
     o "Fleet Tactics - Theory and Practice" Capt. Wayne P. Hughes, Jr
        USN (Ret.), Naval Institute Press.
     o  There are occasional articles in Computer Gaming World magazine
        which offer useful ideas.
     o "Red Storm Rising," "The Hunt For Red October" (to a lesser
        degree), and Bond's own books should be used as sources for
        tactics. (fiction)

   Recommended by (Ted Kim) tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu:
     o The "Fleet Tactics" book by Captain Hughes
     o "The Fundamentals of Salvo Warfare" 1990 MS Thesis by Jefferey R.
        Cares Naval Postgraduate School: Monterey, CA

   Recommended by Tom Comceau (tcomeau@stsci.edu):
     o "Red Phoenix", "Vortex" and "Cauldron", all by Larry Bond
        (fiction)
     o "The Price of Admiralty" by John Keegan, Penguin Books, 1988.
     o "Fleet Tactics" Capt. Wayne P. Hughes, USN, Ret., Naval Institute
        Press, 1986.
     o "The Longest Battle:  The War at Sea, 1939-45" by Richard Hough,
        Morrow & Co., 1986.
     o "The Battle for the Falklands" by Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins,
        W.W.Norton & Co., 1983.
     o "The Military Balance"  yearbooks. The International Institute
        for Strategic Studies, Brassey's . Published in the US
        and Canada by Macmillan.

   Recommended by Andrea Fontana (fontana@pavia.infn.it):
     o Laurence Delaney, "The Triton Ultimatum", 1979 (fiction)
     o Harold Coyle, "Sword Point", 1990 (fiction)
     o Antony Preston, "Fighting Ships", 1989

   Recommended by Patrick S. Golden (pgolden@nhgs.vak12ed.edu):
     o "The Med," "The Gulf," and "The Circle" by David Poyer (fiction)
     o  Patrick O'Brian writes of the British Navy in the Napoleonic
        Wars

   Recommended by Felix Hack (felixh@sunspot.ssl.berkeley.edu):
     o Combat Fleets of the World (Couhat, Baker, USNI)
     o World Naval Weapons Systems (Friedman, USNI)
     o Modern Warship Design and Development (Friedman) (c.1980)
     o Fighter Combat (Shaw, USNI)
     o Harpoon, Modern Naval Wargame Rules, Larry Bond, GDW games.
     o Harpoon Data Annex 1990/91, as above.
     o Troubled Waters, Chris Carlson, GDW games.
     o Warship Commander II, Ken Smigelski, Enola Games.

   Recommended by Dennis Milbert (dennis@hecate.ngs.noaa.gov):
     o "The Complete Book of U.S. Fighting Power" by Lightbody & Poyer

QU:  HOW DO I GET HOLD OF "NAVAL PROCEEDINGS" ?

ANS: "Proceedings" is included with membership in the United State Naval
     Institute. The cost of a one-year membership, which also includes
     discounts on USNI books, is/was $30.00 (US).  USNI can be reached at
     800-233-8764, and will accept phone orders with Master Card or VISA.

QU:  ALL THE JARGON/ABBREVIATIONS CONFUSES ME - HELP !

ANS: I have also produced a list of jargon/military abbreviations decoded
     in to plain(er) English. It is fairly US Navy orientated (any
     volunteers to do a CIS/USSR list ?), but should be useful. It should
     be available in the places that this FAQ is listed as being stored
     (see Introduction), or E-mail me.

     Emmanuel Gustin has posted a similar document to SCI.MILITARY
     recently, and although it is not as Harpoon specific, I must admit
     what it does cover is slightly superior to my list !
     It can be FTP'd from BYRD.MU.WVNET.EDU
     The file is /PUB/HISTORY/MILITARY/AIRFORCE/CODES.TXT


                        ************************
                        4. HARPOON II (COMPUTER)
                        ************************


QU:  WHEN IS HARPOON II GOING TO BE RELEASED ?

ANS: It's out !!! As of June 6th in the USA (I think). Unsure of shipping
     dates to foreign countries :(

QU:  WHAT ARE THE NEW FEATURES PROMISED IN HARPOON II ?

ANS: This is a promo put out by Three Sixty for Harpoon II:
                                        
     o full motion video clips from the Department of Defense
     o an innovative interface designed around moveable and scalable
       windows with a pushbutton toolbar
     o an advanced "fuzzy logic" based computer opponent
     o high resolution military style tactical vector map of the entire
       world (simulating actual Combat Information Centre display systems)
       with multiple projection styles, including all coastlines and
       seasonal icepacks
     o neutral countries modeled along with an enforced rules of engagement
     o realistic weather modelling
     o completely revised and updated models for all sensors, missiles and
       communications nets
     o a Formation Editor which allows you to define threat axes and patrol
       zones for planes both in and out of formations
     o in-air refuelling and underway replenishment
     o an on-line context sensitive help/reference guide complete with
       hundreds of photos and specifications on platforms, weapons, and
       sensors
     o full implementation of navigation, weather, patrols, jamming,
       satellite passes, EMCOM, datalinks, fuels states (ships and A/C),
       underway replenishment, repairs, etc...
     o there will not be individual Battlesets as in the original game,
       since the game comes with the map of the entire world
     o the game will be multi-windowed so that you can view battles
       happening at different locations on the map
     o there will be approximately 15 scenarios included with the game,
       based in the Pacific
     o a scenario editor will be a follow-on product issued "soon" after
       the game is released

QU:  WHAT ARE THE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR HARPOON II ?

ANS: From some official Three-Sixty postings:

     For the PC:
     o The minimum amount of disk space is not finalized yet, and will vary
       depending on what you install.  (rough pre-guess: 17Meg, 20 Meg for
       full game)
     o The minimum cpu required is a 386SX, any speed, but 486/33 is
       recommended
     o The minimum memory requirement is 4 Meg, 8 Meg recommended
     o The minimum amount of memory required below the 640k barrier is 64k
       Harpoon II uses a DOS extender and will use as much memory as you
       have (the more the better)
     o The minimum graphics setup is a VESA mode 101 compatible 512k video
       card (SVGA), a 1 Meg card is recommended
     o Mouse is required, with a Microsoft or Logitech compatible driver
     o 100% SoundBlaster compatible card for sound support

     For the Mac:
     o 68020 or better (LC or higher)
     o System 7 or better with QuickTimeTM extension
     o 12" color monitor or better
     o 4 Mb RAM
     o Approximately 20Mb on hard drive

QU:  WHAT IS VESA GRAPHICS COMPATIBILITY ?

ANS: VESA is a graphics standard. Having a card that is VESA compatible
     does NOT mean it has to be a VESA local bus card! It just means it
     complies with the "VESA" standard. The vast majority of video cards
     support, or can be made to support VESA mode graphics (such as
     640x480x256). The newer video cards have the VESA built into the
     chip's BIOS. Older cards may not be recognised, so a TSR is required.

     There are two files that I know of that are available to help.
     VESADRV2.ZIP is available on most of the larger sites, such as
     FTP.CDROM.COM or ones that mirror the larger sites.  This file
     contains a number of ZIPs from the card manufacturers. Most work OK.
     This is an updated version of the drivers that were supplied with V
     for Victory, for example.

     Another method, and by all accounts much better, is "UVESA32.ZIP".
     Available from GODZILLA.CGL.RMIT.OZ.AU, the Virgin Games BBS, and
     probably lots of other places. Again a TSR, but universally compatible
     with the majority of cards. Opt for this one.
               - Gavin Rewell (s905066@otto.bf.rmit.oz.au)

     Also available on WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (), and the files is
     /SYSTEMS/IBMPC/MSDOS/VGA/UVESA42.ZIP and on SRC.DOC.IC.AC.UK
     (146.169.2.10), the file is
     /COMPUTING/SYSTEMS/IBMPC/SIMTEL/VGA/UVESA42.ZIP [Ian]

QU:  WILL BATTLESETS/SCENARIOS FROM HARPOON V1.X BE COMPATIBLE WITH
     HARPOON II ?

ANS: No.

QUS: WILL MODEM PLAY APPEAR IN HARPOON II ?
     WILL CRUISE MISSILE WAYPOINT ENTRY APPEAR IN HARPOON II ?
     WILL THE 255nm FORMATION EDITOR LIMIT GO IN HARPOON II ?

ANS: o Head to Head play is planned for Harpoon II, but will not make it
       into the initial release.  H2H play will probably be in the first
       upgrade for Harpoon II, scheduled for this Summer.
     o Multiple waypoint capability for cruise missiles, while it will not
       be in the initial release of Harpoon II, may be included in the
       first upgrade (scheduled for this summer).
     o In Harpoon II the maximum range in the formation editor is your
       scenario boundary--this will usually be more than 255 miles.
                  - Adam M. Fugman (THREE-SIXTY PACIFIC INC.)
                                   (76711.240@CompuServe.COM)

QU:  WILL THERE BE A WINDOWS VERSION OF HARPOON II ?

ANS: No there won't. Basically Harpoon II uses a windows type interface and
     DOS extender anyway, so a dedicated Windows version isn't needed.[Ian]

QU:  WHERE CAN I FIND OUT MORE ?

ANS: The online magazine "Game Bytes" carried a preview based on a test
     version of Harpoon II in issue 18. It also carries a screen shot of
     the game (very impressive IMHO). It can be downloaded from
     WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (), in the directory
     /SYSTEMS/IBMPC/MSDOS-GAMES/GAME_BYTES. The relevant files are GB18.ZIP
     and GB18-GRA.ZIP and various mirror sites, including SRC.DOC.IC.AC.UK
     (146.169.2.10) in the directory
     /COMPUTING/SYSTEMS/IBMPC/MSDOS-GAMES/GAMES/GAME_BYTES
     The relevant files are GB18.ZIP and GB18-GRA.ZIP

     I have also uploaded the preview and GIF screenshot to
     BSP208.STAFFS.AC.UK, in the directory /PUB/HARPOON

QU:  HOW CAN I BECOME A BETA TESTER FOR THREE-SIXTY PRODUCTS ?

ANS: Three-Sixty uses Compuserve to communicate with its Beta Testers, as
     we have a section in one of the forums specifically for that purpose.
     If you have a Compuserve account and are interested in being a Beta
     Tester, contact our Quality Assurance Manager, Felix Pierdolla
     71742,1445.
                  - Adam M. Fugman (THREE-SIXTY PACIFIC INC.)
                                   (76711.240@CompuServe.COM)

                       **************************
                       5. HARPOON v1.X (COMPUTER)
                       **************************


                       5.1 GAME FEATURE QUESTIONS
                       **************************


QU:  IS  IMPLEMENTED IN V1.x OF HARPOON ?

ANS: The following features are currently not implemented in v1.x of
     computer Harpoon:

     o Minefields
     o Logistics (ie refuelling ships, a limit to the aircraft ordnance
       stored at airfields/on carriers etc)
     o Neutral forces
     o Mid-air refuelling

     Although refuelling loadouts appeared in early versions of Harpoon,
     they could not be used, and were removed as a loadout option in later
     versions of the game.

     It is possible/probable that all/some of these features will appear
     in Harpoon II (see section 5). [Ian]

QU:  WHAT DOES "HORIZ" MEAN AS A WEAPONS RANGE ?

ANS: I think HORIZ is an indication that the weapon can theoretically go
     much further than the horizon of the ship-based directors. Generally,
     this happens with semi-active radar guided SAMs pressed into an
     anti-surface role. In this case, the range should be the RADAR horizon
     distance from the ship to a surface target. Usually, surface search
     radars are limited by horizon rather than power. Similarly, SAM
     directors pressed into anti-surface roles are generally horizon
     limited also. I believe the displayed "best surface radar" ring is
     based on a medium sized ship target. Thus, it is not   accurate for
     ranges to smaller targets.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

QU:  WHAT DOES ACTIVATION DISTANCE MEAN ON ASM MISSILES ?

ANS: Most active radar homing missiles use inertial (ie preprogrammed)
     guidance for most of the trip. Only when arriving in the "target
     area", does the radar go on. If the target isn't exactly where it's
     supposed to be, the missile searches the target area. On a
     "bearing-only" contact, you don't get range data, only direction data.
     The dialogue asks you where to turn on the radar and start searching.
     If you are too far away from where the target really is, the missile
     runs out of fuel while searching and never finds its victim.

     The right answer depends on what else you know about the target and
     how many missiles you can waste covering your bets. If you have enough
     missiles, you can try a variety of ranges. If I don't know anything
     else, I stick with the computer's recommendation.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

QU:  WHAT ARE THESE AIR-TO-AIR BACKFIRES ?

ANS: One twist thrown into the Computer game are the modified Soviet
     bombers with air-to-air missiles (eg the Backfires with AA-9s in the
     NACV: Ambush scenario). They were put in to give the Soviet player
     some way to escort his bombers on long range attacks. As far as Iknow,
     though, there are no such things.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

QU:  CAN YOU USE A FORMATION EDITOR FOR PLANES ?

ANS: It is not possible to do this with strike groups. Fighter escorts need
     to be micro-managed manually to stay at a desired distance in front
     of the bombers. But aircraft can be put in the formation editor for
     CAP patrols around groups. [Ian]

QU:  HOW CAN YOU DETERMINE A PLANE'S EXACT REMAINING FUEL RANGE (AS THE
     RANGE CIRCLES AT BEST CAN ONLY GIVE AN INDICATION) ?

ANS: Click on the offending aircraft group in the Group window, and then
     centre it in the unit window. Then click on the aircraft unit in the
     unit window, and then type F (or Command F/Alt F/whatever your
     equivalent) to get a full report on the unit and pull up its specs.
     The listed aircraft range is the remaining aircrafts range.
                      - Gary Snow (snow@clark.edu)

ANS: Alternatively, if a suitable enemy group is around call up the
     aircraft intercept screen and read off it's fuel range. [Ian]

QU:  WHEN YOU ORDER A PLANE TO A DIFFERENT BASES DOES THE BINGO RANGE
     CIRCLE ADJUST ACCORDINGLY ?

ANS: Harpoon does not change the 'bingo' range circles when you select a
     new landing destination--sorry.
                  - Adam M. Fugman (THREE-SIXTY PACIFIC INC.)
                                   (76711.240@CompuServe.COM)

QU:  WHY DOES THE COMPUTER LET ME LAUNCH PLANES ON ATTACK MISSIONS AND I
     THEN FIND THEY REACH BINGO FUEL WELL BEFORE THE TARGET ?

ANS: The reasons for this happening are:
     (1)  When you are launching the flight, the first planes off have to
          circle until the last planes make it up.  This is a major problem
          when you have an airfield that only has one runway.  With a large
          group of planes, you end up losing a couple of minutes of flight
     (2)  Air groups with different plane types will fly at the lowest
          speed of the group.  So when you launch 2 F-14s to escort that
          E-2, those F-14s are penalized and have to fly at the E-2s speed
          and don't get optimum fuel performance.
     My solutions (obvious):
          Launch groups of the same plane type.
          Launch small groups, my fav size is around 10.

     Since you will probably want to escort those A-6s when they go after
     the Soviet battle group, launch the A-6s first.  Hopefully you'll have
     enough CAP in the immediate area of the carrier.  After a bit, not
     more than a minute of real time, launch the escorting fighters -
     F/A-18s in my opinion (save the F-14s for carrier CAP).  The F/A-18s
     are faster than A-6s, so they catch up and eventually overtake the
     A-6s.  They'll be out in front to nail anyone who threatens the A-6s.
     Or have the F/A-18s loiter every now and then so they stay with the
     A-6s.
              - jtgorman@cs.arizona.edu (J. Taggart Gorman)

QU:  CAN YOU PROGRAM AIRCRAFT TO NOT FLY OVER ENEMY UNITS ?

ANS: In Harpoon v1.x this is not possible without a watchful eye and
     careful micro-management of the assets. In Harpoon II it appears you
     can defined "off limits" areas and the class of plane the exclusion
     zone applies to - I hope it works ! [Ian]

QU:  DOES JAMMING WORK ? DO I REALLY NEED TO TAKE EA-6B's TO 25nm FROM THE
     ENEMY RADAR ?

ANS: Harpoon appears to model jamming as simply reducing a radar's
     probability of detecting a group, rather than blinding it from
     particular axes. [Ian]

ANS: First of all, the jamming pods don't have a range of 25nm, but reaches
     out to the radar horizon. So, the higher your aircraft is, the longer
     range for the jamming.

     What I usually do, is place an EA-6 just outside the maximum radar
     range for the airfield, and put them up high. I also try to put them
     a little out of the way of the A-6's that's doing the bombing. Once
     the bombers cross the max radar range, I move the jammers in too,
     still keeping them at high altitude. It hasn't failed yet.

     Also, if you have EF-111's, you can really mess things up. An EF-111
     from Scotland hanging over Keflavik would make the USSR believe that
     there's an attack coming from that angle, and they'll send out a few
     fighters to dispose of the single jammer. So, while they are on a wild
     goosechase, come in from the other side with your A-6's accompanied
     with F-14's ... They won't stand a chance.
                   - Lars Martin Hansen 

QU:  SOMETIMES WHEN THE COMPUTER SAYS I HAVE AN EXACT FIX ON AN ENEMY UNIT,
     WHY DOESN'T IT APPEAR ON THE GROUP MAP DISPLAY (RESULTING IN ME
     FORGETTING IT'S THERE) ?

ANS: The unit is part of the CAP around a local enemy base/group. It does
     not appear in the group window, but will appear in the unit window (if
     you find it !). To attack such units you need to attack the base and
     select "aircraft". Unfortunately the computer will direct your units
     to the nearest enemy CAP, not necessarily the one you want ! [Ian]

QU:  HOW FAR CAN I LEAVE SONOBUOYS BEHIND?

ANS: Harpoon v1.x does not require a unit to be monitoring (ie patrolling
     in the vicinity) a sonobuoy for the sonobuoy to report a detection.
     So even though a plane is no way near or has landed, as long as the
     sonobuoy is still active, you will be able to make the detection.

     It appears that the sonobuoys in Harpoon are passive only (ie subs can
     not detect a sonobuoy field). [Ian]

QU:  CAN YOU PROGRAM ASW PATROLS TO DROP SONOBUOYS ALONG A SET PATH ?

ANS: No, this is not possible. In v1.3x pushing the "." key when selected
     on a group/unit carrying sonobuoys will cause all relevant units in
     that group to drop one sonobuoy each. [Ian]

QU:  WHY IS THE DIPPING SONAR ON THE NAVAL OSPREY MODELLED AS BEING SO
     EFFECTIVE ?

ANS: Unsure. The Osprey is still on the drawing board and not in service,
     so no firm data is available on it. Still....150nm range
     contacts...??? [Ian]

QU:  DOES COMPUTER HARPOON TAKE THE BAFFLES INTO ACCOUNT ?

     QU:  I've been setting up submarine patrols to include regular small
          loops in the path - to clear the baffles and, hopefully, give the
          submarine a better chance of finding something coming up behind.
          Is this a waste of time?
               - Keith Wain (postmaster@manadon-engineering-college.ac.uk)

     ANS: Yeah, its a waste of time (unless it gives you something to do
          :-). Computer Harpoon doesn't take into account the baffles on
          a submarine.
                      - Gary Snow (gsnow@clark.edu)

QU:  WHY DOES SEA-LANCE ONLY APPEAR IN THE NACV BATTLESET ?

ANS: It would appear that when NACV went out Sea Lance was about to enter
     service, but then was cancelled (or Three-Sixty thought it would be
     nice to try it out ;-)   [Ian]

QU:  HOW DO I EVADE TORPEDOES ?

     1. Evasive manoeuvring of the unit under attack
     2. Run away !

     Note - all countermeasures (eg noisemaker decoys etc) ate already
     taken into account when the hit probability is calculated. There is
     no way to "shoot down" an incoming torpedo with a depth bomb or
     another torpedo in the current version, and isn't even clear whether
     this can be done in the real world.
             - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)  (amended)

QU:  WHAT IS A TORPEDO COUNTER-ATTACK ?

ANS: From the Harpoon Battlebook (p193):
     Question: What conditions trigger a "torpedo counterfire"?

     Answer: This happens when a torpedo is detected down a bearing from
     which there has been no submarine contact and the enemy submarine is
     possibly within the range of the torpedo to be counterfired. The
     computer side will always attempt torpedo counterfire.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

ANS: ...it also has to be undetected, on the theory that engaging a
     detected target that's in range is your own business.

     A torpedo has a high-speed propeller, making it (relatively) easy to
     detect on passive sonar. It's not too unlikely that you might detect
     the torpedo without having detected the sub.  It's a good gamble that
     a torpedo fired toward the point where the incoming torpedo was first
     detected will pass pretty close to the sub.

     Even if the incoming torpedo doesn't give you enough of a fix to hit
     the sub, your counterfire may prompt the sub to take evasive action
     and give his position away.  An incoming torpedo course is a good
     place for ASW aircraft to start searching with MAD and sonobuoys,
     too....
             - David Gillett (dgil@ipsaint.ipsa.reuter.com)

QU:  ARE MALFUNCTION RATES REALLY SO HIGH ?

ANS: It also seems to me that the malfunction rate is too high, especially
     for the Soviets. It seemed to me that time compression increased the
     malfunction rate beyond the linear ratio of time compression.
     Apparently, malfunction in the computer game is not related to actual
     use of the system, nor does it happen to anything but weapons systems.
     At the rate illustrated in the game, the US would only have wait a
     week for all Soviet subs to break everything. Now, I don't bother to
     turn the malfunction option on.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

QU:  HOW DO YOU WIN AT THE KOLA PENINSULA SCENARIOS IN GIUK ?

ANS: First of all, what version of Harpoon do you play? If it's 1.3x then
     just refine your tactics. In 1.3, it's very hard to find those darn
     submarines.

     If it's 1.2, there are several suggestions:

       1. Go slow, keep them in creeping speed.
       2. Change your course if you detect anything, don't try to kill them
          if they are not the SSBNs. If you do, swamps of ASW aircrafts
          will be on your head so fast...
       3. You can always send out a couple of old subs, like the Sturgeons
          to get their ASW forces worked up and sneak in when they are
          attacking those old ones.
       4. Change your depth irregularly, be creative about your path,
          depth, and speed.
       5. SAVE EVERY TIME YOU DODGE A TORPEDO OR SEE A TORPEDO OR DETECT
          ANYTHING! THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL.
                  - yuqian@bvc.edu (Suicidal Freshman)

QU:  HOW DO YOU GET SHIPS AND BASES TO RELOAD THEIR MOUNTS / WHY DO USSR
     UNITS USUALLY RELOAD THEIR MOUNTS WHILE NATO SHIPS DON'T ?

ANS: Reloadable launchers is very class dependant. On the NATO side, ASROCs
     reload if you fire all of them from the oct-launcher, but there
     are/have been ship classes with ASROC that did not have reloads.
     Single cell Harpoon and Tomahawk launchers are not reloadable,
     although some ships fire Harpoon from the single arm launcher
     (specifically the Perry class). In this case the number of reloads is
     dependant upon the weapon mix in the magazine, and usually there are
     not many Harpoons. The vertical launching systems are a different
     animal, but the still the number of weapons of each type is determined
     by the initial loadout. SAM reload immediately after firing. Combined
     launcher loads immediately after firing. Whereas Kiev's, Kirov's and
     Slava's (SS-N-12) all have a magazine.

     I think the staff only tell you when SSM mounts are reloading.

     - merged replies from: o trooker@bombe.nswc.navy.mil (Terry Rooker)
                            o yuqian@bvc.edu (Suicidal Freshman)

ANS: The Harpoon Battlebook has a list of the units that can reload their
     mounts (p211/2) [Ian]

QU:  WHY DOES IT SOMETIMES TAKE SO MANY AIR TO AIR MISSILES TO SHOOT DOWN
     PLANES AND CRUISE MISSILES (HARPOON/TOMAHAWK) ?

ANS: On the radar guided air-to-air missiles side, it has been noted that
     there have been so few air-to-air combat situations in real life, no
     one knows what a realistic kill ratio is ! Harpoon can only estimate.
     Infra-red missiles (eg Sidewinders) have a much better record. [Ian]

ANS: I've noticed that MiG-29s are particularly hard to shoot down --
     presumably this is supposed to reflect an unusually high level of ECM.
     (Radar-guided Sparrows seem to be far more susceptible to this effect
     than heat-seeking Sidewinders are, which makes some sense.)
             - David Gillett (dgil@ipsaint.ipsa.reuter.com)

ANS: There are quite a few factors that come into play here. The more
     complicated ones include such variables as the target AC's DATA, ECM
     and manoeuvring capabilities, the type of missile being fired.  Also,
     does it have ECCM and/ or dogfight capability.  All of these combined
     will usually make the hit probability lower against high performance
     AC's.

     The best ways I've found to increase the hit probability are to launch
     from the 3 to 9 o'clock position of the target AC.  His radar can't
     see you or the missiles there in most cases.  Going to low or vlow and
     turning off your radar works well when your at close range using heat
     seekers. If you're approaching from the front get him to turn off his
     radars prior to firing.
            - Chuck J. Rouhier (rouhier@wpdis03.wpafb.af.mil)

QU:  WHY DOES THE USSR SIDE NEED FEWER ANTI-SHIP MISSILES TO KILL A SHIP
     COMPARED TO NATO ?

ANS: That's because Harpoons/Tomahawks carry smaller warheads (typically
     500 pound) while most Soviet missile (eg Shipwrecks) have 1, 2, or 3
     thousand pound warheads.
                        - sscotten@email.bony.com

QU:  WHY ARE SAM AREA DEFENSES SO BAD FOR THE HUMAN SIDE ?

ANS: Once missiles are coming, set your defense fire to heavy and 1/2 max
     range, you will stand a much better chance shooting down double digits
     incoming missiles. It can be accessed via Alt-F8 (PC version)
                  - yuqian@bvc.edu (Suicidal Freshman)


                      5.2 SYSTEM SPECIFIC QUESTIONS
                      *****************************

QU:  CAN COMPUTER HARPOON BE PLAYED BY MODEM/NULL MODEM CONNECTION ?

ANS: Harpoon v1.x does not support this. Neither will the first release of
     Harpoon II, but I think Three-Sixty plan to include it in the second
     release after the summer 1994. [Ian]

QU:  IS THERE A VERSION OF HARPOON SPECIFICALLY FOR THE 386 ?

ANS: v1.3x has a separate HARPOON.EXE file specifically for the 386
     processor, although I don't think there are many great differences -
     just better memory management. Three-Sixty have always talked of an
     enhanced version of Harpoon (Harpoon Gold ?) to utilise the 386+
     features, but that now seems to have been merged with HARPOON II.
                                  [Ian]

QU:  I CAN'T GET THE HARPOON v1.32a PATCH TO WORK. THE GAME QUITS WITH THE
     MESSAGE "MISSING HARPOON.RSC DATA FILE !" - WHAT'S WRONG ?

ANS: To use the v1.32a patch you must already have v1.30 as the patch
     requires a file (HARPOON.RSC) from v1.30 to work. Without it the patch
     is useless. v1.30 is available from Three-Sixty or can be found in the
     HDS1 package. [Ian]

QU:  CAN HARPOON RUN UNDER O/S2 ?

ANS: I have found that it does run. Unfortunately, for obvious reasons, it
     is much slower. One advantage however is that OS/2 2.0's MSDOS 5.0
     based emulation provides an enormous amount of free ram for those
     scenarios that you just can't get to fit any other way ...
              - 2330.1244@compuserve.com (Robin D. Roberts)

QU:  IS IT POSSIBLE TO UPDATE THE DATA IN THE COMPUTER DATA FILES ?

ANS: As far as I know, this is only possible for the Amiga data files.
     Felix Hack (felixh@sunspot.ssl.berkeley.edu or GEnie: F.HACK1) wrote
     a detailed instruction file, which can be downloaded from FTP.CS.VU.NL
     (192.31.231.42). The file is /HARPOON/HARPOON.FMT

QU:  WHEN WILL THE ZX SPECTRUM 48K VERSION OF HARPOON BE RELEASED ?

ANS: I am currently working on the conversion. You've seen Harpoon push the
     DOS 640K barrier to the limit - now see it give the Spectrum 48K a
     hard time ! I expect to have the game finished in about a months time
     - let's see if I can beat 360 with Harpoon II ;-) It will be in Z80
     format - contact me if interested !!!
                                  [Ian]


                           5.3 OTHER QUESTIONS
                           *******************

QU:  WHAT IS THE HARPOON USERS' GROUP / C3I ?

ANS: C3I is the newsletter of the recently founded Harpoon Users' Group
     (HUG). It is the equivalent of the SITREP for computer game players.
     The first issue of the quarterly newsletter (vol. 1, no. 1) came out
     (July/Aug 1991). The newsletter is divided into sections corresponding
     to the components of the C3I acronym.

     People interested in becoming a member of the HUG and receiving
     C3I, can refer to the HUG announcement in CZ v7 msg 11. Or you can
     talk directly to Carl Norman, the editor of C3I, by e-mail at
     71360.2141@compuserve.com. He is especially interested in talking
     to people who want to write C3I articles.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

QU: WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE HUG ?

ANS: The Harpoon Users' group is currently in "hibernation" and the current
     issue of C3I running (extremely) late, awaiting the release of Harpoon
     II. The Harpoon Scenario Warehouse is currently off-line, but is also
     expected to be reactivated once Harpoon II is released. The main
     reason is that the editor of C3I, Carl Norman, is the project manager
     (and manual author) of Harpoon II. [Ian]
QU: WHAT IS THE USNI BATTLESET ?

ANS: The USNI Battleset is a small Battleset with 5 scenarios, and needs
     GIUK to run. Three-Sixty sells Harpoon to USNI (United States Naval
     Institute) members with some extra scenarios included, and is
     copyright. The only way to get this BattleSet is to purchase Harpoon
     through the USNI. It should NOT be distributed or put on bulletin
     boards - this is ILLEGAL. It's presence on the previous CZ scenario
     archive caused that archive to be shut down. [Ian]

QU: OK - HOW DO I LEGALLY OBTAIN THE USNI BATTLESET ?

ANS: The USNI 1991 Christmas catalog advertises a special USNI edition of
     Computer Harpoon for the IBM PC. The USNI edition includes "5 all-new
     scenarios for USNI members only" and "Harpoon secrets from Dr. Peter
     Perla, author of The Art of Wargaming". Available to USNI members for
     $40. USNI members can get the PC version of Harpoon (and the various
     battlesets) at a discount through the USNI book service. However, I
     find my local discount store still does better than the offered
     discounted prices.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

     Full membership in the United States Naval Institute is available to
     any current or former member of the Navy, Marines, or Coast Guard (and
     I believe their foreign counterparts). Associate membership includes
     anyone else with an interest in naval matters, and includes all rights
     and privileges except voting. A phone number for membership inquiries
     is (800) 233-USNI.
              - creps@copper.ucs.indiana.edu (Steve Creps)

                    *********************************
                    6. THE SCENARIO EDITOR (COMPUTER)
                    *********************************

                             6.1 GENERAL USE
                             ***************

QU:  CAN YOU PUT WAYPOINTS INTO AIR STRIKE PATHS ?

ANS: No - not possible. [Ian]

QU:  YOU CAN YOU DETERMINE A BASE'S RUNWAY LENGTH WITHOUT CREATING THE BASE
     FIRST ?

ANS: For the NACV and MEDC battlesets, runway lengths were listed in the
     manuals that came with the battleset. For all HDS1 and HDS2 battlesets
     an ASCII database came with HDS2 listing data for all platforms within
     Harpoon. The base/runway data files are BLUE1.DB, BLUE2.DB, RED1.DB
     and RED2.DB

QU:  HOW DO YOU NEED TO DESIGN A SCENARIO SUCH THAT THE COMPUTER WILL
     ATTACK A CONVOY ?

ANS: For the computer to attack a convoy it must:
       a) have detected the convoy
       b) have aircraft at a base within range with the relevant weapons
          loadout (eg Backfires with ASMs)
     So in the scenarios you need to have patrols (Badgers, Bears, E-3s)
     operating near likely convoy routes *and* make sure that there are
     bombers waiting at a nearby base.

     Two problems though:
       1) The computer may decide to use the bombers for another mission
          if the loadout corresponds to alternative targets located
       2) If an enemy (an enemy to the computer ie your side) base is
          between the launching base and the target convoy the computer
          will overfly that base and get torn to pieces ! [Ian]

ANS: I have found that the computer will attack a convoy if its objectives
     are to sink that convoy, or parts thereof. The hard part is getting
     the computer to find the ships!
               - Gavin Rewell (s905066@otto.bf.rmit.oz.au)

                           6.2 OTHER QUESTIONS
                           *******************

QU:  WHERE CAN I OBTAIN USER CREATED SCENARIOS ?

ANS: See section 3 for a full list of sites carrying Harpoon User
     Created Scenarios.

QU:  HOW DO YOU USE USER CREATED SCENARIOS ?

ANS: General tips on downloading user created scenarios:

     o User created scenarios need to be FTP'd in BINARY mode
     o Make sure you have the latest version of the necessary decompression
       utility (v2.04g is the latest version of PKUNZIP for the PC)
     o Make sure you have the relevant battleset in your Harpoon directory
       corresponding to the scenario you wish to use

     ON THE PC:
        o To load the scenario in v1.3x, select the correct battleset and
          use the "[U]ser Scenario" option on the battleset scenario select
          screen.
        o To load the scenario in other versions, select the correct
          battleset and start any of the battleset scenarios. Once that has
          loaded use ALT-F1 to select the user scenario

     ON THE MAC:
          They can't be double clicked (this is a problem with the way
          Harpoon was written, not with the scenarios). No User written
          scenarios can me double click loaded. Launch Harpoon as normal.
          Open a Battleset (make sure its the same one that goes with the
          user written scenario, you can tell which one it is by the first
          4 letters of the name of the scenario file eg. IOPGKR0 would go
          with the IOPG Indian Ocean Battleset). Load any of the scenarios
          from that Battleset (it doesn't matter which). When the scenario
          loads, go to the File Menu, and use the "Load User Scenario"
          command. Command-L will work too. Harpoon will then ask you if
          you want to quit the current game, say yes, and then load the
          user written scenario.
                      - Gary Snow (gsnow@clark.edu)

Anyone want to do an AMIGA treatment ?

QU:  IS THERE A SCENARIO CONVERSION UTILITY ?

ANS: The only scenario convertor available converts from the PC format to
     the MAC format. Details of availability are described in
     section 3. [Ian]

                           ******************
                           7. MINIATURES GAME
                           ******************

Admission here....I didn't find/recognise any answers to FAQs for the
miniatures side of Harpoon - sorry ! Below is a posting from Paul Bravey
(raggy@dcs.warwick.ac.uk) (slightly edited) with a few questions in. I
couldn't find any answers though. Someone let me know if a) these really
are FAQs and b) what the answers are! Thanks, Ian.

QUS: 1) Has anybody got the errata for updating the miniatures harpoon from
        3.0 to 3.1 typed in to save the hassle and time of sending an
        envelope on an umpteen thousand mile round trip?
     2) Are surface to air missiles just too accurate?
     3) Leading on from the last question: are airbursts just too
        effective?
     4) One oddity noticed was that most of the British ships with Sea Dart
        officially can't use them since they haven't got height-finding
        radars! The same thing seems to occur with some older russian
        vessels so can anybody put any light on that?
     5) How does a ballistic device travel when dropped from an aircraft?
        By this I mean how long does it stay at different altitudes?
     6) With sonar, can something be detected in a CZ at any depth or just
        above the layer?
     7) How often do you actually get close enough to actually bother about
        putting miniatures on a board?
     8) Has anybody got a nice program to work out angles and distances
        between objects after being given the courses and speeds to save
        me writing one?
                 - Paul Bravey (raggy@dcs.warwick.ac.uk)

                               **********
                               8. TACTICS
                               **********

QU:  IS THERE ANYTHING YOU CAN DO WHEN A TORPEDO IS APPROACHING ONE OF YOUR
     SHIPS?

ANS: You can try to evade. If you change speed and bearing (and depth for
     submarines) often enough, sometimes you can escape. Speed is usually
     increased to gain distance, but it causes more noise. (A few times I
     have been able to distract torpedoes with noisier targets.) If the
     torpedo uses wire-guidance, attacking the launching platform should
     help. (Though, I am not sure if that is reflected in the game.)
     Sometimes you can just outrun them, especially if you are close to
     maximum range.
                  - Ted Kim (tek@penzance.cs.ucla.edu)

QU:  HOW CAN I GET MY ANTI-SHIP MISSILES TO PENETRATE THE USSR SAM UMBRELLA
     ?

ANS: The best tactic is the bring units in from multiple directions to put
     as much pressure on the defending ships SAM capable ships. A well
     coordinated attack, including a few anti-radar missiles usually gives
     results. [Ian]

ANS: One way is to use a helo or a sub to detect the battle group and move
     in with a sub to knock down the Slava's and Kirov's before the NATO
     group launches it's ASMs/SSMs. To do this there are also a few ways.

     1. Move the subs very close to the group (within the AAW circle) and
        launch their anti-ship missiles.
     2. Good old torpedoes from 1/2 max range.

     Once the SA-N-6 ships are down, they are almost defenceless.

     Another way is to concentrate you missiles to attack the Slava's and
     Kirov's.  Maybe also target a few ships (like the Sovremenny) with
     SSMs too. Leave the Udaloy's alone, they can't do anything.
                  - yuqian@bvc.edu (Suicidal Freshman)

ANS: One method of attack that works is to get the opposing forces to stop
     or to back-track or to at least slow down, before launching tomahawks.
     [a bug ? Ian]. I have also found that it is more successful to launch
     them singly, with a couple of seconds gap between each one. Submarine
     launches at close range have got excellent results- the old wolf-pack
     idea of delaying an attack until you can vector in several units from
     all round the compass works well, particularly with combined TASMs and
     torps.
       - Keith Wain (POSTMASTER@MANADON-ENGINEERING-COLLEGE.AC.UK)

QU:  WHAT ARE THE BEST TACTICS TO EVADE AIR TO AIR MISSILE ATTACKS ?

ANS: The "golden tactic" is to simply turn on the afterburners and run away
     from any enemy missiles as soon as run away).  It seems that the
     Harpoon AI does not use the same tactic for the other side.
           - Markus Stumptner (mst@vexpert.dbai.tuwien.ac.at)

[The AI did in Computer Harpoon v1.1, but it resulted in the computer
almost always escaping when the chances were it should have been hit (very
annoying), so it was disabled. Ian]

ANS: There is also a very good tactics for evading closing missiles that
     can't be outrun.

     1. TURN OFF YOUR RADAR!!!!!!!
     2. Go to VLOW with highest speed possible.
     3. Change course
     4. If missile is still on your tail, zoom to highest possible altitude
        with highest speed.
                  - yuqian@bvc.edu (Suicidal Freshman)

[Remember in Computer Harpoon v1.3x the strike packages will jettison their
loads if "jumped" on by enemy fighters. Ian]

QU:  WHAT STRATEGIES ARE THERE FOR ATTACKING BASES ?

ANS: There are several ways to striking an airbase heavily guarded by sam
     batteries and I'd like to synthesize various strategies, suggested in
     previous issues, and tested on our PC:
     The first idea is to strike with F-18 configured Standoff (ie, armed
     with 'poons) and this guarantee a safety position of attack due to the
     range of 70nm. But the damage inflicted is very poor and the attack
     must protract in time and cannot be quick and effective. Even with
     successive waves of strike we cannot destroy or seriously damage the
     Opfor before 3 or 4 strikes, with a great waste of time and forces.

[Using Harpoons and Tomahawk TASMs against land bases is no longer
 possible in v1.3x of Harpoon (to reflect reality). Ian]

     Better to distinguish the primary from secondary objectives: first,
     we have to blind the enemy, by setting up the Intruder with HARM and
     sending an anti-radar strike (the air coverture is now necessary due
     to the poor defense and manoeuvrability of the A6, as result of many
     tries). Then a more effective attack can be sent arming the A6 with
     Walleye II, as suggested by D. Guidry in a previous issue (Vol. 8,
     Issue 3, Msg. 18). So, with a few bombs we can destroy an airbase
     within a tolerable risk factor.

     In this second case we have to send before the strike a coverture
     group in high altitude (F14 or F15 may works well) to guarantee
     protection for the strikers.

     A third chance is allotted in some scenarios (1990 Strike vs. Libya)
     of MEDC battleset: to strike with F111 configured guided. Here we
     didn't collect many data, but our impression is that the F111 is
     easily intercepted by enemy bandits or by SAM batteries. Very often,
     all squadrons of Aardvark were destroyed or heavily damaged before
     entering in operations area.
                - Andrea Fontana (fontana@pavia.infn.it)

ANS: When striking an airbase using F-111s, try flying them at Vlow
     altitude. According to the Battlebook, the F-111s and Tornados have
     terrain-following radar installed. This is supposed to make it
     possible to fly these planes at Vlow altitude without having them
     crash (but it doesn't appear to always work! [bug? Ian]). Since many
     Soviet-made SAMs cannot intercept planes flying that low, you're
     pretty much immune to SAMs that way. The bad guys and gals will also
     have a much harder time finding your planes on radar.
                    - Greg Brail (gjb@fig.citib.com)

QU:  HOW DO YOU COORDINATE STRIKE PACKAGES TO SIMULTANEOUSLY ARRIVE AT
     A TARGET ?

Both these answers were written with respect to the computer version, but
I guess they can be applied to the paper version too:

ANS: Keith Wain (POSTMASTER@MANADON-ENGINEERING-COLLEGE.AC.UK) told me that
     he was finishing a simple program that would do the necessary
     calculations, as well as a Harpoon hypertext database. Unfortunately
     I have not been able to contact him since, and hence have not been
     able to find out any more. E-mail him if you are interested. [Ian]

ANS: The method I use to coordinate air strikes is quite labour-intensive,
     so I end up spending lots of time planning and punching numbers into
     my calculator. I have made a worksheet that has boxes for all the
     calculations I need to make for each group of aircraft - this makes
     the process much easier and serves as my "air tasking order." In
     general, I find that I can achieve accuracy of +/-30 sec. for simple
     air strikes.  However, the more complex the flight plans and the more
     groups involved, the harder it is to achieve such coordination. Here
     is my method:

     1. ALLOT FORCES - assign aircraft to the mission and ready them with
        appropriate loadouts.
     2. PLAN STRIKE TIMING - determine the time at which the strike should
        begin. (Set the game clock to display current game time) I will
        refer to this time as H-Hour. For each group of planes involved,
        determine the number of minutes after H-Hour at which they should
        strike the target. Record this as "delta." Also, decide upon the
        general direction each group should attack the target from.
     3. PLAN FLIGHT PATHS - decide specific flight paths for each group
        using a series of "navpoints." A navpoint can be any fixed
        reference point on the Group Map, such as the intersection of two
        grid lines or the intersection of a gridline and a coast line.
        Designate one of the navpoints which is in friendly air-space as
        the "hold point" where the aircraft will loiter until it is time
        to send them on to the target. The last point of the course is
        where the final approach to the target will commence. Use as few
        points as possible to save effort and improve precision. Any
        altitude or speed changes required will have to happen at a
        navpoint, so plan accordingly.
     4. CALCULATE FLIGHT TIME - determine the length of each leg of each
        flight path by clicking on each of the navpoints in succession.
        As you do this, the distance between each click is displayed at the
        bottom of the screen. Be as precise as possible! Don't forget to
        find the distance between the launch site and the first navpoint,
        and the distance between the last navpoint and the target itself.
        For each altitude/speed setting of each aircraft type, determine
        the speed (in knots) at which it will travel. (I do this by setting
        up a simple user scenario where I can launch the planes and record
        their speeds in a threat-less environment). Using the formula
        'time = dist./rate', calculate the flight time. Be sure to subtract
        the ordnance range from the total distance. If your aircraft change
        speed in mid-course, you will have to calculate the flight times
        of each part of the course separately an add them up to get the
        total flight time. Multiply your result by 60 to get the time in
        minutes.
     5. CALCULATE LAUNCH TIME
        Launch = H-Hour + delta - flight time - 5 min. to form up
     6. CALCULATE HOLD POINT DEPARTURE TIME - this should be calculated
        down to the second - this is what makes precise strikes possible.
        Do the same calculations as in #4 & #5, but only for the portion
        of the flight path after the hold point.  Also, don't subtract the
        5 minutes of form-up time.
     7. LAUNCH AIRCRAFT - at the calculated time, launch each group of
        aircraft on a patrol mission with the first navpoint as the
        destination.
     8. ENTER FLIGHT PATHS - after each group is launched, use the Group
        Course Editor to lay in the course you planned out by adding each
        of the legs. For the last navpoint, place an attack order. At the
        "hold point," tell the group to loiter. Place any altitude/speed
        orders that you planned for. At point #0, enter a Staff Note that
        says "Send AXA" or something similar. Calculate the time at which
        the message is displayed to be 10 seconds before the group's hold
        point departure time. This will give you time to find the group and
        issue the order to proceed on its course.
     9. From this point onward, manage the forces as they prosecute the
        attack. When the "Send" notes come up, use the Set Group
        Altitude/Speed command to send the groups on to the target.
               - Jonathan L. Reimer (jlr8@po.CWRU.Edu)

QU:  WHAT ARE SUITABLE BATTLE GROUP COMPOSITIONS ?

This bulk of this answer comes from Andrea Fontana (fontana@pavia.infn.it).
There were a few opinions concerning certain aspects of his article, which
I have enclosed in square brackets [...] in the relevant part. As this
subject is subjective, these are not definitive answers. [Ian]

ANS: If we want to escort and protect a surface group, we have first to
     distinguish between the possible threats on it. The areas from which
     an attack can come are obviously three: the sky, the sea and the
     underwater environment. So that the safest choice is to dispose of
     platforms able to counterfire attacks of every type. Moreover we must
     place these platforms in the correct ring of the formation, trying to
     keep the most symmetrical disposition in the sectors in absence of
     bearing information on the enemy: this enhance the probability that
     we have the adequate platform in the threat zone, wherever this is.
     If bearing is known the formation will be modified accordingly. The
     key is then to have some information on the platforms, on theirs
     weapons and attack/defense capability and on theirs best performances
     and lacks, and to manage this information in a smart way.

     Here my suggestions, limited to Red escorts, from the Harpoon internal
     database and from the book: Antony preston, "Fighting Ships", Magna
     Books (1989).

     Let's suppose you have to protect a Soviet carrier group or a Soviet
     surface group with valuable ships, like Kirov, Slava or Kalinin. We
     than have the following scheme.

          ANTI-AIRCRAFT PLATFORMS

     In the AAW ring the defense from aircraft or missile attacks and the
     air attacks will be performed by strong AAW platforms, like the
     cruisers:
          Kara: with SA-N-3B (30nm), SA-N-4 (8nm)
          Slava: with SA-N-4, SA-N-6 (50nm)
       or the frigate
          Krivak II: with SA-N-4

[ About that Krivak II, I believe that just as in the US Navy, the former
Soviet Navy never used frigates in deep sea formations. The Krivak series,
although well armed for it's size, is mainly a platform for patrolling the
territorial seas (i.e., VERY close to shore).

The US Navy does not use frigates for carrier protection because of the
lack of speed, and previously, an overabundance of missile armed
destroyers, but now with all the older missile armed destroyer being phased
out, leaving only the 4 Kidd class destroyers and the "under built" Arleigh
Burke class, we may see frigates preforming carrier escort. Frigates are
many for convoy protection.
              - J. Taggart Gorman (jtgorman@cs.arizona.edu)

[Frigates are mainly used for picket patrols where you speed up a while and
then slow down to use you sonar more effectively.
                - assembly15@bvc.edu (Suicidal Freshman)]

[ Frigates are commonly used in American CVBGs: KNOX class frigates are
used as ASW platforms with their IVDS, SQS-26 sonars, and embarked LAMPS
helicopters while O.H. PERRY class frigates are more general purpose
escorts, being armed with the Mk 13 GMLS, TASS (towed array sonar), and
SH-60 helos. Their "slow" speed (29 knots max in each case) does not
prevent them from operating with the carriers at all: they are relatively
fast when compared to the AOR that accompanies the battlegroup to refuel
and replenish the escorts.
               - Kevin Soutor (ksoutor@unlinfo.unl.edu)]]

     Moreover some of the ships in the main body have a good anti-air
     capability, and here the platform it depends on the type of group we
     want build up. In fact we can have some BCGN like:
        Kirov: with SA-N-4, SA-N-6
        Kalinin: with SA-N-6, SA-N-9 (8nm)
     which can defends themselves, and the carrier itself may use her
     aircraft to counterattack the strike. This depends on the carrier
     type. If we have a Kiev class, better to not use the Forgers which
     have little fighting capability and then rely on the missiles
     autodefense. Whereas if we have an Admiral Kusnetsov class use the
     Fulcrums and the Su27s or the Freestyles, which are able to sustain
     an air combat and have a good AAW missile loadout.

          ANTI-SURFACE PLATFORMS

     The attack of surface groups is left to destroyers like:
        Sovremenny: with SA-N-7 (60nm), SS-N-22 (65nm)
     or again to main body platforms like
        Kirov: with SS-N-19 (250nm), SA-N-6 (Horiz), SA-N-4
        Kalinin: with SS-N-19, SA-N-6
     Again a carrier can launch her aircraft, configured for a surface
     attack, possibly standoff or guided, and the type it depends on
     carrier class. Occasionally we can add to the formation, in the
     pickets, a couple of submarines with ASuW capabilities, like:
        Victor III: with Type 65 torpedo (54nm), Type 53-60 Trp (7.6nm)
        Akula: with Type 65 torpedo

[ Unless Harpoon provides us with the never built successors to the
Kusnetsov, Soviet carriers will very rarely launch surface strike
missions. Since the Kusnetsov barely carries half of the compliment of a
US carrier, and nearly all of these planes are truly fighters, 99% of the
time, the fixed wing assets of a Soviet carrier will be used only in
defense of the carrier, in a CAP-type role. In fact, I believe I read over
in sci.mil that the navalized Fulcrum got cancelled, but I just might be
hallucinating from the midday heat. So that just leaves navalized Flankers.

(To ford off speed boats with RPGs, or an outdated Osa class boat, keep
around a couple of Ka-28s, armed with ATGMs. Those Spandrel missiles will
take out a dinky tub like that and save you a Sunburn.)
             - J. Taggart Gorman (jtgorman@cs.arizona.edu)]

          ANTISUB PLATFORMS

     In the ASW ring, we can place some destroyer like:
        Udaloy: with Set-65 torpedo (11nm), SS-N-14 (30nm),
                                                  RBU 6000 (3.2nm)
     or some cruiser as
        Kara: with Set-65 torpedo, RBU 6000, SS-N-14
        Kresta II: with SS-N-14, RBU 6000
     all with good torpedoes or antisub missiles. Again the main body ships
     can contribute if you have either:
        Kirov: with SS-N-14, RBU 6000
        Kalinin: with RBU 12000 (6nm)
     and a carrier or another ship equipped with helo pad can send her
     helos in searching and hunting the underwater contacts, with antisub
     loadout. Finally, if we add some submarine to the group, we can have
     another ASW platform and here the choice depends on the type of
     scenario and situation you want create.

     That was my proposal to create an effective shield around an important
     soviet surface group. I've still not tried every configuration and
     possibility, but what I've suggested is based on a few experience, a
     few great defeat I sustained and on an attempt of systematic approach
     to the various situations.
                - Andrea Fontana (fontana@pavia.infn.it)

ANS: Larry Cline (lcline@agora.rain.com) crossposted this from
     SCI.MILITARY, detailing an actual US Navy CVBG composition:

     In sci.military, clfpao@nctamslant.navy.mil (CINCLANTFLT PAO) writes:
       NAVY NEWS SERVICE - 21 AUG 1992 - NAVNEWS 035/92
       NNS 1. USS John F. Kennedy Group to Deploy

       WASHINGTON (NNS) -- The USS John F. Kennedy's (CV 67) Battle Group
       will depart on a Mediterranean deployment replacing the Saratoga
       Battle Group. The battle group, composed of 10 Atlantic Fleet ships,
       two submarines and a variety of aviation squadrons, are departing
       early to ensure the continued presence of a carrier battle group in
       the Mediterranean Sea. The Kennedy battle group will consist of:

        Carrier Air Wing Three (CVW 3)  USS Leyte Gulf (CG 55)
        USS Wainwright (CG 28)          USS Gettysburg (CG 64)
        USS Caron (DD 970)              USS Halyburton (FFG 40)
        USS Capodanno (FF 1093)         USS Kalamazoo (AOR 6)
        USS McInerney (FFG 8)           USS Puget Sound (AD 38)
        USS Albuquerque (SSN 706)       USS Seahorse (SSN 669)

       The Kennedy Battle Group will be commanded by RADM James A.  Lair,
       Commander Carrier Group Two.
                 - Larry Cline (lcline@agora.rain.com)


                 **************************************
                 9. QUESTIONS STILL LOOKING FOR ANSWERS
                 **************************************

     o WHY IS THE DIPPING SONAR ON THE NAVAL OSPREY MODELLED AS BEING SO
       EFFECTIVE ?
     o WHY DO AIRCRAFT THAT ARE SUPPOSED TO HAVE TERRAIN FOLLOWING RADAR
       (eg TORNADOs AND F-111s) STILL CRASH AT VLOW ?
     o WHAT IS THE BEST CVBG/SAG DEFENSE AGAINST SUB ATTACKS ?
     o HAS ANYONE WRITTEN ANY KIND OF PROGRAM OR SPREADSHEET TO ASSIST
       HARPOON REFEREE'S IN PERFORMING TEDIOUS, OFTEN REPEATED
       CALCULATIONS?

                                Sources:
                                ~~~~~~~~
The main source of these questions has been postings to the Convergence
Zone mailing list. Also used though were the C.S.I.P.G.S Usenet newsgroup,
Harpoon Battlebook and various Harpoon manuals from Three-Sixty Pacific
Inc.

Full details:

     o CZ issues from volumes 7 to 17, edited by Ted Kim (26 July 1990-22
       April 1993) and Tom Comeau (23 April 1993-)
     o Harpoon manuals (1989-1993), published by Three-Sixty Pacific Inc
     o Harpoon Battlebook by James DeGoey, published by Prima Publishing
       (1991)

Thanks to:   o Ted Kim (TEK@FICUS.CS.UCLA.EDU) } both for all their efforts
             o Tom Comeau (TCOMEAU@STSCI.EDU)  } efforts in moderating CZ
             o All the people above, who have contributed answers to CZ
             o Adam Fugman ex-of Three-Sixty Pacific, Inc.
             o Gavin Rewell (s905066@otto.bf.rmit.oz.au) for giving the
               FAQ the "once over" and some helpful comments

Version 1.0              This Update      : 17 June 1994
                         Original Document: 17 June 1994

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