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Читы для NetHack

Чит-файл для NetHack


 За игрой пока никто не наблюдает. Первым будете?

Выдержка из Энциклопедии игр

Разработчик:Don Kneller/Mike Stephenson
Издатель:Don Kneller/Mike Stephenson
Жанры:RPG (Rogue/Action)

Даты выхода игры

вышла 31 августа 1990 г.


Информация актуальна для
A Guide to the Mazes of Menace

                                   Eric S. Raymond
            (Extensively edited and expanded for 3.0 by Mike Threepoint)
                                 Thyrsus Enterprises
                                  Malvern, PA 19355

          1.  Introduction

               You have just finished your years as a student at the  local
          adventurer's  guild.   After much practice and sweat you have fi-
          nally completed your training and are  ready  to  embark  upon  a
          perilous  adventure.   To prove your worthiness, the local guild-
          masters have sent you into the Mazes of Menace.  Your quest is to
          return  with the Amulet of Yendor.  According to legend, the gods
          will grant immortality to the one  who  recovers  this  artifact;
          true or not, its recovery will bring honor and full guild member-
          ship (not to mention the attentions of certain wealthy wizards).

               Your abilities and strengths for dealing with the hazards of
          adventure will vary with your background and training.

               Archeologists understand dungeons pretty well; this  enables
          them to move quickly and sneak up on dungeon nasties.  They start
          equipped with proper tools for a scientific expedition.

               Barbarians are warriors out of the hinterland,  hardened  to
          battle.   They  begin  their  quests  with  naught  but  uncommon
          strength, a trusty hauberk, and a great two-handed sword.

               Cavemen and Cavewomen start with  exceptional  strength  and
          neolithic weapons.

               Elves are agile, quick, and sensitive; very little  of  what
          goes  on  will escape an Elf.  The quality of Elven craftsmanship
          often gives them an advantage in arms and armor.

               Healers are wise in medicine and the apothecary.  They  know
          the  herbs  and  simples  that  can  restore vitality, ease pain,
          anesthetize, and neutralize poisons; and with their  instruments,
          they  can  divine  a  being's state of health or sickness.  Their
          medical practice earns them quite reasonable  amounts  of  money,
          which they enter the dungeon with.

               Knights are distinguished  from  the  common  skirmisher  by
          their  devotion  to  the ideals of chivalry and by the surpassing
          excellence of their armor.

               Priests and Priestesses are clerics militant, crusaders  ad-
          vancing  the  cause  of  righteousness with arms, armor, and arts
          thaumaturgic.  Their ability to commune with deities  via  prayer
          occasionally  extricates them from peril-but can also put them in

               Rogues are agile and stealthy thieves,  who  carry  daggers,
          lock picks, and poisons to put on darts.

               Samurai are the elite warriors of feudal Nippon.   They  are
          lightly  armored  and  quick, and wear the dai-sho, two swords of
          the deadliest keenness.

               Tourists start out with lots of gold (suitable for  shopping
          with),  a  credit card, lots of food, some maps, and an expensive
          camera.  Most monsters don't like being photographed.

               Valkyries are hardy warrior women.  Their upbringing in  the
          harsh Northlands makes them strong and inures them to extremes of
          cold, and instills in them stealth and cunning.

               Wizards start out with a fair selection of  magical  goodies
          and a particular affinity for dweomercraft.

               You set out for  the  dungeon  and  after  several  days  of
          uneventful  travel,  you  see the ancient ruins that mark the en-
          trance to the Mazes of Menace.  It is late at night, so you  make
          camp  at the entrance and spend the night sleeping under the open
          skies.  In the morning, you gather your gear,  eat  what  may  be
          your last meal outside, and enter the dungeon.

          2.  What is going on here?

               You have just begun a game of NetHack.  Your goal is to grab
          as  much  treasure as you can, retrieve the Amulet of Yendor, and
          escape the Mazes of Menace alive.  On the screen is kept a map of
          where you have been and what you have seen on the current dungeon
          level; as you explore more of the level, it appears on the screen
          in front of you.

               When NetHack's ancestor rogue  first  appeared,  its  screen
          orientation  was  almost  unique  among  computer  fantasy games.
          Since then, screen orientation has become the  norm  rather  than
          the  exception;  NetHack  continues  this fine tradition.  Unlike
          text adventure games that input commands in  pseudo-English  sen-
          tences and explain the results in words, NetHack commands are all
          one or two keystrokes and the results are  displayed  graphically
          on  the  screen.  A minimum screen size of 24 lines by 80 columns
          is recommended; if the screen is larger,  only  a  21x80  section
          will be used for the map.

               NetHack generates a new dungeon every time you play it; even
          the  authors  still  find  it  an  entertaining and exciting game

          despite having won several times.

          3.  What do all those things on the screen mean?

               In order to understand what is going on  in  NetHack,  first
          you  must  understand what NetHack is doing with the screen.  The
          NetHack screen replaces the ``You see...'' descriptions  of  text
          adventure  games.   Figure 1 is a sample of what a NetHack screen
          might look like.

           The bat bites!

               |....|    ----------
               |....-#   |...B....+
               |....|    |.d......|
               ------    -------|--

           Player the Rambler         St:12 Dx:7 Co:18 In:11 Wi:9 Ch:15  Neutral
           Dlvl:1 G:0  HP:9(12) Pw:3(3) AC:10 Xp:1/19 T:257 Weak

                                      Figure 1

          3.1.  The status lines (bottom)

               The bottom two lines of the screen contain  several  cryptic
          pieces  of information describing your current status.  If either
          status line becomes longer than the  width  of  the  screen,  you
          might not see all of it.  Here are explanations of what the vari-
          ous status items mean (though your configuration may not have all
          the status items listed below):

               Your character's name and professional ranking (based on the
               experience level, see below).

               A measure of your character's  strength,  one  of  your  six
               basic  attributes.   Your  attributes can range from 3 to 18
               inclusive (occasionally you may get super-strengths  of  the
               form  18/xx).   The  higher  your strength, the stronger you
               are.  Strength affects how successfully you perform physical
               tasks and how much damage you do in combat.

               Dexterity affects your chances to hit in  combat,  to  avoid
               traps,  and do other tasks requiring agility or manipulation
               of objects.

               Constitution affects your ability to  withstand  injury  and
               other strains on your stamina.

               Intelligence affects your ability to cast spells.

               Wisdom comes from your religious affairs.  It  affects  your
               magical energy.

               Charisma affects how certain creatures react toward you.  In
               particular, it can affect the prices shopkeepers offer you.

               Lawful, Neutral, or Chaotic.  Basically, Lawful is good  and
               Chaotic  is  evil.  Your alignment influences how other mon-
               sters react toward you.

          Dungeon Level
               How deep you have gone into the dungeon.  It starts  at  one
               and increases as you go deeper into the dungeon.  The Amulet
               of Yendor is reputed to be somewhere beneath  the  twentieth

               The number of gold pieces you have.

          Hit Points
               Your current and maximum hit points.   Hit  points  indicate
               how  much  damage you can take before you die.  The more you
               get hit in a fight, the lower they get.  You can regain  hit
               points by resting.  The number in parentheses is the maximum
               number your hit points can reach.

               Spell points.  This tells you how much mystic energy  (mana)
               you  have available for spell casting.  When you type `+' to
               list your spells, each will have a spell point  cost  beside
               it  in  parentheses.   You will not see this if your dungeon
               has been set up without spells.

          Armor Class
               A measure of how effectively your armor stops blows from un-
               friendly  creatures.  The lower this number is, the more ef-
               fective the armor; it is quite possible to have negative ar-
               mor class.

               Your current experience level and experience points.  As you
               adventure,  you  gain experience points.  At certain experi-
               ence point totals, you gain an experience level.   The  more
               experienced  you  are,  the  better  you fight and withstand
               magical attacks.  Many dungeons show  only  your  experience
               level here.

               The number of turns elapsed so far, displayed  if  you  have
               the time option set.

          Hunger status
               Your current hunger status, ranging from  Satiated  down  to
               Fainting.   If  your  hunger  status  is  normal,  it is not

               Additional status flags may appear after the hunger  status:
          Conf  when  you're confused, Sick when sick, Blind when you can't
          see, Stun when stunned, and Hallu when hallucinating.

          3.2.  The message line (top)

               The top line of the screen is  reserved  for  messages  that
          describe  things  that  are impossible to represent visually.  If
          you see a ``--More--'' on the top line, this means  that  NetHack
          has  another  message  to  display on the screen, but it wants to
          make certain that you've read the one that is  there  first.   To
          read the next message, just press the space bar.

          3.3.  The map (rest of the screen)

               The rest of the screen is the map of the level as  you  have
          explored  it  so far.  Each symbol on the screen represents some-
          thing.  You can set the graphics option to  change  some  of  the
          symbols  the game uses; otherwise, the game will use default sym-
          bols.  Here is a list of what the default symbols mean:

          - and |
               The walls of a room, or an open door.

          .    The floor of a room, or a doorless doorway.

          #    A corridor, or possibly a kitchen  sink  or  drawbridge  (if
               your dungeon has sinks).

          <    A way to the previous level.

          >    A way to the next level.

          +    A closed door, or a spell book containing a  spell  you  can
               learn (if your dungeon has spell books).

          @    A human (you, usually).

          $    A pile of gold.

          ^    A trap (once you detect it).

          )    A weapon.

          [    A suit or piece of armor.

          %    A piece of food (not necessarily healthy).

          ?    A scroll.

          /    A wand.

          =    A ring.

          !    A potion.

          (    A useful item (pick-axe, key, lamp...).

          "    An amulet, or a spider web.

          *    A gem or rock (possibly valuable, possibly worthless).

          `    A boulder or statue.

          0    An iron ball.

              An altar, or an iron chain.

          }    A pool of water or moat or a pool of lava.

          {    A fountain (your dungeon may not have fountains).

          \    An opulent throne (your dungeon may  not  have  thrones  ei-

          a-zA-Z and other symbols
               Letters and certain other symbols represent the various  in-
               habitants  of  the  Mazes of Menace.  Watch out, they can be
               nasty and vicious.  Sometimes, however, they can be helpful.

               You need not memorize all these symbols;  you  can  ask  the
          game  what  any  symbol  represents with the `/' command (see the
          Commands section for more info).

          4.  Commands

               Commands are given to NetHack by typing one or  two  charac-
          ters;  NetHack  then  asks questions to find out what it needs to
          know to do your bidding.

               For example, a common question, in the form  ``What  do  you
          want  to use? [a-zA-Z ?*]'', asks you to choose an object you are
          carrying.  Here, ``a-zA-Z'' are the  inventory  letters  of  your
          possible  choices.   Typing  `?'  gives  you an inventory list of
          these items, so you can see what each letter refers to.  In  this
          example,  there  is  also a `*' indicating that you may choose an
          object not on the list, if you wanted to use something  unexpect-
          ed.  Typing a `*' lists your entire inventory, so you can see the
          inventory letters of every object you're carrying.   Finally,  if
          you change your mind and decide you don't want to do this command
          after all, you can press the ESC key to abort the command.

               You can put a number before most  commands  to  repeat  them
          that  many times; for example, ``10s'' will search ten times.  If
          you have the numberpad option set, you must type `n' to prefix a
          count,  so  the  example  above  would be typed ``n10s'' instead.
          Commands for which counts make no sense ignore  them.   In  addi-
          tion,  movement commands can be prefixed for greater control (see
          below).  To cancel a count or a prefix, press the ESC key.

               The list of commands is rather long, but it can be  read  at
          any  time during the game through the `?' command, which accesses
          a menu of helpful texts.  Here are the commands for  your  refer-

          ?    Help menu:  display one of several help texts available.

          /    Tell what a symbol represents.  You may choose to specify  a
               location  or type a symbol (or even a whole word) to define.
               If the help option is on, and NetHack has some  special  in-
               formation  about  an  object  or monster that you looked at,
               you'll be asked if you want ``More info?''.  If help is off,
               then  you'll  only get the special information if you expli-
               citly ask for it by typing in the name of the monster or ob-

          &    Tell what a command does.

          <    Go up a staircase to the previous level (if you are  on  the

          >    Go down a staircase to the next level (if  you  are  on  the

               Go one step in the direction indicated (see Figure  2).   If
               there  is  a  monster  there, you will fight the monster in-
               stead.  Only these one-step movement commands cause  you  to
               fight monsters; the others (below) are ``safe.''

                               y  k  u            7  8  9
                                \ | /              \ | /
                               h- . -l            4- . -6
                                / | \              / | \
                               b  j  n            1  2  3
                                           (if numberpad is set)

                                         Figure 2

               Go in that direction until you hit a wall or run into  some-

               Prefix:  move without picking up any objects.

               Prefix:  move far, no pickup.

               Prefix:  move until something interesting is found.

          G[yuhjklbn] or [yuhjklbn]
               Prefix:  same as `g', but forking of corridors is  not  con-
               sidered interesting.

          .    Rest, do nothing for one turn.

          a    Apply (use) a tool (pick-axe, key, lamp...).

          A    Remove all armor.  Use `T' (take off) to take off  only  one
               piece of armor.

          ^A   Redo the previous command.

          c    Close a door.

          C    Call (name) an individual monster.

          ^C   Panic button.  Quit the game.

          d    Drop something.  Ex. ``d7a'' means drop seven items  of  ob-
               ject a.

          D    Drop several things.  In answer to the question ``What kinds
               of  things  do  you want to drop? [!%= au]'' you should type
               zero or more object symbols possibly followed by `a'  and/or

               Da  - drop all objects, without asking for confirmation.
               Du  - drop only unpaid objects (when in a shop).
               D%u - drop only unpaid food.

          ^D   Kick something (usually a door).

          e    Eat food.

          E    Engrave a message on the floor.  Engraving  the  word  ``El-
               bereth''  will  cause  most monsters to not attack you hand-
               to-hand (but if you attack, you will rub it  out);  this  is
               often useful to give yourself a breather.  (This feature may
               be compiled out of the  game,  so  your  version  might  not
               necessarily have it.)

               E- - write in the dust with your fingers.

          i    List your inventory (everything you're carrying).

          I    List selected parts of your inventory.

               I* - list all gems in inventory;
               Iu - list all unpaid items;
               Ix - list all used up items that are on your shopping bill;
               I$ - count your money.

          o    Open a door.

          O    Set options.  You will be asked to enter an option line.  If
               you  enter  a  blank line, the current options are reported.
               Entering `?' will get you explanations of  the  various  op-
               tions.   Otherwise,  you  should  enter  a  list  of options
               separated by commas.  The available options are listed later
               in this Guidebook.  Options are usually set before the game,
               not with the `O' command; see the section on options below.

          p    Pay your shopping bill.

          P    Put on a ring.

          ^P   Repeat previous message (subsequent ^P's repeat earlier mes-

          q    Quaff (drink) a potion.

          Q    Quit the game.

          r    Read a scroll or spell book.

          R    Remove a ring.

          ^R   Redraw the screen.

          s    Search for secret doors and traps around  you.   It  usually
               takes several tries to find something.

          S    Save the game.  The game will be restored automatically  the
               next time you play.

          t    Throw an object or shoot a projectile.

          T    Take off armor.

          ^T   Teleport, if you have the ability.

          v    Display version number.

          V    Display the game history.

          w    Wield weapon.  w- means wield nothing, use your bare hands.

          W    Wear armor.

          x    List the spells you know (same as `+').

          X    Enter explore (discovery) mode.

          z    Zap a wand.

          Z    Zap (cast) a spell.

          ^Z   Suspend the game (UNIX(R) versions with job control only).

          :    Look at what is here.

          ,    Pick up some things.

          @    Toggle the pickup option on and off.

          ^    Ask for the type of a trap you found earlier.

          )    Tell what weapon you are wielding.

          [    Tell what armor you are wearing.

          =    Tell what rings you are wearing.

          "    Tell what amulet you are wearing.

          (    Tell what tools you are using.

          $    Count your gold pieces.

          +    List the spells you know (same as `x').

          \    Show what types of objects have been discovered.

          !    Escape to a shell.

          #    Perform an extended command.  As you can see, the authors of
               NetHack  used up all the letters, so this is a way to intro-
               duce the less useful commands, or commands used under limit-
               ed circumstances.  You may obtain a list of them by entering
               `?'.  What extended commands are available  depend  on  what
               features the game was compiled with.

               If your keyboard has a meta key (which, when pressed in com-
          bination  with  another  key,  modifies  it by setting the `meta'
          [8th, or `high'] bit), you can invoke the  extended  commands  by
          meta-ing  the  first  letter of the command.  In OS/2, PC, and ST

          (R)UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

          NetHack, the `Alt' key can be used in this fashion.

          M-a  Adjust inventory letters (the fixinv option must  be  ``on''
               to do this).

          M-c  Talk to someone.

          M-d  Dip an object into something.

          M-f  Force a lock.

          M-i  Invoke an object's special powers.

          M-j  Jump to another location.

          M-l  Loot a box on the floor.

          M-m  Use a monster's special ability.

          M-n  Name an item or type of object.

          M-o  Offer a sacrifice to the gods.

          M-p  Pray to the gods for help.

          M-r  Rub a lamp.

          M-s  Sit down.

          M-t  Turn undead.

          M-u  Untrap something (usually a trapped object).

          M-v  Print compile time options for this version of NetHack.

          M-w  Wipe off your face.

               If the numberpad option is on, some additional letter  com-
          mands are available:

          j    Jump to another location.  Same as ``#jump'' or ``M-j''.

          k    Kick something (usually a door).  Same as `^D'.

          l    Loot a box on the floor.  Same as ``#loot'' or ``M-l''.

          N    Name an item or type of object.  Same as ``#name''  or  ``M-

          u    Untrap a trapped object or door.   Same  as  ``#untrap''  or

          5.  Rooms and corridors

               Rooms and corridors in the dungeon are either lit  or  dark.
          Any  lit  areas within your line of sight will be displayed; dark
          areas are only displayed if they are within  one  space  of  you.
          Walls and corridors remain on the map as you explore them.

               Secret corridors are hidden.  You can find them with the `s'
          (search) command.

          5.1.  Doorways

               Doorways connect rooms and corridors.  Some doorways have no
          doors;  you  can  walk right through.  Others have doors in them,
          which may be open, closed, or locked.  To open a closed door, use
          the  `o'  (open)  command; to close it again, use the `c' (close)

               You can get through a locked door by using a  tool  to  pick
          the lock with the `a' (apply) command, or by kicking it open with
          the `^D' (kick) command.

               Open doors cannot be entered diagonally; you  must  approach
          them  straight  on, horizontally or vertically.  Doorways without
          doors are not restricted.

               Doors can be useful for shutting out  monsters.   Most  mon-
          sters cannot open doors, although a few don't need to (ex. ghosts
          can walk through doors).

               Secret doors are hidden.  You can find  them  with  the  `s'
          (search) command.

          5.2.  Traps (`^')

               There are traps throughout the dungeon to snare  the  unwary
          delver.   For  example,  you  may suddenly fall into a pit and be
          stuck for a few turns.  Traps don't appear on your map until  you
          see  one triggered by moving onto it, or you discover it with the
          `s' (search) command.  Monsters can fall prey to traps, too.

          6.  Monsters

               Monsters you cannot see are not  displayed  on  the  screen.
          Beware!   You  may  suddenly come upon one in a dark place.  Some
          magic items can help you locate  them  before  they  locate  you,
          which some monsters do very well.

          6.1.  Fighting

               If you see a monster and you wish to fight it, just  attempt
          to  walk  into  it.   Many  monsters you find will mind their own
          business unless you attack them.  Some of them are very dangerous
          when angered.  Remember:  Discretion is the better part of valor.

          6.2.  Your pet

               You start the game with a little dog  (`d')  or  cat  (`f'),
          which follows you about the dungeon and fights monsters with you.
          Like you, your pet needs food to survive.  It usually  feeds  it-
          self  on  fresh carrion and other meats.  If you're worried about
          it or want to train it, you can feed  it,  too,  by  throwing  it

               Your pet also gains experience from  killing  monsters,  and
          can  grow  over  time,  gaining hit points and doing more damage.
          Initially, your pet may even be better  at  killing  things  than
          you, which makes pets useful for low-level characters.

               Your pet will follow you up and down staircases,  if  it  is
          next to you when you move.  Otherwise, your pet will be stranded,
          and may become wild.

          6.3.  Ghost levels

               You may encounter the shades and corpses of other  adventur-
          ers (or even former incarnations of yourself!) and their personal
          effects.  Ghosts are hard to  kill,  but  easy  to  avoid,  since
          they're  slow and do little damage.  You can plunder the deceased
          adventurer's possessions; however, they are likely to be  cursed.
          Beware of whatever killed the former player.

          7.  Objects

               When you find something in the dungeon, it is common to want
          to pick it up.  In NetHack, this is accomplished automatically by
          walking over the object (unless you turn off  the  pickup  option
          (see below), or move with the `m' prefix (see above)), or manual-
          ly by using the `,' command.  If you're carrying too many things,
          NetHack will tell you so and won't pick up anything more.  Other-
          wise, it will add the object(s) to your pack and  tell  you  what
          you just picked up.

               When you pick up an object,  it  is  assigned  an  inventory
          letter.   Many  commands  that operate on objects must ask you to
          find out which object you want to use.  When NetHack asks you  to
          choose  a  particular  object  you  are carrying, you are usually
          presented with a list of inventory letters to  choose  from  (see
          Commands, above).

               Some objects, such as weapons,  are  easily  differentiated.
          Others,  like  scrolls  and potions, are given descriptions which
          vary according to type.  During a game, any two objects with  the
          same  description  are  the same type.  However, the descriptions
          will vary from game to game.

               When you use one of these objects, if its effect is obvious,
          NetHack  will  remember  what it is for you.  If its effect isn't
          extremely obvious, you will be asked what you want to  call  this
          type  of object so you will recognize it later.  You can also use
          the ``#name'' command for the same purpose at any time,  to  name
          all objects of a particular type or just an individual object.

          7.1.  Curses and blessings

               Any object that you find may be cursed, even if  the  object
          is otherwise helpful.  The most common effect of a curse is being
          stuck with (and to) the item.  Cursed weapons weld themselves  to
          your  hand  when wielded, so you cannot unwield them.  Any cursed
          item you wear is not removable by ordinary means.   In  addition,
          cursed  arms and armor usually, but not always, bear negative en-
          chantments that make them less effective in combat.  Other cursed
          objects may act poorly or detrimentally in other ways.

               Objects can also become blessed.  Blessed items usually work
          better  or more beneficially than normal uncursed items.  For ex-
          ample, a blessed weapon will do more damage against demons.

               There are magical means of bestowing or removing curses upon
          objects,  so  even  if you are stuck with one, you can still have
          the curse lifted and the item removed.  Priests  and  Priestesses
          have  an  innate sensitivity to curses and blessings, so they can
          more easily avoid cursed objects than other character classes.

               An item with unknown curse status, and  an  item  which  you
          know  to  be uncursed, will be distinguished in your inventory by
          the presence of the word ``uncursed'' in the description  of  the
          latter.   The  exception is if this description isn't needed; you
          can look at the inventory description  and  know  that  you  have
          discovered whether it's cursed.  This applies to items which have
          ``plusses,'' and items with charges.

          7.2.  Weapons (`)')

               Given a chance, almost all monsters in the Mazes  of  Menace
          will  gratuitously  kill  you.  You need weapons for self-defense
          (killing them first).  Without a weapon,  you  do  only  1-2  hit
          points of damage (plus bonuses, if any).

               There are wielded weapons, like maces and swords, and thrown
          weapons,  like  arrows.   To hit monsters with a weapon, you must
          wield it and attack them, or throw it at them.  To shoot an arrow
          out of a bow, you must first wield the bow, then throw the arrow.
          Crossbows shoot crossbow bolts.  Slings hurl  rocks  and  (other)
          gems.   You  can  wield  only  one  weapon at a time, but you can
          change weapons unless you're wielding a cursed one.

               Enchanted weapons have a  ``plus''  (which  can  also  be  a
          minus) that adds to your chance to hit and the damage you do to a
          monster.  The only way to find out if a weapon is enchanted is to
          have it magically identified somehow.

               Those of you in the audience who are AD&D players, be  aware
          that  each  weapon  which  exists in AD&D does the same damage to
          monsters in NetHack.  Some of the more obscure weapons  (such  as
          the  aklys,  lucern  hammer, and bec-de-corbin) are defined in an
          appendix to Unearthed Arcana, an AD&D supplement.

               The commands to use weapons are `w' (wield) and `t' (throw).

          7.3.  Armor (`[')

               Lots of unfriendly things lurk about; you need armor to pro-
          tect yourself from their blows.  Some types of armor offer better
          protection than others.  Your armor class is a  measure  of  this
          protection.  Armor class (AC) is measured as in AD&D, with 10 be-
          ing the equivalent of no armor, and lower numbers meaning  better
          armor.   Each  suit  of armor which exists in AD&D gives the same
          protection in NetHack.  Here is an (incomplete) list of the armor
          classes provided by various suits of armor:

                             dragon scale mail         1
                             plate mail                3
                             bronze plate mail         4
                             splint mail               4
                             banded mail               4
                             elven mithril-coat        5
                             chain mail                5
                             scale mail                6
                             ring mail                 7
                             studded leather armor     7
                             leather armor             8
                             no armor                 10

               You can also wear other pieces of armor (ex. helmets, boots,
          shields,  cloaks) to lower your armor class even further, but you
          can only wear one item of each category (one suit of  armor,  one
          cloak, one helmet, one shield, and so on).

               If a piece of armor is enchanted, its armor protection  will
          be  better  (or  worse)  than normal, and its ``plus'' (or minus)
          will subtract from your armor class.  For  example,  a  +1  chain
          mail  would  give  you  better protection than normal chain mail,
          lowering your armor class one unit further to 4.  When you put on
          a  piece  of  armor, you immediately find out the armor class and
          any ``plusses'' it provides.  Cursed pieces of armor usually have
          negative enchantments (minuses) in addition to being unremovable.

               The commands to use armor are `W' (wear) and `T' (take off).

          7.4.  Food (`%')

               Food is necessary to survive.  If you go  too  long  without
          eating   you  will  faint,  and  eventually  die  of  starvation.

          Unprotected food does not stay fresh indefinitely; after a  while
          it will spoil, and be unhealthy to eat.  Food stored in ice boxes
          or tins (``cans'' to you Americans) will usually stay fresh,  but
          ice boxes are heavy, and tins take a while to open.

               When you kill monsters, they usually leave corpses which are
          also ``food.''  Many, but not all, of these are edible; some also
          give you special powers when you eat them.  A good rule of  thumb
          is ``you are what you eat.''

               You can name one food item after something you like  to  eat
          with the fruit option, if your dungeon has it.

               The command to eat food is `e'.

          7.5.  Scrolls (`?')

               Scrolls are labeled with various titles, probably chosen  by
          ancient  wizards  for  their amusement value (ex. ``READ ME,'' or
          ``HOLY BIBLE'' backwards).  Scrolls disappear after you read them
          (except for blank ones, without magic spells on them).

               One of the most useful of these is the scroll  of  identify,
          which can be used to determine what another object is, whether it
          is cursed or blessed, and how many uses it has  left.   Some  ob-
          jects  of  subtle  enchantment  are difficult to identify without

               If you receive mail while you are playing (on versions  com-
          piled with this feature), a mail daemon may run up and deliver it
          to you as a scroll of mail.  To use this feature,  you  must  let
          NetHack  know  where to look for new mail by setting the ``MAIL''
          environment variable to the file name of your mailbox.   You  may
          also  want  to set the ``MAILREADER'' environment variable to the
          file name of your favorite reader, so NetHack  can  shell  to  it
          when you read the scroll.

               The command to read a scroll is `r'.

          7.6.  Potions (`!')

               Potions are distinguished by the color of the liquid  inside
          the flask.  They disappear after you quaff them.

               Clear potions are potions of  water.   Sometimes  these  are
          blessed or cursed, resulting in holy or unholy water.  Holy water
          is the bane of the undead, so potions  of  holy  water  are  good
          thing  to  throw  (`t') at them.  It also is very useful when you
          dip (``#dip'') other objects in it.

               The command to drink a potion is `q' (quaff).

          7.7.  Wands (`/')

               Magic wands have multiple magical charges.  Some  wands  are
          directional-you  must  give  a direction to zap them in.  You can
          also zap them at yourself (just give a `.' or `s' for the  direc-
          tion),  but  it is often unwise.  Other wands are nondirectional-
          they don't ask for directions.  The number of charges in  a  wand
          is random, and decreases by one whenever you use it.

               The command to use a wand is `z' (zap).

          7.8.  Rings (`=')

               Rings are very useful items, since they are relatively  per-
          manent  magic,  unlike  the  usually fleeting effects of potions,
          scrolls, and wands.

               Putting on a ring activates its magic.  You  can  wear  only
          two rings, one on each ring finger.

               Most rings also cause you to grow hungry more  rapidly,  the
          rate varying with the type of ring.

               The commands to use rings are `P' (put on) and `R' (remove).

          7.9.  Spell books (`+')

               Spell books are tomes of mighty magic.   When  studied  with
          the  `r'  (read)  command,  they bestow the knowledge of a spell-
          unless the attempt backfires.  Reading a cursed  spell  book,  or
          one  with  mystic  runes  beyond  your ken can be harmful to your

               A spell can also backfire when you cast it.  If you  attempt
          to cast a spell well above your experience level, or cast it at a
          time when your luck is particularly bad, you can end  up  wasting
          both the energy and the time required in casting.

               Casting a spell calls forth  magical  energies  and  focuses
          them with your naked mind.  Releasing the magical energy releases
          some of your memory of the spell with it.  Each time you  cast  a
          spell, your familiarity with it will dwindle, until you eventual-
          ly forget the details completely and must relearn it.

               The command to read a spell book is the same as for scrolls,
          `r'  (read).   The  `+' command lists your current spells and the
          number of spell points they  require.   The  `Z'  (cast)  command
          casts a spell.

          7.10.  Tools (`(')

               Tools are miscellaneous objects with various purposes.  Some
          tools,  like  wands, have a limited number of uses.  For example,
          lamps burn out after a while.  Other tools are containers,  which
          objects can be placed into or taken out of.

               The command to use tools is `a' (apply).

          7.10.1.  Chests and boxes

               You may encounter chests or boxes in  your  travels.   These
          can  be  opened with the ``#loot'' extended command when they are
          on the floor, or with the `a' (apply) command when you are carry-
          ing  one.   However,  chests are often locked, and require you to
          either use a key to unlock it, a tool to pick  the  lock,  or  to
          break it open with brute force.  Chests are unwieldy objects, and
          must be set down to be unlocked (by kicking them, using a key  or
          lock  picking  tool  with  the `a' (apply) command, or by using a
          weapon to force the lock with the ``#force'' extended command).

               Some chests are trapped, causing nasty things to happen when
          you unlock or open them.  You can check for and try to deactivate
          traps with the ``#untrap'' extended command.

          7.11.  Amulets (`"')

               Amulets are very similar to rings, and often more  powerful.
          Like rings, amulets have various magical properties, some benefi-
          cial, some harmful, which are activated by putting them on.

               The commands to use amulets are the same as for  rings,  `P'
          (put on) and `R' (remove).

          7.12.  Gems (`*')

               Some gems are valuable, and can be sold for a  lot  of  gold
          pieces.  Valuable gems increase your score if you bring them with
          you when you exit.  Other small rocks  are  also  categorized  as
          gems, but they are much less valuable.

          7.13.  Large rocks (``')

               Statues and boulders are not particularly  useful,  and  are
          generally  heavy.   It  is rumored that some statues are not what
          they seem.

          7.14.  Gold (`$')

               Gold adds to your score, and you can  buy  things  in  shops
          with  it.   Your version of NetHack may display how much gold you
          have on the status line.  If not, the `$' command will count it.

          8.  Options

               Due to variations in personal tastes and conceptions of  how
          NetHack should do things, there are options you can set to change
          how NetHack behaves.

          8.1.  Setting the options

               Options may be set in a number of ways.   Within  the  game,
          the `O' command allows you to view all options and change most of
          them.  You can also set options automatically by placing them  in
          the  NETHACKOPTIONS environment variable or a configuration file.
          Some versions of NetHack also have front-end programs that  allow
          you to set options before starting the game.

          8.2.  Using the NETHACKOPTIONS environment variable

               The NETHACKOPTIONS variable is a comma-separated list of in-
          itial values for the various options.  Some can only be turned on
          or off.  You turn one of these on by adding the name of  the  op-
          tion  to  the list, and turn it off by typing a `!' or ``no'' be-
          fore the name.  Others take a character string as a  value.   You
          can  set  string  options by typing the option name, a colon, and
          then the value of the string.  The value  is  terminated  by  the
          next comma or the end of string.

               For example, to set up an environment variable so that ``fe-
          male''  is  on,  ``pickup''  is  off,  the  name is set to ``Blue
          Meanie'', and the fruit is set to ``papaya'', you would enter the

               % setenv NETHACKOPTIONS "female,!pickup,name:Blue

          in csh, or

               $ NETHACKOPTIONS="female,!pickup,name:Blue Meanie,fruit:papaya"
               $ export NETHACKOPTIONS

          in sh or ksh.

          8.3.  Using a configuration file

               Any line in  the  configuration  file  starting  with  ``OP-
          TIONS=''  may be filled out with options in the same syntax as in
          NETHACKOPTIONS.  Any line  starting  with  ``GRAPHICS='',  ``MON-
          STERS='', or ``OBJECTS='' is taken as defining the graphics, mon-
          sters, or objects options in a different syntax,  a  sequence  of
          decimal numbers giving the character position in the current font
          to be used in displaying each entry.  Such a sequence can be con-
          tinued to multiple lines by putting a `\' at the end of each line
          to be continued.  Any line starting with `#' is treated as a com-

               The default name of the configuration file  varies  on  dif-
          ferent  operating  systems, but NETHACKOPTIONS can also be set to
          the full name of a file you want to use (possibly preceded by  an

          8.4.  Customization options

               Here are explanations of the various options do.   Character
          strings  longer than fifty characters are truncated.  Some of the
          options listed may be inactive in your dungeon.

               Use BIOS calls to update the screen display quickly  and  to
               read  the  keyboard (allowing the use of arrow keys to move)
               on machines with an IBM PC compatible BIOS ROM (default off,
               OS/2, PC, and ST NetHack only).

               Name your starting cat (ex. ``catname:Morris'').  Cannot  be
               set with the `O' command.

               Save game  state  after  each  level  change,  for  possible
               recovery after program crash (default on).

               Use color  for  different  monsters,  objects,  and  dungeon
               features (default on for microcomputers).

               Have user confirm attacks on pets,  shopkeepers,  and  other
               peaceable creatures (default on).

               Use a predefined selection of characters from  the  DEC  VT-
               xxx/DEC  Rainbow/ ANSI line-drawing character set to display
               the dungeon instead of having to define a full graphics  set
               yourself (default off).  Cannot be set with the `O' command.

               Offer to identify your inventory  and  intrinsics  when  the
               game ends (default on).

               Name your starting dog (ex.  ``dogname:Fang'').   Cannot  be
               set with the `O' command.

               Set your sex (default off).  Cannot be set with the `O' com-

               An object's inventory letter sticks to it when it's  dropped
               (default on).  If this is off, dropping an object shifts all
               the remaining inventory letters.

               Name  a  fruit  after  something  you  enjoy   eating   (ex.
               ``fruit:mango'')   (default  ``slime  mold''.   Basically  a
               nostalgic whimsy that NetHack uses from time to  time.   You
               should  set  this to something you find more appetizing than
               slime mold.  Apples, oranges, pears, bananas, and melons al-
               ready exist in NetHack, so don't use those.

               Set the graphics symbols for screen displays (default `` |--
               ------||.-|++.##<><>\^"\\#{}.}..## #}|-\\/*!)(0#@*/-\\||\\-
               //-\\| |\\-/'').  If specified, the graphics  option  should
               come  last,  followed  by  a string of 1-69 characters to be
               used instead of the  default  map-drawing  characters.   The
               dungeon  map  will use the characters you specify instead of
               the default symbols.  Remember that you may need  to  escape
               some of these characters if, for example, you use csh.

               The  DECgraphics  and  IBMgraphics  options  use  predefined
               selections  of  graphics  symbols, so you need not go to the
               trouble of setting up a full graphics string for these  com-
               mon cases.  These two options also set up proper handling of
               graphics characters for such terminals, so you should speci-
               fy  them  as appropriate even if you override the selections
               with your own graphics string.

               Note that this option string is now escape-processed in con-
               ventional  C  fashion.   This  means that `\' is a prefix to
               take the following character literally, and not as a special
               prefix.   Your  graphics  strings  for NetHack 2.2 and older
               versions may contain a `\'; it must be doubled for the  same
               effect  now.   The  special escape form `\m' switches on the
               meta bit in the following  character,  and  the  `^'  prefix
               causes  the  following  character to be treated as a control
               character (so any `^' in your old graphics strings should be
               changed to `\^' now).  Also note that there are more symbols
               in a different order than used for NetHack 3.0.

               The order of the symbols is: solid rock, vertical wall, hor-
               izontal  wall,  upper left corner, upper right corner, lower
               left corner, lower right corner, cross wall, upward T  wall,
               downward T wall, leftward T wall, rightward T wall, no door,
               vertical open door, horizontal open  door,  vertical  closed
               door,  horizontal  closed door, floor of a room, dark corri-
               dor, lit corridor, stairs up, stairs down, ladder up, ladder
               down, trap, web, altar, throne, kitchen sink, fountain, pool
               or moat, ice, lava, vertical lowered drawbridge,  horizontal
               lowered  drawbridge,  vertical raised drawbridge, horizontal
               raised drawbridge, air, cloud, under water,  vertical  beam,
               horizontal beam, left slant, right slant, digging beam, cam-
               era flash beam, left boomerang, right boomerang, four glyphs
               giving the sequence for magic resistance displays; the eight
               surrounding glyphs for swallowed display;  nine  glyphs  for
               explosions.   An explosion consists of three rows (top, mid-
               dle, and bottom) of three characters.  The explosion is cen-
               tered in the center of this 3 by 3 array.

               You might want to use `+' for the corners and T walls for  a
               more  aesthetic,  boxier  display.   Note  that  in the next
               release, new symbols may be added, or the present ones rear-

               Cannot be set with the `O' command.

          help If more information is available for  an  object  looked  at
               with  the  `/'  command,  ask if you want to see it (default
               on). Turning help off makes just looking at  things  faster,
               since you aren't interrupted with the ``More info?'' prompt,
               but it also means  that  you  might  miss  some  interesting
               and/or important information.

               Highlight pets when color is turned off (default off).

               Use a predefined selection of IBM extended ASCII  characters
               to  display  the  dungeon instead of having to define a full
               graphics set yourself (default off).  Cannot be set with the
               `O' command.

               Ignore interrupt signals, including breaks (default off).

               Display an introductory message when starting the game  (de-
               fault on).

               Show corridor squares seen by night vision or a light source
               held by your character as lit (default off).

               Set your sex (default on, most hackers are male).  Cannot be
               set with the `O' command.

               Set the characters used to display monster classes  (default
               YZ@ \&;:~]'').  This string is subjected to  the  same  pro-
               cessing as the graphics option.  The order of the symbols is
               ant or other insect, blob, cockatrice, dog or other  canine,
               eye  or  sphere,  feline,  gremlin,  humanoid,  imp or minor
               demon, jelly, kobold, leprechaun,  mimic,  nymph,  orc,  pi-
               ercer,  quadruped,  rodent, spider, trapper or lurker above,
               unicorn, vortex, worm, xan or other  mythical/fantastic  in-
               sect,  light,  zruty,  angelic  being, bat, centaur, dragon,
               elemental, fungus or mold, gnome, giant humanoid,  invisible
               stalker,  jabberwock, Keystone Kop, lich, mummy, naga, ogre,
               pudding or ooze,  quantum  mechanic,  rust  monster,  snake,
               troll,  umber  hulk,  vampire,  wraith, xorn, yeti or ape or
               other large beast, zombie, human, ghost, golem,  demon,  sea
               monster,  lizard,  long worm tail, and mimic.  Cannot be set
               with the `O' command.

               The number of top line messages to save (and recall with ^P)
               (default 20).  Cannot be set with the `O' command.

               Set your character's name (defaults to your user name).  You
               can  also  set  your character class by appending a dash and
               the first letter of the character class (that is, by suffix-
               ing  one of -A -B -C -E -H -K -P -R -S -T -V -W).  Cannot be
               set with the `O' command.

               Read the NetHack news file, if present (default on).   Since
               the  news  is shown at the beginning of the game, there's no
               point in setting this with the `O' command.

               Send padding nulls to the terminal (default off).

               Use the number keys to move instead of  [yuhjklbn]  (default

               Set the characters used to display object  classes  (default
               ``])[="(%!?+/$*`0.'').   This  string  is  subjected to the
               same processing as the graphics option.  The  order  of  the
               symbols  is  illegal-object  (should never be seen), weapon,
               armor, ring, amulet, tool, food, potion, scroll, spell book,
               wand,  gold,  gem  or  rock,  boulder  or statue, iron ball,
               chain, and venom.  Cannot be set with the `O' command.

               Specify  the  order  to  list  object  types   in   (default
               ``\")[%?+/=!(*`0'').   The value of this option should be a
               string containing the symbols for the various object types.

               Specify the type of your initial pet, if you are  playing  a
               character  class  that  uses  both  types of pets.  Possible
               values are ``cat'' and ``dog''.  Cannot be set with the  `O'

               Pick up things you move onto by default (default on).

               Force raw (non-cbreak) mode for faster output and more  bul-
               letproof  input  (MS-DOS  sometimes treats `^P' as a printer
               toggle without it) (default off).  Note:  DEC Rainbows  hang
               if this is turned on.  Cannot be set with the `O' command.

               Make the space bar a synonym for the `.' (rest) command (de-
               fault off).

               Prevent you from (knowingly) attacking  your  pets  (default

               Control what parts of the score list you are  shown  at  the
               end  (ex.   ``scores:5  top  scores/4  around  my  score/own
               scores'').  Only the first letter  of  each  category  (`t',
               `a', or `o') is necessary.

               Show your accumulated experience points on bottom line  (de-
               fault off).

               Show your approximate accumulated score on bottom line  (de-
               fault off).

               Suppress terminal beeps (default on).

               Sort the pack contents by  type  when  displaying  inventory
               (default on).

               Boldface monsters and ``--More--'' (default off).

               Show the elapsed game time in turns on bottom line  (default

               Draw a tombstone graphic upon your death (default on).

               Provide more commentary during the game (default on).

               Select which windowing system to use,  such  as  ``tty''  or
               ``X11''  (default  depends  on version).  Cannot be set with
               the `O' command.

          9.  Scoring

               NetHack maintains a list of the top  scores  or  scorers  on
          your machine, depending on how it is set up.  In the latter case,
          each account on the machine can post only one  non-winning  score
          on  this  list.   If  you  score higher than someone else on this
          list, or better your previous score, you will be inserted in  the
          proper  place  under your current name.  How many scores are kept
          can also be set up when NetHack is compiled.

               Your score is chiefly based upon  how  much  experience  you
          gained, how much loot you accumulated, how deep you explored, and
          how the game ended.  If you quit the game, you escape with all of
          your  gold  intact.   If, however, you get killed in the Mazes of
          Menace, the guild will only hear about 90% of your gold when your
          corpse  is  discovered  (adventurers  have  been known to collect
          finder's fees).  So, consider whether you want to take  one  last
          hit  at  that  monster  and  possibly live, or quit and stop with
          whatever you have.  If you quit, you keep all your gold,  but  if
          you swing and live, you might find more.

               If you just want to see what the current  top  players/games
          list is, you can type nethack -s all on most versions.

          10.  Explore mode

               NetHack is an intricate and difficult game.   Novices  might
          falter in fear, aware of their ignorance of the means to survive.
          Well, fear not.  Your dungeon may come  equipped  with  an  ``ex-
          plore''  or  ``discovery'' mode that enables you to keep old save
          files and cheat death, at the paltry cost of not getting  on  the
          high score list.

               There are two ways of enabling  explore  mode.   One  is  to
          start the game with the -X switch.  The other is to issue the `X'
          command while already playing the game.  The  other  benefits  of
          explore mode are left for the trepid reader to discover.

          11.  Credits

               The original hack game was modeled on the Berkeley UNIX  ro-
          gue  game.  Large portions of this paper were shamelessly cribbed
          from A Guide to the Dungeons of Doom, by Michael C. Toy and  Ken-
          neth  C.  R. C. Arnold.  Small portions were adapted from Further
          Exploration of the Dungeons of Doom, by Ken Arromdee.

               NetHack is the product of literally dozens of people's work.
          Main  events  in the course of the game development are described

               Jay Fenlason wrote the original Hack, with help  from  Kenny
          Woodland, Mike Thome and Jon Payne.

               Andries Brouwer did a major re-write, transforming Hack into
          a  very  different  game, and published (at least) three versions
          (1.0.1, 1.0.2, and 1.0.3) for UNIX machines to the Usenet.

               Don G. Kneller ported Hack 1.0.3 to Microsoft C and  MS-DOS,
          producing  PC  HACK 1.01e, added support for DEC Rainbow graphics
          in version 1.03g, and went on to produce at least four more  ver-
          sions (3.0, 3.2, 3.51, and 3.6).

               R. Black ported PC HACK 3.51 to  Lattice  C  and  the  Atari
          520/1040ST, producing ST Hack 1.03.

               Mike Stephenson merged these various versions back together,
          incorporating  many  of  the added features, and produced NetHack
          1.4.  He then coordinated a cast of thousands  in  enhancing  and
          debugging NetHack 1.4 and released NetHack versions 2.2 and 2.3.

               Later, Mike coordinated a major rewrite of the game, heading
          a team which included Ken Arromdee, Jean-Christophe Collet, Steve
          Creps,  Eric  Hendrickson,  Izchak  Miller,  John  Rupley,   Mike
          Threepoint, and Janet Walz, to produce NetHack 3.0c.

               NetHack 3.0 was ported to the Atari by  Eric  R.  Smith,  to
          OS/2  by  Timo Hakulinen, and to VMS by David Gentzel.  The three
          of them and Kevin Darcy later joined the main development team to
          produce subsequent revisions of 3.0.

               Olaf Seibert ported NetHack 2.3 and 3.0 to the Amiga.   Norm
          Meluch,  Stephen  Spackman  and Pierre Martineau designed overlay
          code for PC NetHack 3.0.  Johnny Lee ported NetHack  3.0  to  the
          Macintosh.   Along with various other Dungeoneers, they continued
          to enhance the PC, Macintosh, and Amiga ports through  the  later
          revisions of 3.0.

               Headed by Mike Stephenson and coordinated by  Izchak  Miller
          and  Janet  Walz, the development team which now included Ken Ar-
          romdee, David Cohrs, Jean-Christophe Collet,  Kevin  Darcy,  Matt
          Day,  Timo Hakulinen, Steve Linhart, Dean Luick, Pat Rankin, Eric
          Raymond, and Eric Smith undertook  a  radical  revision  of  3.0.
          They re-structured the game's design, and re-wrote major parts of
          the code.  They added multiple dungeons, a new  display,  special
          individual  character  quests,  a  new endgame and many other new
          features, and produced NetHack 3.1.

               Ken Lorber, Gregg Wonderly and Greg Olson,  with  help  from
          Richard  Addison,  Mike  Passaretti,  and Olaf Seibert, developed
          NetHack 3.1 for the Amiga.

               Norm Meluch and Kevin Smolkowski, with help from Carl  Sche-
          lin, Stephen Spackman, Steve VanDevender, and Paul Winner, ported
          NetHack 3.1 to the PC.

               Jon Watte, with help from Ross  Brown,  Mike  Engber,  David
          Hairston,  Michael  Hamel, Jonathan Handler, Johnny Lee, Tim Len-
          nan, Rob Menke, Andy Swanson, and especially from Hao-yang  Wang,
          developed NetHack 3.1 for the Macintosh.

               Timo Hakulinen ported NetHack 3.1 to OS/2.  Eric Smith port-
          ed  NetHack  3.1 to the Atari.  Pat Rankin, with help from Joshua
          Delahunty, is responsible for the VMS version of NetHack 3.1.

               Dean Luick, with help from David  Cohrs,  developed  NetHack
          3.1 for X11.

               From time to time, some depraved  individual  out  there  in
          netland  sends a particularly intriguing modification to help out
          with the game.  The Gods of the Dungeon sometimes  make  note  of
          the  names  of the worst of these miscreants in this, the list of

                  Richard Addison        Eric Hendrickson      Mike Passaretti
                      Tom Almy            Bruce Holloway         Pat Rankin
                    Ken Arromdee         Richard P. Hughey     Eric S. Raymond
                    Eric Backus            Ari Huttunen       Frederick Roeber
                    John S. Bien            John Kallen          John Rupley
                     Ralf Brown              Del Lamb           Carl Schelin
                     Ross Brown             Greg Laskin         Olaf Seibert
                    David Cohrs             Johnny Lee           Kevin Sitze
               Jean-Christophe Collet       Tim Lennan          Eric R. Smith
                    Steve Creps            Merlyn LeRoy       Kevin Smolkowski
                    Kevin Darcy            Steve Linhart       Michael Sokolov
                    Matthew Day             Ken Lorber        Stephen Spackman
                  Joshua Delahunty          Dean Luick          Andy Swanson
                     Bill Dyer          Benson I. Margulies      Kevin Sweet
                    Mike Engber          Pierre Martineau      Scott R. Turner
                   Jochen Erwied          Roland McGrath      Steve VanDevender
                    Mike Gallop             Norm Meluch         Janet Walz
                   David Gentzel             Rob Menke          Hao-yang Wang
                   Mark Gooderum           Deron Meranda          Jon Watte
                   David Hairston         Bruce Mewborne          Tom West
                   Timo Hakulinen          Izchak Miller         Paul Winner
                   Michael Hamel            Gil Neiger         Gregg Wonderly
                  Jonathan Handler          Greg Olson

          Brand and product names are trademarks or  registered  trademarks
          of their respective holders.

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